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Wind Power for the North Shore

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... the city of Beverly has benefited from the Bergey wind turbine installed at ... Payback Analysis Met ... a large load Large 660 kW 2 MW + Grid ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wind Power for the North Shore


1
Wind Power for the North Shore
2
  • How many people here use Electricity?
  • Are any of you living off the grid?
  • Then we are all part of the problem and can be
    part of the solutions!
  • Every time you plug in turn on, you are
    accessing energy- but at what costs?

3
A Matter of Balance
  • Energy Use
  • Community
  • Health
  • Environmental
  • Human Rights
  • Global Repercussions

4
Energy Use
  • Where does your power come from?
  • How does that power use impact your environment?

How much of your power comes from each of the following?
Oil
Coal
Natural Gas
Nuclear
Renewables
5
Where do your get your energy?
Mass Electric Disclosure Label
6
Where do your get your energy?
Mass Electric Disclosure Label
7
US Energy Facts
  • US consumes 26 of World BTU consumption
  • US causes 24 of CO2 emissions
  • Renewable Sources provide 4.5 of Energy World
    wide

US Power Sources
Source
8
2004 U.S. Electricity Generation
  • UCSUSA Source EIA, 2004.

9
What are the projected future power needs?
  • Is it going up or down?
  • How will that demand be met?

10
What are the options to meet that need?
  • Energy Efficiency
  • New Power Generation
  • Power Stations
  • Distributed Generators
  • Individual Home Power Generation
  • Limited Scope
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Power Generation from Fossil Fuels
  • Nuclear
  • Are we ready to support?
  • Home Generation
  • Costly

11
How Much EE is Needed to Offset Forecasted Load
Growth in New England?
16,500 GWH _Savings
Source NEEP
12
What impacts does each other option have?
  • Fossil Fuels Mining, Delivery, Air Emissions,
    Waste
  • Nuclear Waste, Safety
  • Hydro limited availability

Global Warming And Toxic Waste VS. Renewables
13
Burning Fossil Fuels
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Air Pollution
Global Warming
Asthma Attacks Other Respiratory
Illnesses Premature Death from Lung and Heart
Diseases
Heat-Related Deaths Infectious Diseases Injuries
from Extreme Weather Events Allergies
14
In case you have any doubts about Climate Change
  • Three warmest years on record have all occurred
    since 1998
  • 19 of the warmest 20 since 1980.

Fine particle pollution from power plants
shortens the lives of 340 of Massachusetts
residents each year. per EPA
Courtesy of Sally Wright - MREL
15
Temperature trend for Earth over the past 140
years
SPM 1a
Courtesy of NE Aquarium Global Warming
Presentation
16
Temperature trend over the past 1000 years
SPM 1b
17
Temperature trend over the past 420,000 years
Source Petit et al., 1999, Nature 399, p.
429-346.
Courtesy of NE Aquarium Global Warming
Presentation
18
Not much has changed
19
What Difference Do the State and the Region Make?
  • MA state-wide emissions are comparable to the
    total emissions of whole countries (i.e.
    Portugal, Egypt, Austria, or Greece).
  • If the New England/ Eastern CA Region was
    classified as a country, it would be the 12th
    largest emitter of GHG in the world.
  • With Northeast 3rd Largest World Economy with
    14 of the US GHG Emissions and 3.2 of World
    GHG Emissions (? Germany)

Courtesy of Sonia Hamel
20
What are the alternatives?
21
What is Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity
  • Sunlight PV
  • Wind
  • Biomass
  • Landfill gas
  • Hydro
  • Ocean
  • Waves
  • Ocean currents
  • Tides
  • Renewable,
  • but not for Electricity in MA
  • Solar Thermal
  • Geothermal
  • Not renewable sources
  • Hydrogen
  • -Storage
  • -Use Nat.Gas off-site
  • Fuel Cells
  • -Premium power
  • -Way of using H2

Courtesy of Sally Wright - MREL
22
Where does Renewable Energy fit?
  • What is the Country doing?
  • What is the Region doing?
  • What is the State doing?
  • What can be done on a local level?

23
Massachusetts Approach Integrate Policies
across Programs
  • Modernize the Power System
  • 4 Pollutant Regulations require 10 CO2
    reduction on the 6 major power plants
  • Renewable Energy Portfolio Standards we have
    added 100 MW new renewables in first year and
    will add approx. 600 MW by 2009
  • Investing 17M in renewable energy for state
    facilities
  • State investing 173M in renewable energy and
    over 150M annually in energy efficiency
  • Regional goal to reduce GHG from the Power Sector
    by 20 by 2025 (energy intensity target)

Courtesy Sonia Hamel
24
Massachusetts Requires Renewables
  • Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS)
  • Retail electricity sales must include new
    renewable power
  • Jan 2003 1 (450 million kWh)
  • ½ /yr at least until 2009 4 (1,986 GWh)
  • Increases value of wind electricity
  • Utilities have to buy green tags
  • renewable energy credits (RECs)
  • 14 states have an RPS
  • More in planning

Courtesy of Sally Wright - MREL
25
So why Wind?
  • Biomass not enough
  • Hydro sites are taken
  • Landfill important, but limited sites
  • Ocean Not yet feasible in MA
  • PV 5-25 x cost of wind
  • ? Wind

26
Quick Audience Survey
  • What do you know about wind turbines?
  • How many of you have seen a wind turbine?
  • How many have seen the Hull, MA wind turbine?
  • How well informed do you feel about the pros and
    cons of wind turbines?

27
Cost of all Renewables is Falling
Courtesy of Sally Wright - MREL
28
Wind is Growing Quickly32 per year
  • Installed Capacity, end of 2003
  • 1. Germany 14,609 MW
  • 2. U.S. 6,374 MW
  • 3. Spain 6,202 MW
  • 4. Denmark 3,110 MW
  • 5. India 2,110 MW
  • 5-year average

Courtesy of Sally Wright - MREL
29
WIND ENERGY The world's fastestgrowing source
of energy  A clean and renewable source
of electric power
There are over 40,000 Wind turbines worldwide
with over 15,000 in the United States alone
and growing daily
TOTAL INSTALLED U.S. WIND ENERGY CAPACITY
as of Jan 22, 2004 was 6,374 MW
Courtesy Bob Tina
30
(No Transcript)
31
Wind Power Today Scale
  • Small Wind
  • 1-30 kW
  • Net-metered
  • Sized for the load
  • Medium
  • Usually matched to a large load
  • Large
  • 660 kW 2 MW
  • Grid- connected
  • Normally not sized to a load

Courtesy of Sally Wright - MREL
32
How much is 1 MW ?
An average U.S. household uses about 10,000
kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity each year.
A 1.8-MW turbine can produce more than 5.2
million kWh in a year or
enough to power more than
500 households
Courtesy Bob Tina
33
Wind Power Today Scale - Height
  • Hub height 160 - 260
  • Blade tip 240 - 390

Courtesy of Sally Wright - MREL
34
Wind Power Today How it works
  • Wind turns blades
  • Blades turn generator
  • Generator converts
  • rotational energy to electricity

Courtesy of Sally Wright - MREL
35
Benefits of Wind for you and your town
  • Lets talk
  • Pollution
  • Health
  • Security

Wind Power can Fund Schools
36
Community Wind Economics Summary
  • Revenue Source
  • Pay-back
  • Three income streams
  • Sell kWh
  • Sell RECs
  • Tax credit
  • or REPI - Renewable Energy Production Incentive

Courtesy of Sally Wright - MREL
37
Economics -How do you make money with
electricity?
  • Example a Vestas V47, 6.8 m/s
  • Then pay for maintenance, operation insurance -
    and equipment
  • If cost was 770,000 ? about 5-7 years simple
    payback

1. Make energy 1,600,000 kWh/year
2. Sell the energy Per your Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) 4 /kWh
3. Sell your REC's (Massachusetts RPS) 2.5 /kWh
4. Federal tax credit 1.8 /kWh
Gross income per kWh 8.3 /kWh
Gross annual income 132,800 /Year
Courtesy of Sally Wright - MREL
38
Describing Energy Marginal Emissions Rate
another unit of energy
  • New England Power Pool
  • (NEPOOL / ISO)
  • Annual marginal average, 2002
  • SO2 3.27 lbs/MWh
  • NOx 1.12 lbs/MWh
  • CO2 1337.8 lbs/MWh
  • E.g. Hull, 660 kW _at_ 28 CF
  • SO2 5,300 lbs
  • NOx 1,800 lbs
  • CO2 1,100 tons.

Courtesy of Sally Wright - MREL
39
Wind has 0 Emissions
Courtesy Bob Tina
40
Same Picture - With and Without
Pollution
Courtesy Bob Tina
41
Health Effects
NOTE THIS SLIDE WILL BE MODIFED TO REFLECT
EXPECTED HEALTH BENEFITS OF A TYPICAL WIND TURBINE
  • Harvard School of Public Health Study of Brayton
    Point and Salem Harbor Plants, 2000
  • New Massachusetts Power Plant Air Pollution
    Regulations would decrease Mortality Morbidity
    by
  • Assumes Plant does all reductions on site vs.
    trading offsets

Salem Now Savings Every Year delay Costs! Once Changes are in Place
Premature Deaths per Year 33 23 10
Emergency Room Visits Hospital Admissions per Year 420 32 300 22 1209
Asthma Attacks per Year 2,200 1,600 600
42
Security
  • Begin to reduce foreign dependencies
  • No risk during transportation of fuel
  • No waste that can be dangerous
  • Not an attractive target
  • wouldnt take power off line,
  • wouldnt have any additional repercussions.

43
Impacts of Wind PowerAvoided Impacts
  • Environmental
  • Health
  • Security

Sources Armed escorts of LNG tanker into Boston
harbor Globe. Asthma inhaler Sierra Club.
Oiled water fowl Anchorage Daily News.
Courtesy of Sally Wright - MREL
44
The other side of the balance
  • Impacts of Wind
  • View
  • Birds
  • Noise
  • Eco-Disturbance
  • Ice Shed
  • Other

What are your concerns about Wind turbines?
View
Birds
Noise
Installation
Other
45
View
  • Daytime
  • Change of View
  • Historical View
  • Shadow Flicker
  • Nightime
  • FAA required Lighting

46
Birds
  • What causes the least amount of bird deaths?
  • Vehicles
  • Wind turbines
  • Power lines
  • Buildings and windows
  • How many birds are killed from current power
    generation methods?
  • Other Accepted practices
  • Wind turbines

As many as half a million birds died in the Exxon
Valdez oil spill.
47
Annual Human-induced Avian Deaths
UCSUSA Source NWCC, 2001
48
Views can be simulated prior to installation
49
Impacts of Wind PowerProperty Values
  • In-depth study
  • The Effect of Wind Development on Local Property
    Values
  • 25,000 property transactions
  • In view shed of wind projects
  • Compared to similar sites
  • No evidence of reduced value
  • full report www.repp.org

(http//www.repp.org/articles/static/1/binaries/wi
nd_online_final.pdf)
50
Eco-Disturbance
  • During Construction Installation
  • Habitat disturbance
  • Debris/Risk of Spills
  • During Operation
  • Habitat modification

51
(No Transcript)
52
Noise
  • Typical wind turbines are 55dB.

How loud do you think this would be in your
neighborhood?
53
Impacts of Wind PowerNoise
  • Modern turbines are relatively quiet
  • Rule of thumb stay about 3x hub-height away
    from houses

Go to Hull or Searsburg listen! Note
Searsburg turbines are older a bit louder than
many modern turbines
Courtesy of Sally Wright - MREL
54
Ice Shed
  • This is typically a ridge-top phenomenon.
  • Youd have to have the right conditions,
  • Then be in the exact right spot- when someone was
    trying to clear it
  • And have the pieces stay together

Heavy ice accretion on a 300 kW wind turbine
rotor, from Morgan, Bossanyi, Seifert
55
Do the pros outweigh the cons?
Secure Future
Change
Stronger Economy
Less Pollution
56
How to find a site?Location, Location, Location
  • Wind Resource
  • Use / Sell
  • Space
  • Ambient Noise
  • Environment Factors

57
Wind Power Generation Options
  • Use to offset power needs at a specific facility
  • Significantly increases payback since you are
    seeing a savings of ___/kWh versus selling it to
    the grid at ____/kWh
  • Sell Generate power to the grid
  • Available to towns that have a municipal light
    department
  • Marblehead
  • Ipswich
  • Peabody
  • Large scale production can make this more
    economical

58
Whats the next step?
  • Form Renewable Energy Committee
  • Brainstorm Locations
  • Zoning Bylaws
  • Payback Analysis
  • Met Tower
  • Pre-Permit Studies
  • Permits
  • Funding

59
Tour a Wind Facility
  • Hull
  • Any time
  • Searsburg
  • Seasonal tours
  • VERA
  • http//www.northeastwind.com/
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