Investment, No Bake, Centrifugal, Semi permanent, Die cast, Lost Foam cast Products - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Investment, No Bake, Centrifugal, Semi permanent, Die cast, Lost Foam cast Products PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6b8992-NzEwY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Investment, No Bake, Centrifugal, Semi permanent, Die cast, Lost Foam cast Products

Description:

Investment, No Bake, Centrifugal, Semi permanent, Die cast, Lost Foam cast Products – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:57
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 67
Provided by: Serv1385
Learn more at: http://www.dss.nitc.ac.in
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Investment, No Bake, Centrifugal, Semi permanent, Die cast, Lost Foam cast Products


1
Investment, No Bake, Centrifugal, Semi
permanent, Die cast, Lost Foam
cast Products
2
INVESTMENT CASTING PROCESS
Process Description.
3
  • Often called lost wax casting
  • To fabricate near-net-shaped metal parts as a
    precision from almost any alloy.
  • History lies to a great extent in the production
    of artistic items
  • The most common use to produce components
    requiring complex, often thin-wall castings.
  • The sequential steps of the investment casting
    process described with emphasis on casting from
    rapid prototyping patterns

4
  • Begins with fabrication of a sacrificial pattern
    with the same basic geometrical shape as the
    finished cast part.
  • Patterns are normally made of investment casting
    wax that is injected into a metal wax injection
    die.
  • Fabricating the injection die often costly and
    requires several months of lead time.
  • Once a wax pattern is produced, it is assembled
    with other wax components to form a metal
    delivery system, called the gate and runner
    system.
  • The entire wax assembly is then dipped in a
    ceramic slurry, covered with a sand stucco and
    allowed to dry. The dipping and stuccoing process
    is repeated until a shell of 6-8 mm is applied.

5
(No Transcript)
6
  • Once the ceramic has dried, the entire assembly
    is placed in a steam autoclave to remove most of
    the wax.
  • After autoclaving, the remaining amount of wax
    that soaked into the ceramic shell is burned out
    in a furnace.
  • All of the residual pattern and gating material
    is removed, and the ceramic mold remains.
  • The mold is then preheated to a specific
    temperature and filled with molten metal,
    creating the metal casting.
  • Once the casting has cooled sufficiently, the
    mold shell is chipped away from the casting.
  • The gates and runners are cut from the casting,
    and final postprocessing (sandblasting,
    machining) is done to finish the casting.

7

8
  • Rapid prototyping processes
  • The major impact on investment casting is their
    ability to make high-quality patterns without the
    cost and lead times associated with fabricating
    injection mold dies.
  • Pattern can be fabricated directly from a design
    engineer's computer-aided design (CAD) solid
    model.
  • It is possible to fabricate a complex pattern in
    a matter of hours and provide a casting in a
    matter of days.
  • Investment casting is usually required for
    fabricating complex shapes where other
    manufacturing processes are too costly and
    time-consuming.
  • Another advantage of rapid prototyping casting is
    the low cost of producing castings in small lot
    sizes

9
CAD solid model (top), SLS polycarbonate pattern
(left), A356 aluminum casting (right).
CASTING PRODUCTS CONTINUED--
10
1. Vacuum Vessel for the power generation
industry
  • MaterialInconel 625
  • Process Investment
  • Casting Supplier Bescast, Inc., Willoughby,
    Ohio

11
2.Cam clamp used to secure ambulance gurnees.
  • Material Stainless steel.
  • Process Investment casting.
  • Casting Supplier Independent Steel Castings
    Co., Inc., New Buffalo, Michigan.

12
The 5-lb casting is one-tenth scale of the vacuum
vCompact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) beiessel
for the National ng developed by the Princeton
Plasma Laboratory and the Oak Ridge National
Laboratory as the next generation of fusion
experiment. The scale model was investment cast
to determine the feasibility of using a casting
for a vacuum vessel with complex geometry.
13
To meet the rush timeline (with the help of
buycastings.com), SLS rapid prototyping
techniques were employed to make the complicated
wax patterns from a CAD/STL file in 2 weeks.
Solidification modeling predicted the potential
hot spots and ways to optimize the pour
parameters. The foundry employed a vacuum-assist
casting method to cast the Inconel 625 air melt
alloy with a consistent wall thickness of 0.1 in.
The entire vessel is assembled by welding three
equal segments cast by the foundry.
14
3. Mounting bracket for medical centrifuge.
  • MaterialCF3M stainless steel.
  • Process Investment casting.
  • Casting Supplier Vestshell, Inc., Montreal,
    Quebec, Canada.
  •  

15
This casting provides balanced, vibration-free
support to a centrifuge that turns at more than
1000 RPM. Originally designed as a machined
weldment, investment casting reduced costs by
450 and provided this precision component with
dimensional repeatability and high-strength
qualities. To date, the customer has received
800 parts without encountering casting-related
defects.
16
tolerances while helix and spiracle angles move
both horizontally and vertically. The foundry
redesigned the component to remove material from
the rear casting section for weight reduction. In
addition, the founry designed in a tapered bore
for mounting a bearing during assembly. The
casting requires slotting at the top and bottom
to align mating components. Holes at the top and
bottom are cast-in and sized as ready-to-tap.
17
4. Duck bill for White Cap, L.L.C. to seal caps
on food jars.
   
  • Material316L stainless steel.
  • Process Investment casting.
  • Casting Supplier Northern Precision Casting
    Co., Lake Geneva, Wisconsin.

18
Originally constructed as a three-piece
stamping/weldment, the 3.9-oz, 3.44 x 3.15 x
1.49-in. new casting design offers lighter weight
(29 reduction), a one-piece construction,
increased strength and a smooth sanitary finish
(an important requirement for the food service
industry). The conversion to casting from a
multi-piece weldment resulted in a 70 cost
savings for the customer. To accommodate the
thin sections of the component, the foundry
designed a unique gating and tooling system that
uses wedge gates and gating into the top of the
component to ensure against porosity.
19
5. Fan Frame Hub
  • Material Titanium.
  • Process Investment casting.
  • Casting Supplier Precision Castparts Corp.
    (PCC), Portland, Oregon.

20
This single 52-in. titanium investment casting
replaced 88 stainless steel parts (from five
vendors) that were previously machined and welded
together. The casting, which supports the front
fan section of the engine and ties it to the
compressor section, provides improved strength
and dimensional control in addition to a 55
weight reduction. Conversion to a metal casting
allowed GE to include several unique details
including bosses, flanges and a 2-in. larger
overall diameter.
21
6. Racing car upright
  • Material Titanium 6246.
  • Process Investment casting.
  • Casting Supplier Coastcast Corp., Rancho
    Dominguez, California.

22
Normally manufactured via machining or welding,
four of these one-piece cast components were
manufactured via rapid prototyping and investment
casting from design to delivery in 8 weeks.
Using rapid prototyping with the investment
casting process eliminated an up-to-50,000
tooling cost for these components. In addition,
with no welds required to manufacture the
components, they dont require any rework during
use. The cast titanium provided the same
strengthbut at a reduced weightas 17-4PH steel
(the other material considered).
23
7. Housing actuator for an engine for Hamilton
Sundstrand.
  • Material A203 aluminum alloy.
  • Process Investment casting.
  • Casting Supplier Cabiran, Ltd., Kibbutz Cabri,
    Israel.

24
With wall thickness to 0.12 in., this casting
requires moderate strength, good stability and
resistance to stress-corrosion cracking to 600F
(316C). This casting exhibits mechanical
properties at room temperature of 32-ksi tensile
strength, 24-ksi yield strength and 1.5
elongation, while maintaining a 16-ksi tensile
strength and 4 elongation at 600F. The
component's as-cast surface finish meets the
customer's requirements, and the invest casting
process reduced the customer's finishing and
machining costs.
25
SEMI-PERMANENT MOLD CASTING Semi-permanent mold
is a casting process - producing Aluminum alloy
castings - using re-usable metal molds and sand
cores to form internal passages within the
casting. Molds are typically arranged in two
halves - the sand cores being put into place
before the two halves are placed together. The
molten metal flows into the mold cavity and
surrounds the sand core while filling the mold
cavity. When the casting is removed from the mold
the sand core is removed from the casting leaving
an internal passage in the casting.
26
The re-usable metal molds are used time and
again, but the sand cores have to be replaced
each time the product is cast, hence the term
semi-permanent molding. Semi-permanent molding
affords a very high precision quality to the
casting at a reduced price compared to the sand
casting processes.
PRODUCTS---
27
8. Aluminum composite alloy
  • Material 359/SiC/20p aluminum composite alloy.
  • ProcessSemi-permanentmold casting.
  • Casting Supplier Eck Industries,Inc.,
    Manitowoc, Wisconsin.

28
The brake rotor was converted to an aluminum
metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy casting at a
50 weight reduction, with the same casting yield
and without a loss in performance. In terms of
mechanical properties, the aluminum MMC brake
rotors modulus and its wear rate in application
are the same as cast iron.
29
9. Bucket chain link for a conveyor system
  • MaterialC95410 nickel aluminum bronze.
  • ProcessPermanent mold casting.
  • Casting Supplier Piad Precision Casting Corp.,
    Greensburg, Pennsylvania.

30
Previously made from two steel stampings welded
together with two tube sections and subsequently
tin-plated for corrosion resistance (r), this
bronze cast component (l) now is a one-piece
permanent mold casting. The cast component (l)
exhibits good corrosion resistance .
31
10. Manual Trip  
  • MaterialCopper aluminum bronze alloy.
  • Process Permanent mold casting.
  • CastingSupplier Piad Precision Casting Corp.,
    Greensburg, Pennsylvannia.

32
Originally manufactured by fabricating and
welding 7 components, pressing in a steel spring
pin, and adding a zinc chromate coating for
corrosion protection, this part was converted to
a single permanent mold casting with a cast-in
stainless steel pin. By casting in the pin, the
foundry reduced the component's cost by
eliminating the reaming and pressing operations.
The foundry's alloy provides the necessary
corrosion resistance to the component, thus
eliminating the zinc-chromate coating previously
required.
33
CENTRIFUGAL CASTING
34
Centrifugal Casting is also known as spin
casting. A basic spin casting machine works like
this A two-part high-temperature silicone rubber
mold is clamped between pressure plates on the
spin casting machine. The spin casting machine
rotates the mold at high speed, similar to a
washing machine on the spin cycle. While the mold
rotates, molten metal (or fast-setting plastic
resin) is poured into a central funnel that feeds
into the mold. Centrifugal force carries the
metal or plastic into the far reaches of the
mold. Because the centrifugal force acts to
increase the pressure on the casting material,
castings with relatively thin parts can be made
35
A mold for a spin casting machine is often
designed to make a dozen or so identical parts at
one time, with the mold cavity for each part
equally spaced around the disk of the rubber
mold. The typical metal used in this type of spin
casting machine is known as "white metal" or "pot
metal" and is usually an alloy of zinc.Other
types of small spin casting machines are used by
jewelry makers, usually to cast small amounts of
precious metals, and not using rubber molds.
36
What can you make with a Centrifugal Casting
Machine? You can make all the same sorts of small
metal (or plastic) objects as listed at right.
Can you make your own spin casting machine? A
spin casting machine could be home made, because
it is a relatively simple device, and most of the
early machines could be considered "shop built".
But newer machines have much better production
features and safety features, and if you are
serious about producing large quantities of small
metal parts, a ready-made spin casting machine
would be the best investment. Plus, most spin
casting equipment is sold with complete training
and the equipment for all phases of spin casting
production, including the necessary moldmaking
and metal melting equipment.
37
DIE CASTING PROCESS
38
11. Felsted Division/Furons foot pedal control
lever.
  • Material Zamak 3.
  • Process Diecasting.
  • Casting Supplier CrecoCast, Seville, Ohio.

39
The lever originally was designed as a steel sand
component with machining operations to size the
shaft, pivot hubs and cable connection holes.
The die cast component combined two levers (for
2- and 3-in. cable travel) and provided
connecting holes for different cable travel
lengths. The redesign held the required hole
diameter tolerance of 0.001 in. and the hub
diameter tolerance of 0.002, -0.001 in. while
eliminating a lever and machining requirements.
This reduced component cost by 91.
40
12. Instrument panel frame for the Cadillac
DeVille.
  • Material AZ91 magnesium alloy.
  • Process Diecasting.
  • Casting Supplier Intermet Corps Hannibal
    Plant, Hannibal, Missouri.

41
Originally manufactured as a steel stamping, this
component was redesigned into a two-piece die
casting to better control tolerances and to fit
the end-users mounting requirements. The design
also allows more flexibility for future vehicle
platform changes. The 15-lb cast component
reduced the parts original weight by 45 lb while
reducing tool-building time, delivery cost and
lead time. The foundry assembles the frame
before delivery to the end-user for installation.
42
13. Valve spacers for Warren Rupps Sandpiper II
air-actuated pumps.
  • Material ZA-8 zinc alloy.
  • Process Diecasting.
  • Casting Supplier CrecoCast, Seville, Ohio.

43
Previously machined from stainless steel bars,
the valve spacers now are hot chamber die cast at
net shape, eliminating secondary machining. In
addition to the cost reductions achieved by
casting, Warren Rupps designers were able to
maximize air flow with the cast spacers by
designing for fit and function without the
restrictions of machining from bar stock.
44
NO BAKE CASTING
The No-Bake Sand Casting process consists of sand
molds created using a wood, metal or plastic
pattern. Sand is mixed with a urethane binder and
deposited into a box containing the pattern (and
all necessary formers and inserts) for pouring.
Filling a wood mold with sand
45
PRODUCTS 14. TENSIONER PULLEY
Material Gray iron Process Nobake sand
Casting Supplier Wellsville Foundry,
Wellsville, Ohio
46
This 175-lb component is used as a brake that
puts tension on a 4 ft. wide roll of rubber
feeding into a tire press. Converted from a
steel fabrication (two ring burn-outs with
spokes), the foundry provided the end-user with a
50 cost savings.
47
PERMANENT MOLD CASTINGPRODUCTS
15. BUCKET CHAIN
  • MaterialC95410 nickel aluminum bronze.
  • Process Permanent mold casting.
  • Casting Supplier Piad Precision Casting Corp.,
    Greensburg, Pennsylvania.

48
Previously made from two steel stampings welded
together with two tube sections and subsequently
tin-plated for corrosion resistance (r), this
bronze cast component (l) now is a one-piece
permanent mold casting. The cast component (l)
exhibits good corrosion resistance (without
plating or painting), 50 ksi yield strength and
95 ksi tensile strength.
49
16. Suspension crossmember
  • MaterialB356 aluminum alloy.
  • Process Permanent mold casting.
  • Casting Supplier CMI-Precision Mold, Inc.,
    Bristol, Indiana.

50
This 26-lb safety-critical component was
redesigned to an aluminum casting from a steel
weldment, resulting in a 14-lb weight reduction.
The castings dimensional tolerances are held to
0.5 mm across the length of the part, a threefold
reduction over the previous design. The
castings mechanical properties include 44 ksi
ultimate strength, 32 ksi yield strength and 10.4
x 106 psi Youngs modulus.
51
17. Bracket for a piston cooling system
  • Material953 aluminum bronze.
  • ProcessPermanentmold casting.
  • Casting Supplier Aurora Metals, L.L.C. (Hiler
    Industries), Montgomery, Illinois.

52
This 0.8-lb component was converted to permanent
mold casting to eliminate the leaks inherent in
the previous manufacturing method. In addition,
the conversion realized a cost savings by
reducing man-hours and eliminating heat treatment
as permanent mold casting achieves the required
mechanical properties. Permanent mold casting
allows a stainless steel tube insert to be cast
directly into the bracket.
53
Green Sand Casting
PRODUCTS--
54
18. Manual trip used in the electrical industry
  • MaterialCopper aluminum bronze alloy.
  • Process Permanent mold casting.
  • Casting Supplier Piad Precision Casting Corp.,
    Greensburg, Pennsylvannia.

55
Originally manufactured by fabricating and
welding 7 components, pressing in a steel spring
pin, and adding a zinc chromate coating for
corrosion protection, this part was converted to
a single permanent mold casting with a cast-in
stainless steel pin. By casting in the pin, the
foundry reduced the component's cost by
eliminating the reaming and pressing operations.
The foundry's alloy provides the necessary
corrosion resistance to the component, thus
eliminating the zinc-chromate coating previously
required.
56
19. Cleaning Brush
  • Material 65-45-12 ductile iron.
  • ProcessGreen sand casting.
  • Casting Supplier Smith Foundry Co., Minneapolis

57
Previously manufactured as a four-piece weldment,
this component was redesigned as a single casting
at a 3/casting, 72,000/year savings to the
customer. The weldment experienced failure and
breakage under heavy shock loading. The
conversion to cast ductile iron eliminated the
field failure and also incorporated the three
holes in each blade as-cast to eliminate
post-process drilling.
58
20. Carrier component
  • Material Steel
  • ProcessGreen sand
  • Casting Supplier The Falk Corp., Milwaukee,
    Wisconsin

59
Converted from a fabrication, this component
design was the result of foundry and end-user
engineering collaboration. The casting design
(especially its volume) was optimized through
casting process modeling, resulting in weight and
cost savings for the component. The casting
meets all necessary mechanical properties while
fitting in the same application envelope as the
previous fabrication.
60
21. Powerhead for a pallet truck.
  • Material A356-T6 aluminum.
  • ProcessGreen sand molding.
  • Casting Supplier Wisconsin Aluminum Foundry
    Co., Inc., Manitowoc, Wis.

61
This single-piece casting replaced a 21-piece
weldment. The casting eliminated the need for
extensive and complicated fixturing of the
weldment. The cast component also allowed for the
addition of features for accessory mounting
points that would have been difficult to
accomplish as a weldment. The largest benefit of
the casting is the increased throughput of the
parent product, resulting in savings in
purchasing, receiving, stocking, distribution,
fabrication and assembly. With the conversion,
there was a 15 reduction in assembly time, 18
cost reduction per part and a 45 weight
reduction.
62
Lost foam process
The Lost Foam Casting process originated in 1958
when H. F. Shroyer was granted a patent for this
cavityless casting method, using a polystyrene
foam pattern imbedded in traditional green sand.
The polystyrene foam pattern left in the sand is
decomposed by the molten metal. The molten
metal replaces the foam pattern, precisely
duplicating all of the features of the pattern.
Like investment casting (Lost Wax), a pattern
must be produced for every casting made. The
Evapcast Division of Advanced Cast Products began
producing lost foam castings in 1987, after three
years of research and development.
63
22. Center ring for a fall protection system
  • Material Manganese bronze.
  • Process Lost foam casting.
  • Casting Supplier Irish Foundry and
    Manufacturing, Inc., Seattle, Washington.

64
Redesigned to a lost foam component, the 1-lb
casting provided a 70 cost savings to the
customer due to reduced machining and production
time. Cast in high-tensile manganese bronze, the
component must withstand 5000 lb of pressure in
application. The casting incorporates thin to
thick to thin wall designs without defects, a
detail made easier in lost foam casting.
65
23. Lifeline horizontal slide for safety
equipment.
  • Material Manganese bronze.
  • Process Lost foam casting.
  • Casting Supplier Irish Foundry Manufacturing,
    Inc., Seattle.

66
By redesigning this 2-lb, 4 x 3-in.-diameter
component as a two lost-foam castings with a
near-net-shape, the foundry was able to reduce
grinding time by 80 (because risers are
eliminated as well as the riser contacts that
must be ground) and eliminate machining. The
redesign to lost foam resulted in higher
aesthetic qualities, including rounded edges and
smooth passage ways.
About PowerShow.com