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Title:

Opportunities in High-Rate Wireless Sensor Networking

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Wireless Sensor Networking Hari ... degrades channel quality MAC protocols are too local to resolve ... at network layer Wireless networks do not have such shielding ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 3 August 2020
Slides: 19
Provided by: HariBala6
Learn more at: http://www.cs.uccs.edu
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Title: Opportunities in High-Rate Wireless Sensor Networking


1
Opportunities in High-Rate Wireless Sensor
Networking
  • Hari Balakrishnan
  • MIT CSAIL
  • http//nms.csail.mit.edu/

2
Todays WSN Monitoring Applications
  • Periodic monitoring
  • repeat
  • wake up and sense
  • transmit data
  • sleep for minutes
  • Event-based monitoring
  • Transmit data on external event
  • Low data rates duty cycles

Pic Sam Madden
Pic Sam Madden
3
High-Rate WSN Applications
  • High sensing rates O(102 105) Hz
  • Non-trivial analysis of gathered data
  • Frequency analysis, correlation analysis
  • Many domains
  • Industrial monitoring, civil infrastructure,
    medical diagnosis, process control,
  • What are the reusable components of a general
    architecture for high-rate WSNs?

4
Industrial Monitoring
  • Preventive maintenance of fabrication plant
    equipment (Intel)
  • Done manually today, offline processing
  • Sense vibration (acceleration)
  • 100 machines, gt10 observation points per machine
  • 10-40 kHz frequency band
  • Aggregate data rate about 10 100 Mbits/s

Pic Wei Hong
5
Intel Fabs 20 Questions
  • Is energy in f1, f2 gt E?
  • Compare energy in f1, f2 with past activity
  • Which frequency bands have highest energy?
  • What is the phase relationship between samples at
    different locations
  • Provide high-resolution view of last T mins of
    samples at location L

6
Pipeline Pressure Monitoring
  • Preventive maintenance of (aging) water and
    sewage infrastructure
  • Leaks are precursors to bursts
  • Monitor pressure and flow at 0.5 to 2 KHz
  • Done manually today

Pic Rory OConnor (MIT)
7
Thames Waters 20 Questions(Thanks to Kevin
Amaratunga Ivan Stoianov)
  • Whats the flow / pressure at location L?
  • Is pressure / flow at location L different from
    dynamic state estimator?
  • Has there been a significant pressure drop
    between locations L1 and L2?
  • How long does it take pressure wave to travel
    from L1 to L2?

8
Constraints
  • Wireless communication rates
  • Total required raw data rates exceed
    next-generation radio rates
  • Energy
  • Sensing and communication consume energy
  • Want months of operation on batteries
  • Unreliable sensor nodes
  • In-the-net processing essential

9
Challenges
  • High-level programming abstractions
  • Distributed signal and data processing operators
  • Collaborative data acquisition
  • High-performance network delivery

10
High-Level Programming
  • Users wont (cant) write embedded signal and
    data processing code
  • Generalized stream processing continuous query
    processing signal processing
  • Develop a declarative stream processing interface
  • Support iterative refinement

11
Generalized Stream Processing
  • Application-independent
  • Continuous query processing (TinyDB)
  • Distributing wavelet, Fourier operators
  • Boxes and arrows program specification
  • Connect up processing operators
  • Specify high-level sampling rate
  • Specify energy/lifetime constraints
  • Support iterative refinement

12
Supporting Iterative Refinement
13
Collaborative Data Sampling
  • Sampling rates too high for single sensors
  • Sensing may not be fast enough, or
  • Consumes too much energy
  • Group of sensors subsample, collaboratively
    produce desired sampling rate
  • Spreads processing and energy burden
  • How should sub-sampled signals be aligned?

14
High-performance Data Delivery
  • WSNs today have per-node delivery rates that are
    10x worse than they should be
  • Obtain 5-10x improvement in throughput
    distribution without physical layer changes
  • Traditional stack layers considered harmful
  • Physical, linkMAC, network layer decomposition
    bad for wireless

15
Traditional Layering has Problems
  • With wires, links are shielded from one another
  • Sharing starts only at network layer
  • Wireless networks do not have such shielding
  • No links over the air
  • Increasing traffic degrades channel quality
  • MAC protocols are too local to resolve contention
    correctly

16
Dismal Throughput Distribution
HJB, Sensys04
17
A Different Layering May Help
  • Replace current linkMAC and network layer
    decomposition
  • Local channel control layer
  • Traffic-based rate control, no per-packet
    contention resolution
  • Has info about other nodes in region
  • Take advantage of path diversity
  • Global topology control layer
  • Large-scale routing

18
Summary
  • Many WSN applications require high sampling rates
  • Want general distributed in-the-net processing
    primitives
  • High-performance wireless data delivery with
    different layered decomposition
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