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Opportunities in High-Rate Wireless Sensor Networking


Wireless Sensor Networking Hari ... degrades channel quality MAC protocols are too local to resolve ... at network layer Wireless networks do not have such shielding ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 3 August 2020
Slides: 19
Provided by: HariBala6
Learn more at: http://www.cs.uccs.edu


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Title: Opportunities in High-Rate Wireless Sensor Networking

Opportunities in High-Rate Wireless Sensor
  • Hari Balakrishnan
  • http//nms.csail.mit.edu/

Todays WSN Monitoring Applications
  • Periodic monitoring
  • repeat
  • wake up and sense
  • transmit data
  • sleep for minutes
  • Event-based monitoring
  • Transmit data on external event
  • Low data rates duty cycles

Pic Sam Madden
Pic Sam Madden
High-Rate WSN Applications
  • High sensing rates O(102 105) Hz
  • Non-trivial analysis of gathered data
  • Frequency analysis, correlation analysis
  • Many domains
  • Industrial monitoring, civil infrastructure,
    medical diagnosis, process control,
  • What are the reusable components of a general
    architecture for high-rate WSNs?

Industrial Monitoring
  • Preventive maintenance of fabrication plant
    equipment (Intel)
  • Done manually today, offline processing
  • Sense vibration (acceleration)
  • 100 machines, gt10 observation points per machine
  • 10-40 kHz frequency band
  • Aggregate data rate about 10 100 Mbits/s

Pic Wei Hong
Intel Fabs 20 Questions
  • Is energy in f1, f2 gt E?
  • Compare energy in f1, f2 with past activity
  • Which frequency bands have highest energy?
  • What is the phase relationship between samples at
    different locations
  • Provide high-resolution view of last T mins of
    samples at location L

Pipeline Pressure Monitoring
  • Preventive maintenance of (aging) water and
    sewage infrastructure
  • Leaks are precursors to bursts
  • Monitor pressure and flow at 0.5 to 2 KHz
  • Done manually today

Pic Rory OConnor (MIT)
Thames Waters 20 Questions(Thanks to Kevin
Amaratunga Ivan Stoianov)
  • Whats the flow / pressure at location L?
  • Is pressure / flow at location L different from
    dynamic state estimator?
  • Has there been a significant pressure drop
    between locations L1 and L2?
  • How long does it take pressure wave to travel
    from L1 to L2?

  • Wireless communication rates
  • Total required raw data rates exceed
    next-generation radio rates
  • Energy
  • Sensing and communication consume energy
  • Want months of operation on batteries
  • Unreliable sensor nodes
  • In-the-net processing essential

  • High-level programming abstractions
  • Distributed signal and data processing operators
  • Collaborative data acquisition
  • High-performance network delivery

High-Level Programming
  • Users wont (cant) write embedded signal and
    data processing code
  • Generalized stream processing continuous query
    processing signal processing
  • Develop a declarative stream processing interface
  • Support iterative refinement

Generalized Stream Processing
  • Application-independent
  • Continuous query processing (TinyDB)
  • Distributing wavelet, Fourier operators
  • Boxes and arrows program specification
  • Connect up processing operators
  • Specify high-level sampling rate
  • Specify energy/lifetime constraints
  • Support iterative refinement

Supporting Iterative Refinement
Collaborative Data Sampling
  • Sampling rates too high for single sensors
  • Sensing may not be fast enough, or
  • Consumes too much energy
  • Group of sensors subsample, collaboratively
    produce desired sampling rate
  • Spreads processing and energy burden
  • How should sub-sampled signals be aligned?

High-performance Data Delivery
  • WSNs today have per-node delivery rates that are
    10x worse than they should be
  • Obtain 5-10x improvement in throughput
    distribution without physical layer changes
  • Traditional stack layers considered harmful
  • Physical, linkMAC, network layer decomposition
    bad for wireless

Traditional Layering has Problems
  • With wires, links are shielded from one another
  • Sharing starts only at network layer
  • Wireless networks do not have such shielding
  • No links over the air
  • Increasing traffic degrades channel quality
  • MAC protocols are too local to resolve contention

Dismal Throughput Distribution
HJB, Sensys04
A Different Layering May Help
  • Replace current linkMAC and network layer
  • Local channel control layer
  • Traffic-based rate control, no per-packet
    contention resolution
  • Has info about other nodes in region
  • Take advantage of path diversity
  • Global topology control layer
  • Large-scale routing

  • Many WSN applications require high sampling rates
  • Want general distributed in-the-net processing
  • High-performance wireless data delivery with
    different layered decomposition
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