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Our Moon

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Our Moon & Moon Exploration Astronomy 1 Vocabulary New moon Waxing phase Full Moon Waning phase Solar eclipse Lunar eclipse Tides Craters Marias Highlands Moon Facts ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 26 August 2019
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Title: Our Moon


1
Our Moon Moon Exploration
  • Astronomy 1

2
Vocabulary
  • New moon
  • Waxing phase
  • Full Moon
  • Waning phase
  • Solar eclipse
  • Lunar eclipse
  • Tides
  • Craters
  • Marias
  • Highlands

3
Moon Facts
  • There is no air, liquid water or atmosphere
  • Temperatures range from 100C to -170C
  • There is little gravity compared to the Earth
  • 3,476 km in diameter (little less than the
    distance across the United States)

4
Origin of the Moon
  • Before the first manned explorations of the moon
    there were several theories on the origin of the
    moon
  • 1st the moon was another smaller plane that was
    captured by Earths gravity
  • 2nd the moon was created by loose, left over
    material from when the Earth was forming
  • 3rd the moon was created by molten (liquid rock)
    material ejected from the Earth when the Earth
    was forming

5
Origin of the Moon
  • After the first mission scientists gather data
    that led them to create the Impact Theory
  • The Impact Theory is just as it sounds in the
    early development of the solar system there were
    a lot of collisions and explosions between all
    the debris
  • It is believed that at one time the Earth was
    much larger than it is now and was hit by a
    Mars-sized planet, causing a chunk to break off,
    creating the moon

6
Origin of the Moon
  • Over time both the Earth and the moon were
    smoothed out to create the spheres we see today
  • They developed this theory because the lunar
    rocks that were gathered on the Apollo missions
    were no different than rocks you can find in the
    parking lot
  • Many of the hits the moon took as it formed can
    still be seen today why?

7
Motions of the Moon
  • The moon would be considered a satellite because
    it revolves around the Earth
  • It takes approximately 27.3 days to make a
    complete trip around the Earth
  • The moon takes approximately 27.3 days to rotate
    on its axis
  • What does this mean?
  • This also means that we only see one side of the
    moon

8
Phases of the Moon
  • The moon it self does not give off any light
    the only reason that we see the moon is because
    the light from the sun is reflecting off it
  • The different shapes of the moon you see at night
    are because the moon goes through phases as it
    revolves around the Earth and the sun is hitting
    it at different angles

9
Phases of the Moon
  • What causes the phases? The change in position
    of the moon relative to the sun and Earth is what
    causes the phases.
  • As the moon travels around the Earth, the sun
    hits different angles of the moon
  • For example, if the moon is angled towards Earth
    so only half is showing, then the sun will only
    hit the half we see

10
Phases of the Moon
  • New moon the lighted sided of the moon is facing
    the sun, not Earth, and as a result the moon
    cannot be seen from Earth
  • Waxing phase occurs after the new moon the moon
    slowly begins to reappear in the sky, until it
    reaches a full moon
  • The Waxing Crescent is when only a sliver of the
    moon is visible occurs just after the new moon
  • When one half of the moon is lit (1/4 of the
    total moon surface), the phase is called First
    Quarter
  • When more than one half of the moon is lit (1/2
    of the total moon surface), the phase is called
    Waxing Gibbous

11
Phases of the Moon
  • Full Moon the entire moon is lit by the sun
  • Waning Phase occurs after the full moon slowly
    begins to disappear in the sky, until it reaches
    the New Moon
  • When more than one half (1/2 of the surface) of
    the moon is showing, it is called the Waning
    Gibbous
  • When one half (1/4 of surface) of the moon is
    showing, it is called the Third Quarter
  • The Waning Crescent is when only a sliver of the
    moon is showing just before the new moon

12
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13
Eclipses
  • When the moons shadow hits the Earth or the
    Earths shadow hits the moon an eclipse occurs
  • There are two types a lunar and a solar
  • During a New Moon the moon is directly between
    the Earth and the sun this occurs approximately
    once a month

14
Eclipses
  • Solar eclipses are much more rare because only a
    few occur in a persons lifetime
  • A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes
    directly between the sun and the Earth as a
    result you see a dark spot on the sun and the sky
    darkens until the moon, sun and Earth are no
    longer aligned

15
Eclipses
  • Lunar eclipses are still rare, but not as rare as
    a solar eclipse
  • A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth passes
    between the sun and the moon as a result the
    full moon will disappear in the sky until the
    moon, sun and Earth are no longer aligned

16
Tides
  • Tides in the ocean occur because of the
    attraction of gravity between the Earth and moon
  • Like the Earth revolving around the sun in a
    elliptical shape, the moon revolves around the
    Earth in an elliptical shape
  • High tides occur when the moon and Earth are
    closer together and the attraction is stronger
  • Low tide occurs when the moon and Earth and
    farther apart and the gravitational force is
    weaker

17
Studying the Moon
  • At the present time there are no missions planned
    to return to the moon
  • However, there is a spacecraft that was placed in
    the lunar orbit to study the moon
  • This craft is called Clementine
  • Many pictures of the moons surface have been
    compiled, now the space craft is used to track
    cold objects that move through space (e.g.
    satellites, asteroids, war-heads, etc.)

18
Studying the Moon
  • Clementine has given scientists almost a complete
    map of the moons surface
  • A depression has been discovered that is almost
    12km deep and 2500km wide the largest in the
    solar system
  • There is also a large plateau that is almost
    always facing the sun

19
Studying the Moon
  • Features used to describe the moon include
    craters, highlands and Marias
  • Craters found depressions formed from high-speed
    meteoroids
  • These are evidence that the moon is geologically
    dead
  • Dark, flat areas are called Marias formed by
    ancient lava flows
  • Highlands light-colored areas surrounding the
    maria

20
Craters
Maria
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28
Exploring the Moon
  • 1950s to 1960s - probes
  • Neil Armstrong First man on the Moon July
    20, 1969
  • Six Apollo missions (1969-1972)
  • 382 kg (842 lbs) rocks
  • 12 Americans have walked on the moon

29
Missions to the Moon
  • Between 1964-1972 over a dozen missions to the
    moon occurred both manned and unmanned
  • Apollo 11 was the first manned mission that
    actually landed on the moon safely
  • From this mission we got the quote One small
    step for man, one giant leap for man-kind.

30
Missions to the Moon
  • In later trips to the moon astronauts were able
    to stay for days instead of hours, and even had a
    lunar buggy so they could travel around the
    moons surface
  • Astronauts also discovered much about the inside
    of the moon
  • They found that there are no plates, like on
    Earth, so the surface does not shift
  • The core of the moon has cooled almost
    completely, unlike the core of the Earth so the
    moon is geologically dead

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32
Ice on the Moon?
Ice on the Moon?
  • 1994 Clementine probe
  • 1998 Lunar Prospector

33
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