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Huge Black Holes: Measuring the Monster in the Middle

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Huge Black Holes: Measuring the Monster in the Middle Sarah Silva Program Manager Phil Plait NASA Education Resource Director (NERD) Sonoma State University NASA ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Huge Black Holes: Measuring the Monster in the Middle


1
Huge Black Holes Measuring the Monster in the
Middle
  • Sarah SilvaProgram Manager
  • Phil Plait
  • NASA Education Resource Director (NERD)
  • Sonoma State University NASA Education and Public
    Outreach

2
The NASA E/PO Program at Sonoma State University
  • A group of ten people working collaboratively to
    educate the public about current and future NASA
    high energy astrophysics/astronomy missions.
  • Led by Prof. Lynn Cominsky

Swift
GLAST
XMM-Newton
3
What is GLAST?
  • GLAST Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope
  • Planned for launch in 2007
  • GLAST has two instruments
  • Large Area Telescope (LAT)
  • GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM)
  • GLAST will look at many different objects within
    the energy range of 10keV to 300GeV.

LAT
GBM
4
What are Gamma Rays?
5
What GLAST will see
  • Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN)
  • Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs)
  • Pulsars
  • Solar flares
  • Cosmic gamma ray background
  • Unidentified sources
  • Cosmic rays (indirectly, through gamma rays seen
    when cosmic rays hit interstellar gas)
  • Dark matter (perhaps)

6
Target Object of the Day
  • Normal galaxy
  • A system of gas, stars, and dust bounded together
    by their mutual gravity.
  • VS.
  • Active galaxy
  • An galaxy with an intensely bright nucleus. At
    the center is a supermassive black hole that is
    feeding.

7
Active Galaxies Educator Unit
  • Essential question
  • What do active galaxies look like when viewed
    from different distances?
  • Science concepts
  • The small angle approximation has limits.
  • The angular size of an object depends on its
    distance and its physical diameter.

8
Zooming in on Active Galaxies
  • Mathematically, angular diameter, linear
    diameter, and distance can be combined in an
    extremely useful and simple equation that uses
    the small angle approximation. As seen in the
    figure above, the angular diameter (a) depends on
    the distance to the object (D) and its actual
    linear diameter (d) according to
  • tan(a/2) d/2D
  • The students will show in this activity, that
    for very small values of a measured in radians,
    tan(a) a. Using this approximation, the
    equation relating distance and linear size
    simplifies further to
  • a/2 d/2D or more simply a d/D

9
Some things that may help
10
Answers to Part B
  • Answers for questions 3 through 8 will depend on
    each students height. To the right is a
    reference table with distances given the
    students height
  • 9. On average, the typical human eye can see
    objects about 1/60th of a degree across, so the
    answer to this question is no.

11
An Active Galaxy Journey
12
Galaxies and Black Holes
Jet
Accretion disk
  • Zooming in to see the central torus of an Active
    Galaxy.

Black Hole
13
Monstrous black holes
  • At the heart of every galaxy lies a black hole,
    millions to billions times the mass of our Sun
  • HST/NGC 4261

800 light years
14
Radio Lobe Galaxy
Radio lobes
Jet
Accretion Disk
15
Two Views of an Active Galaxy
  • View at an angle to jet

View at 90o from Jet
Radio Lobe Galaxy
Seyfert Galaxy
16
Another view of an Active Galaxy
  • Looking down the Jet
  • From this view, we see the Active Galaxy emitting
    gamma rays and X-rays.

Quasar 3C279
Blazar Galaxy
17
Answers to Part C
  • 10) 13.0 centimeters. Note the significant
    figures should reflect 0.1 cm accuracy.
  • 11) The distance should be 149 cm. This will
    depend on their measuring accuracy.
  • 12) This will depend on their distance
    measurement, but should be close to the actual
    disk size of 13 cm.
  • 13) This will depend on their accuracy. They
    should be within 10 or so of the measured size.
  • 14) 893.8 meters.
  • 15) 17.5 centimeters. Note the significant
    figures should reflect 0.1 cm accuracy.
  • 16) The distance should be 200.5 cm, and will
    depend on their measuring accuracy.

18
Answers to Part C
  • 17) This will depend on their distance
    measurement, but should be close to the actual
    lobe size of 17.5 cm.
  • 18) This will depend on their accuracy. They
    should be within 10 or so of the measured
  • size.
  • 19) 1203.2 meters.
  • 20) 446.9 meters.
  • 21) 1.38 million light years.
  • 22) 100 million / 1.38 million 73, so the
    magnification would be 73X.

19
Masses of Black Holes
  • Primordial can be any size, including very
    small (If lt1014 g, they would still exist)
  • Stellar mass black holes must be at least 3
    Mo (1034 g) many examples are known
  • Intermediate black holes range from 100 to 1000
    Mo - located in normal galaxies many seen
  • Massive black holes about 106 Mo such as in
    the center of the Milky Way many seen
  • Supermassive black holes about 109-10 Mo -
    located in Active Galactic Nuclei, often
    accompanied by jets many seen

20
The activity booklet setup
  • 1) Science concepts and estimated time
  • 2) Background information specific to the
    activity
  • 3) The essential question asked by the activity
  • 4) A materials list
  • 5) A list of abbreviations
  • 6) Specific learning objectives
  • 7) Step-by-step procedures
  • 8) An assessment rubric
  • 9) Transfer activities
  • 10) Suggested extension and reflection activities
  • 11) Lesson adaptations that will help you cope
    with special needs students
  • 12) An answer key
  • 13) Student worksheets
  • 14) Detailed Standards
  • 15) A glossary
  • 16) A list defining any acronyms used
  • 17) A resource list

21
How does this apply?California Grades 9-12
Earths Place in the Universe
  • 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the
    solar system's structure, scale, and change over
    time. As a basis for understanding this concept
  • d. Students know the evidence indicating that the
    planets are much closer to Earth than the stars
    are.
  • e. Students know the Sun is a typical star and is
    powered by nuclear reactions, primarily the
    fusion of hydrogen to form helium. (This one
    could be)
  • g. Students know the evidence for the existence
    of planets orbiting other stars.
  • 2. Earth-based and space-based astronomy reveal
    the structure, scale, and changes in stars,
    galaxies, and the universe over time. As a basis
    for understanding this concept
  • a. Students know the solar system is located in
    an outer edge of the disc-shaped Milky Way
    galaxy, which spans 100,000 light years.
  • b. Students know galaxies are made of billions of
    stars and comprise most of the visible mass of
    the universe.
  • d. Students know that stars differ in their life
    cycles and that visual, radio, and X-ray
    telescopes may be used to collect data that
    reveal those differences.
  • e. Students know accelerators boost subatomic
    particles to energy levels that simulate
    conditions in the stars and in the early history
    of the universe before stars formed.

22
Help Us Help You!
  • Please sign in at the door and we will send you
    notices when we received new goodies!
  • THANK YOU!

23
Resources
  • http//glast.sonoma.edu/teachers/teachers.html
  • Here you can find an html version of the AGN
    Guide and a PDF printable version, and other
    supplemental materials.
  • http//glast.sonoma.edu/scitech/gru/agn/index.html
  • http//ircamera.as.arizona.edu/NatSci102/lectures/
    agns.htm (really cool pictures for students)
  • Want more materials from us?
  • Visit http//epo.sonoma.edu/orderforms/orderformp
    ublic.html

24
Answers to Part A
25
Black Hole Structure
  • Schwarzschild radius defines the event horizon
  • Rsch 2GM/c2
  • Not even light can escape, once it has crossed
    the event horizon
  • Cosmic censorship prevails (you cannot see inside
    the event horizon)

26
How does this apply?NSES
  • Content Standard A Science as Inquiry
  • Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
  • Students make calculations to test the small
    angle formula (hypothesis and observation).
  • Using their own calculations, the students
    formulate and revise the theory about an objects
    size.
  • After having analyzed measurements of nearby
    objects, students answer questions that engage
    thought and analysis about real objects in space.
  • Understanding about scientific inquiry
  • Students learn how scientists determine the
    distance and/or size of an object in space.
  • Content Standard B Physical Science
  • Motion and Forces
  • Jets of materials are ejected at velocities light
    speed from the black hole in an Students answer
    questions to help them how big the jets from AGs
    are, and how can see them at vast distances.
  • Content Standard D Earth and Space Science
  • Origin and Evolution of the Universe
  • Active galaxies are a fundamental part of the
    evolutionary process of the universe.
  • Content Standard E Science and Technology
  • Understanding about science and technology
  • The small angle formula is an essential tool used
    by astronomers to get physical dimensions of
    astronomical objects.
  • Content Standard G History and Nature of Science
  • Science as a human endeavor
  • Students answer questions about the ability of
    the human eye to distinguish objects, showing how
    this activity affects them in daily life.
  • Students see that by working in groups they can
    formulate better hypotheses about scientific
    inquiries due to the extra input from others.

27
Other SSU E/PO events
  • Sarah Silva and Phil Plait present Angling for
    Gamma-Ray Bursts in SJCC A5 Saturday 23PM
  • Focus Talk by Dr. Phil Plait, Mars Attacks! in
    Marriott Ballroom Salon III on Saturday 330
    430 PM.
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