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History of Embedded Systems

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Title: No Slide Title Author: edie Last modified by: haskell Created Date: 3/2/1999 6:46:42 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Embedded Systems


1
History of Embedded Systems
  • Discussion 0.1

2
The First Point-Contact Transistor 1947
Bell Labs Museum
3
Bell Labs
The First Junction Transistor 1951
M1752 Outside the Lab
Lab model
4
Texas Instruments First IC -- 1958
Jack Kilby
Robert Noyce Fairchild Intel
5
Embedded System
  • A single-purpose, programmable, digital system

6
1961 Unimate Robot at GM
7
1965 PDP-8 first mass-produced Mini
8
Electronics, Volume 38, Number 8, April 19, 1965
9
(No Transcript)
10
(No Transcript)
11
Moores law
  • Wow
  • This growth rate is hard to imagine, most people
    underestimate
  • How many ancestors do you have from 20
    generations ago
  • i.e., roughly how many people alive in the 1500s
    did it take to make you?
  • 220 more than 1 million people

12
Graphical illustration of Moores law
1981
1984
1987
1990
1993
1996
1999
2002
10,000 transistors
150,000,000 transistors
Leading edge chip in 1981
Leading edge chip in 2002
  • Something that doubles frequently grows more
    quickly than most people realize!
  • A 2002 chip can hold about 15,000 1981 chips
    inside itself

13
1968 Apollo Guidance Computer
14
Intel 4004
source Computer Museum
15

January 1975 cover of Popular Electronics

http//www.blinkenlights.com/pc.shtml
16
1978 Industrial Holographics
17
Time's Man of the Year (1982)

18
1985 Motorola introduces the 68HC11
microcontroller
19
1997 Motorola introduces the 68HC12/HCS12
microcontroller
Additional PWM and CAN interfaces
20
Develops WHYP a subroutine-threaded Forth for
the 68HC12
21
Chuck Moore, the inventor of Forth, reading
Haskells WHYP book
22
1975 Signetics invents the FPLA
23
1978 MMI introduces the PAL
24
1983 AMD introduces the 22V10
1984 Lattice introduces the GAL an
electrically erasable PAL
25
1985 Xilinx introduces the LCA (Logic Cell
Array)
The Xilinx XC3000 CLB (configurable logic block).

26
1991 Xilinx introduces the XC4000 Architecture
Programmable Interconnect
I/O Blocks (IOBs)
XC4003 contained 440,000 transistors 0.7-micron
process
Configurable Logic Blocks (CLBs)
27
XC4000E/X Configurable Logic Blocks
  • 2 Four-input function generators (Look Up Tables)
  • - 16x1 RAM or
  • Logic function
  • 2 Registers
  • - Each can be
  • configured as Flip
  • Flop or Latch
  • - Independent
  • clock polarity
  • - Synchronous and
  • asynchronous
  • Set/Reset

28
Look Up Tables
  • Combinatorial Logic is stored in 16x1 SRAM Look
    Up Tables (LUTs) in a CLB
  • Example

Look Up Table
4-bit address
4
(2 )
2
64K !
  • Capacity is limited by number of inputs, not
    complexity
  • Choose to use each function generator as 4 input
    logic (LUT) or as high speed sync.dual port RAM

29
1998 Xilinx introduces the Virtex FPGA family
0.25-micron process
30
2003 Xilinx introduces the Spartan-3 family
of products
Very low cost
Worlds first 90 nm FPGA
31
(No Transcript)
32
Xilinx will release the worlds first
one-billion transistor device this year
x
33
Logic Implementations
  • Fixed (ASICs) -- 12 billion market
  • Programmable (PLDs) -- 3.5 billion market
  • CPLDs
  • FPGAs

34
Advantages of ASICs
  • Lower costs for very large volumes
  • Highest performance capabilities

35
Advantages of PLDs
  • Flexibility during design cycle
  • Available no long lead times
  • No NRE costs
  • Low inventory
  • Can be modified after delivery

36
PLD and ASIC cost cross-over point
Nick Tredennick Gilder Technology Report
37
PLD and ASIC cost cross-over points (dots) with
time
Nick Tredennick Gilder Technology Report
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