ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD IN WORLD HISTORY: FROM THE DAWN OF TIME TO 600 C.E. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD IN WORLD HISTORY: FROM THE DAWN OF TIME TO 600 C.E.


1
ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIODIN WORLD
HISTORYFROM THE DAWN OF TIMETO 600 C.E.
2
CONTENT
3
HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY TO KNOW
  • Historic Regions
  • All AP Regions
  • Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica
  • Sudanic Africa (West African Sahel)
  • Historic States to Know
  • River Valley Civilizations
  • Amer-Indian geographic hearths
  • Classical Empires
  • Locations of world religions
  • Internal vs. External migration
  • Migration, Urbanization
  • Immigration
  • Movement in History
  • Original spread of humans
  • Indo-European
  • Bantu
  • Germanic and Viking
  • Spread of world religions
  • Polynesian

4
A.P. GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS
5
MODERN NATIONS TO KNOW
6
THEMES
  • THEMES (P.E.R.S.I.A.N., S.C.R.I.P.T.E.D.)
  • Social, Gender Structures including Labor Systems
  • Cultural and Intellectual Structures
  • Religious Structures
  • Interactions War, Diplomacy, Trade
  • Political Culture, Political Organization, State
    Structures,
  • Technology
  • Economics
  • Demography (geography) and Environment
  • OTHER
  • Change and Continuity over Time
  • Geography Local and regional focus

7
THE ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD
  • PERIODIZATION
  • What themes set a period apart?
  • When did it begin, when did it end?
  • Nature and causes of change
  • Breaks and continuity within a time period
  • 1,000,000 BCE TO 600 CE
  • Prehistoric 1 million to 4500 BCE or Stone age
  • Ancient 4500 to 1000 BCE or Bronze Age
  • Classical 1000 BCE to 600 CE or Iron Age
  • Breaks and Continuity within Period
  • Prehistoric Rise of Humans, Hunter Gatherers
  • Ancient Sedentary culture, domestications
  • Classical Use of Iron

8
THE FIVE THEMES
  • Relative Location
  • Know relative locations
  • Know locations of major states, cultures
  • Place
  • Physical
  • Know the major features of physical geography
  • Human
  • Know the cultural characteristics of states
  • Human Environment Interaction
  • Movement
  • History is the result of movement
  • Region
  • All history is regional until 1450 CE

9
HUMAN ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION
  • PRE-SEDENTARY TIMES ADAPT OR DIE
  • Climates diverse, mans adaptations diverse
  • Man arose in Africa, spread out to other
    continents
  • Harshest climates around deserts, desert like
    conditions
  • Environment often forced man to change
  • As civilization advances, man begins to change
    surroundings
  • Hunter-gather nature
  • Slash and burn was the transition to sedentary
    agriculture
  • AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES
  • Domestications
  • Farming
  • Herding
  • Sedentary civilization
  • PASTORAL SOCIETIES
  • Nomads and their flocks
  • Relationship to agricultural societies
  • DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES WITH RISE OF CIVILIZATIONS
  • DEMOGRAPHIC STRESS
  • Overfarming and overhunting, deforestation,
    agriculture replaces plants

10
LOCATION EARLY GEOGRAPHIC SETTING
  • PRE-HISTORIC
  • The whole world in all settings
  • The first towns, cities arose in marginal zones
  • Some building materials
  • Some foods, resources, marginal water, and
    protection
  • ANCIENT RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS (HEARTHS)
  • Mesopotamia
  • Sumer
  • Assyria and Babylon
  • Nile River
  • Egyptian Kingdoms
  • Kush-Meroe
  • Indus River
  • Harrappan, Mohenjo Daro
  • Aryans
  • Yellow River
  • Xia
  • Shang

11
LOCATION LATER GEOGRAPHIC SETTING CLASSICAL
  • MEDITERRANEAN
  • Phoenicians, Jews, Persians
  • Greeks Hellenes, Hellenistic Age
  • Romans Republic and Empire
  • SOUTH ASIA
  • Persians and Greeks
  • Mauryans
  • Guptans
  • EAST ASIA
  • Zhou,
  • Qin, Han
  • CENTRAL ASIANS
  • OTHERS
  • Ghana, Axum-Ethiopia
  • Mayans, Toltecs, Aztecs
  • Incas and predecessors

12
EARLY POLITICAL STRUCTURES
  • Paleolithic Structure
  • Small bands, generalized social equality
  • Led by best hunters, male or female
  • Neolithic
  • Sedentary villages
  • Village Councils, Elders, some hereditary chiefs
  • Much more patriarchal
  • Early Cities
  • Often city states
  • Ceremonial Centers Plazas, Temples
  • Centralized rule of priests, kings, elite class
  • Class structure usually based on land ownership
  • Hereditary positions become common

13
CHANGE OVER TIME STATE STRUCTURES
  • Small city states
  • Sumer, Indus, Xia
  • Phoenicians, Greeks
  • Olmecs, Mixtec, Zapotecs, Mayans
  • Small Regional State
  • Shang
  • Babylonia, Israel
  • Ghana, Kush, Axum
  • Early Theocratic Empires
  • Egyptian Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom
  • Toltecs
  • Akkad
  • Shang, Zhou
  • Funan (SE Asia)

14
EARLY CULTURE
  • PALEOLITHIC CULTURE
  • Language, Religion
  • Traditions and Institutions
  • Occupations and Past-times
  • Simple artifacts, art (cave paints, totems,
    jewelry)
  • TOOL MAKING CULTURE
  • Hunter Gathers had tools, only primitive
  • Neolithic technology become complex, varies
  • NEOLITHIC CULTURE
  • Social Revolution hierarchy, gender relations
  • Technological Revolution pottery, advanced
    tools, irrigation
  • NATURE OF CIVILIZATION
  • Writing is at the center of a cultural change
  • Complex culture based on living in a city
  • People packed more closely together
  • Social mores reflect this change
  • Artisans, toolmakers have great influence
  • SOPHISTICATION Increased over time

15
SOCIAL HIERARCHY
  • Patriarchal
  • Increasingly so over time
  • Social Class Differentiation
  • Superior vs. Inferior
  • Increasingly classes defined over time
  • Caste Systems
  • If classes become rigid, it is a caste system
  • Slavery
  • Common since dawn of history in all cultures
  • Rigidity depended on culture
  • Serfdom

16
CHANGE OVER TIME EARLY SOCIAL
  • PALEOLITHIC HUNTER GATHERER
  • Gender equality, work equality
  • Short life, Limited survival, foods
  • Small groups, bands led by elders
  • Religion animist, afterlife
  • Extended family
  • NEOLITHIC SETTLED AGRICULTURE, DOMESTICATIONS
  • Domestication of plants and animals
  • Shifting Agriculture and Migratory Farmers
  • Nomadic Pastoralism
  • Patriarchal society, patrilineal descent gender
    differences in work, farming
  • ANCIENT VILLAGE TO CIVILIZATION
  • Sedentary life led to rise of social classes
  • Social differences, gender differences,
    Specialized occupations
  • Rise of inequalities rise of aristocrats, kings,
    priests unfree labor inc. slavery, serfs
  • Villages and a few cities
  • Nuclear Family
  • CLASSICAL
  • Continuation of Ancient although trends
    heightened

17
CHANGE OVER TIME RELIGIONS
  • UNIVERSALIZING vs. ETHNIC RELIGIONS
  • MAJOR FEATURES OF EACH, WHERE ARE RELIGIONS
    LOCATED
  • OVERTIME
  • RISE OF PERMANENT RELIGIOUS CASTE, MORAL CODES
    INCLUDING SOME CASTING
  • ANIMISM/SHAMANISM TO GENERALIZED ANTRHOPOMORPHISM
    T0 POLYHEISM
  • PHILOSOPHIES AND MONOTHEISMS DEVELOP AT END OF
    PERIOD
  • EARLY RELIGIONS
  • ANIMISM, SHAMANISM
  • ANTHROPOMORPHIC POLYTHEISM
  • ELABORATED POLYTHEISM WITH PRIESTS, RITUAL, DOGMA
  • HINDUISM
  • SHINTO
  • ETHICAL PHILOSOPHIES AND RELIGIONS BLEND
  • CHINESE RELIGIOUS COMPLEX TAOISM, CONFUCIANISM,
    LEGALISM
  • JAINISM, BUDDHISM
  • HELLENIC PHILOSOPHY
  • MONOTHEISM EXCLUSIVITY
  • JUDAISM
  • CHRISTIANITY

18
TECHNOLOGY OVER TIME
  • The ability to make and use tools
  • Man has always been a toolmaker
  • Tools increasingly designed to meet specific
    needs
  • Simple to complex
  • Materials
  • Bone, Stone, Wood Mixture of Media
  • Metallurgy, Metalworking Copper, Bronze, Iron
  • Include domestications as technology if necessary
  • In many ways writing is a technology
  • Technology is specialization
  • Expands if group supports artisans who do not
    hunt, gather, farm
  • Irrigation systems requires team work leading to
    political structure
  • Know how inventions improved life

19
CHANGE OVER TIME INTERACTIONS
  • War
  • Not a new invention but rare in Pre-history
  • History introduces scarcity, contest for it
  • War becomes increasingly complex warrior classes
  • Technology effected war empires are core of
    classical
  • Diplomacy
  • Similar to War
  • Contact between states led to diplomacy
  • First treaty was between Hittites, Egyptians
  • Trade
  • The simplest way for cities to overcome failings
  • Trade for what you do not have
  • Most international trade was for luxury
  • Commodities traded locally, internally
  • Exchanges ideas, diseases
  • Migration of nomads, Bantus, Indo-Europeans
  • Interactions between nomads, sedentary

20
MOVEMENT
  • Themes
  • Indigenous or Independent Development
  • Cultural Diffusion
  • Spread of Agriculture
  • Spread of Technology
  • Popular Movements
  • Early Humans spread across globe
  • Indo-European Migrations or Chariot Peoples
  • Bantu Migrations
  • Polynesian Migrations
  • Xiong Nu or steppe peoples
  • Germanic Peoples

21
CLASSICAL ENDS
  • Reasons for Decline
  • External and Internal
  • Internal Decay vs. External popular forces
  • Aspects
  • Geographic, Demographic, Environment
  • Military, Political
  • Economic, Social
  • Decline in Given Areas
  • Mediterranean, South Asia, East Asia
  • Mesoamerica
  • That which remains
  • Classical cultures
  • Classical religions
  • Classical traditions
  • Interregional Networks Trade, Spread of
    Religions
  • Movements of Bantu, Huns, Germans, Polynesian
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ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD IN WORLD HISTORY: FROM THE DAWN OF TIME TO 600 C.E.

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Title: ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD IN WORLD HISTORY: FROM THE DAWN OF TIME TO 600 C.E.


1
ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIODIN WORLD
HISTORYFROM THE DAWN OF TIMETO 600 C.E.
2
CONTENT
3
HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY TO KNOW
  • Historic Regions
  • All AP Regions
  • Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica
  • Sudanic Africa (West African Sahel)
  • Historic States to Know
  • River Valley Civilizations
  • Amer-Indian geographic hearths
  • Classical Empires
  • Locations of world religions
  • Internal vs. External migration
  • Migration, Urbanization
  • Immigration
  • Movement in History
  • Original spread of humans
  • Indo-European
  • Bantu
  • Germanic and Viking
  • Spread of world religions
  • Polynesian

4
A.P. GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS
5
MODERN NATIONS TO KNOW
6
THEMES
  • THEMES (P.E.R.S.I.A.N., S.C.R.I.P.T.E.D.)
  • Social, Gender Structures including Labor Systems
  • Cultural and Intellectual Structures
  • Religious Structures
  • Interactions War, Diplomacy, Trade
  • Political Culture, Political Organization, State
    Structures,
  • Technology
  • Economics
  • Demography (geography) and Environment
  • OTHER
  • Change and Continuity over Time
  • Geography Local and regional focus

7
THE ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD
  • PERIODIZATION
  • What themes set a period apart?
  • When did it begin, when did it end?
  • Nature and causes of change
  • Breaks and continuity within a time period
  • 1,000,000 BCE TO 600 CE
  • Prehistoric 1 million to 4500 BCE or Stone age
  • Ancient 4500 to 1000 BCE or Bronze Age
  • Classical 1000 BCE to 600 CE or Iron Age
  • Breaks and Continuity within Period
  • Prehistoric Rise of Humans, Hunter Gatherers
  • Ancient Sedentary culture, domestications
  • Classical Use of Iron

8
THE FIVE THEMES
  • Relative Location
  • Know relative locations
  • Know locations of major states, cultures
  • Place
  • Physical
  • Know the major features of physical geography
  • Human
  • Know the cultural characteristics of states
  • Human Environment Interaction
  • Movement
  • History is the result of movement
  • Region
  • All history is regional until 1450 CE

9
HUMAN ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION
  • PRE-SEDENTARY TIMES ADAPT OR DIE
  • Climates diverse, mans adaptations diverse
  • Man arose in Africa, spread out to other
    continents
  • Harshest climates around deserts, desert like
    conditions
  • Environment often forced man to change
  • As civilization advances, man begins to change
    surroundings
  • Hunter-gather nature
  • Slash and burn was the transition to sedentary
    agriculture
  • AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES
  • Domestications
  • Farming
  • Herding
  • Sedentary civilization
  • PASTORAL SOCIETIES
  • Nomads and their flocks
  • Relationship to agricultural societies
  • DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES WITH RISE OF CIVILIZATIONS
  • DEMOGRAPHIC STRESS
  • Overfarming and overhunting, deforestation,
    agriculture replaces plants

10
LOCATION EARLY GEOGRAPHIC SETTING
  • PRE-HISTORIC
  • The whole world in all settings
  • The first towns, cities arose in marginal zones
  • Some building materials
  • Some foods, resources, marginal water, and
    protection
  • ANCIENT RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS (HEARTHS)
  • Mesopotamia
  • Sumer
  • Assyria and Babylon
  • Nile River
  • Egyptian Kingdoms
  • Kush-Meroe
  • Indus River
  • Harrappan, Mohenjo Daro
  • Aryans
  • Yellow River
  • Xia
  • Shang

11
LOCATION LATER GEOGRAPHIC SETTING CLASSICAL
  • MEDITERRANEAN
  • Phoenicians, Jews, Persians
  • Greeks Hellenes, Hellenistic Age
  • Romans Republic and Empire
  • SOUTH ASIA
  • Persians and Greeks
  • Mauryans
  • Guptans
  • EAST ASIA
  • Zhou,
  • Qin, Han
  • CENTRAL ASIANS
  • OTHERS
  • Ghana, Axum-Ethiopia
  • Mayans, Toltecs, Aztecs
  • Incas and predecessors

12
EARLY POLITICAL STRUCTURES
  • Paleolithic Structure
  • Small bands, generalized social equality
  • Led by best hunters, male or female
  • Neolithic
  • Sedentary villages
  • Village Councils, Elders, some hereditary chiefs
  • Much more patriarchal
  • Early Cities
  • Often city states
  • Ceremonial Centers Plazas, Temples
  • Centralized rule of priests, kings, elite class
  • Class structure usually based on land ownership
  • Hereditary positions become common

13
CHANGE OVER TIME STATE STRUCTURES
  • Small city states
  • Sumer, Indus, Xia
  • Phoenicians, Greeks
  • Olmecs, Mixtec, Zapotecs, Mayans
  • Small Regional State
  • Shang
  • Babylonia, Israel
  • Ghana, Kush, Axum
  • Early Theocratic Empires
  • Egyptian Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom
  • Toltecs
  • Akkad
  • Shang, Zhou
  • Funan (SE Asia)

14
EARLY CULTURE
  • PALEOLITHIC CULTURE
  • Language, Religion
  • Traditions and Institutions
  • Occupations and Past-times
  • Simple artifacts, art (cave paints, totems,
    jewelry)
  • TOOL MAKING CULTURE
  • Hunter Gathers had tools, only primitive
  • Neolithic technology become complex, varies
  • NEOLITHIC CULTURE
  • Social Revolution hierarchy, gender relations
  • Technological Revolution pottery, advanced
    tools, irrigation
  • NATURE OF CIVILIZATION
  • Writing is at the center of a cultural change
  • Complex culture based on living in a city
  • People packed more closely together
  • Social mores reflect this change
  • Artisans, toolmakers have great influence
  • SOPHISTICATION Increased over time

15
SOCIAL HIERARCHY
  • Patriarchal
  • Increasingly so over time
  • Social Class Differentiation
  • Superior vs. Inferior
  • Increasingly classes defined over time
  • Caste Systems
  • If classes become rigid, it is a caste system
  • Slavery
  • Common since dawn of history in all cultures
  • Rigidity depended on culture
  • Serfdom

16
CHANGE OVER TIME EARLY SOCIAL
  • PALEOLITHIC HUNTER GATHERER
  • Gender equality, work equality
  • Short life, Limited survival, foods
  • Small groups, bands led by elders
  • Religion animist, afterlife
  • Extended family
  • NEOLITHIC SETTLED AGRICULTURE, DOMESTICATIONS
  • Domestication of plants and animals
  • Shifting Agriculture and Migratory Farmers
  • Nomadic Pastoralism
  • Patriarchal society, patrilineal descent gender
    differences in work, farming
  • ANCIENT VILLAGE TO CIVILIZATION
  • Sedentary life led to rise of social classes
  • Social differences, gender differences,
    Specialized occupations
  • Rise of inequalities rise of aristocrats, kings,
    priests unfree labor inc. slavery, serfs
  • Villages and a few cities
  • Nuclear Family
  • CLASSICAL
  • Continuation of Ancient although trends
    heightened

17
CHANGE OVER TIME RELIGIONS
  • UNIVERSALIZING vs. ETHNIC RELIGIONS
  • MAJOR FEATURES OF EACH, WHERE ARE RELIGIONS
    LOCATED
  • OVERTIME
  • RISE OF PERMANENT RELIGIOUS CASTE, MORAL CODES
    INCLUDING SOME CASTING
  • ANIMISM/SHAMANISM TO GENERALIZED ANTRHOPOMORPHISM
    T0 POLYHEISM
  • PHILOSOPHIES AND MONOTHEISMS DEVELOP AT END OF
    PERIOD
  • EARLY RELIGIONS
  • ANIMISM, SHAMANISM
  • ANTHROPOMORPHIC POLYTHEISM
  • ELABORATED POLYTHEISM WITH PRIESTS, RITUAL, DOGMA
  • HINDUISM
  • SHINTO
  • ETHICAL PHILOSOPHIES AND RELIGIONS BLEND
  • CHINESE RELIGIOUS COMPLEX TAOISM, CONFUCIANISM,
    LEGALISM
  • JAINISM, BUDDHISM
  • HELLENIC PHILOSOPHY
  • MONOTHEISM EXCLUSIVITY
  • JUDAISM
  • CHRISTIANITY

18
TECHNOLOGY OVER TIME
  • The ability to make and use tools
  • Man has always been a toolmaker
  • Tools increasingly designed to meet specific
    needs
  • Simple to complex
  • Materials
  • Bone, Stone, Wood Mixture of Media
  • Metallurgy, Metalworking Copper, Bronze, Iron
  • Include domestications as technology if necessary
  • In many ways writing is a technology
  • Technology is specialization
  • Expands if group supports artisans who do not
    hunt, gather, farm
  • Irrigation systems requires team work leading to
    political structure
  • Know how inventions improved life

19
CHANGE OVER TIME INTERACTIONS
  • War
  • Not a new invention but rare in Pre-history
  • History introduces scarcity, contest for it
  • War becomes increasingly complex warrior classes
  • Technology effected war empires are core of
    classical
  • Diplomacy
  • Similar to War
  • Contact between states led to diplomacy
  • First treaty was between Hittites, Egyptians
  • Trade
  • The simplest way for cities to overcome failings
  • Trade for what you do not have
  • Most international trade was for luxury
  • Commodities traded locally, internally
  • Exchanges ideas, diseases
  • Migration of nomads, Bantus, Indo-Europeans
  • Interactions between nomads, sedentary

20
MOVEMENT
  • Themes
  • Indigenous or Independent Development
  • Cultural Diffusion
  • Spread of Agriculture
  • Spread of Technology
  • Popular Movements
  • Early Humans spread across globe
  • Indo-European Migrations or Chariot Peoples
  • Bantu Migrations
  • Polynesian Migrations
  • Xiong Nu or steppe peoples
  • Germanic Peoples

21
CLASSICAL ENDS
  • Reasons for Decline
  • External and Internal
  • Internal Decay vs. External popular forces
  • Aspects
  • Geographic, Demographic, Environment
  • Military, Political
  • Economic, Social
  • Decline in Given Areas
  • Mediterranean, South Asia, East Asia
  • Mesoamerica
  • That which remains
  • Classical cultures
  • Classical religions
  • Classical traditions
  • Interregional Networks Trade, Spread of
    Religions
  • Movements of Bantu, Huns, Germans, Polynesian
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