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The High and Late Middle Ages

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... Default Design The High and Late Middle Ages The Battle of Hastings William the Conqueror Henry II Thomas Becket King John The Magna Carta Development ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The High and Late Middle Ages


1
The High and Late Middle Ages
  • 1050-1450

2
The Battle of Hastings
  • In October 1066, a daylong battle known as the
    Battle of Hastings ended the reign of the
    Anglo-Saxons and began the Norman Conquest.

3
William the Conqueror
  • In the battle, Duke William of Normandy, known as
    William the Conqueror, defeated King Harold of
    England, the last of the Anglo Saxon kings.
  • King of England Christmas 1066
  • Domesday Book

4
Henry II
  • 1154He inherited the throne
  • Expanded justice by royal courts
  • Decisions of royal courts became the foundation
    of English common law
  • Efforts to extend royal power led to bitter
    dispute with the Church over issue of legal
    authority

5
Thomas Becket
  • Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury, was
    murdered in his own cathedral by four knights of
    Henry II, because he too often sided with the
    pope instead of the King who had appointed him to
    the position.
  • Beckets murder enraged the common people who
    deemed him a martyr and they lashed out against
    King Henry which weakened the kings power in his
    struggle with Rome.

6
King John
  • A son of Henry II
  • Faced 3 powerful enemies
  • Philip II-King of France
  • Innocent IIIPope
  • His nobleson account of oppressive taxes and
    abuses of power

7
The Magna Carta
  • King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta in
    1215.
  • Two important ideas contained in document
  • 1) Nobles had certain rights
  • 2) Monarch must obey law

8
Development of Parliament
  • Keeping to the Magna Carta, English rulers often
    called on the Great Council for advice
  • During 1200s, this council evolved into
    Parliament
  • Parliament gained the power of purse
  • The right to approve any new taxesIn this way it
    could limit the power of the monarch

9
The Capetian Kings
  • In 987, French nobles elect Hugh Capet, count of
    Paris to fill vacant French throne
  • Capatians
  • Add land
  • Win support of Church
  • Built effective bureaucracy
  • Gained backing of middle class

10
Philip Augustus
  • 1179, became king of France
  • Did not appoint nobles for government positions,
    paid middle classcreated an owed loyalty
  • Before death in 1223, Philip became the most
    powerful ruler in Europe

11
Louis IX
  • 1226, became king of France
  • Deeply religious, he persecuted heretics and Jews
  • Led French knights in 2 crusades
  • Ended serfdom in personal domain
  • Time of his death, France was emerging as an
    efficient centralized monarchy

12
Avignon Papacy
  • After Philip IVs clash with Pope Boniface VIII
    he moved the papal court to Avignon, France
  • From there French rulers could exercise more
    control over the Church

13
The Three Estates
  • During the struggle with the pope, Philip rallied
    French support by setting up the Estates General
  • Represented all 3 estates Nobles (kings and
    their vassals), Clergy (priests, monks, nuns,
    friars, etc.), and the Commons (everyone else-
    doctors, lawyers, clerks, yeomen, etc).

14
The Effect of Cities and Towns
  • Eventually, the increasing population in cities
    and towns made the feudal system close to
    obsolete.
  • The city classes were lower, middle and
    upper-middle.

15
Holy Roman Emperors
  • In 962, Otto I, King of Germany was crowned
    emperor by the Pope.
  • Ottos successors took the title Holy Roman
    Emperor
  • Holy Because crowned by pope
  • Roman Because they saw themselves as heirs to
    the emperors of ancient Rome

16
Feud Between Pope and Emperor
  • Henry IV, king of Germany, became Holy Roman
    Emperor
  • Gregory VII, Pope
  • During their reigns, conflicts between monarchs
    and Church erupted
  • Lay Investiture
  • Compromise Concordat of Worms

17
Struggle for Italy
  • Frederick BarbarossaFought to bring wealthy
    Northern Italian cities under his control

18
Lombard League
  • Wealthy Northern Italian cities joined forces
    with the Pope to fight and defeat Barbarossas
    armies.

19
Pope Innocent III
  • 1198, Pope Innocent III took office
  • Claimed supremacy over all other rulers
  • Excommunicated King John and placed his kingdom
    under interdict

20
Pope Innocent III
  • Strengthened papal power
  • Extended Papal states
  • Reformed the Church courts and the way Church
    officials were chosen

21
Decline of Papacy
  • After Innocents death, popes continued to claim
    supremacy
  • 1296, Philip IV of France successfully challenged
    Pope Boniface VIII on issue of taxing clergy
  • After Philips election of French pope, papacy
    entered a period of decline

22
The Crusades
23
The Crusades
Byzantine Emperor Alexius I asks Pope Urban II
for Christian knights to help him fight the
Muslim Turks Council of Clermont1095 Pope Urban
II calls bishops and nobles to fight God
Wills It! 1st Crusade Christian knights
capture Jerusalem in 1099 Divide captured lands
into four small states called Crusader
States 1187, Saladin (Muslim Leader) retakes
Jerusalem 3rd Crusade Christians fail to retake
Jerusalem, but Saladin allows Christian pilgrims
to go to Jerusalem 4th Crusade Christians are
diverted from fighting Muslims and fight other
Christians, Crusaders capture and loot
Constantinople in 1204
24
The Crusades
25
The Reconquista Campaign to drive Muslims from
the Iberian peninsulaFerdinand and Isabella
(king and queen of Spain) completed the
reconquista
26
The Inquisition
Church Court Set up to try people accused of
heresy If found guilty of heresy, could be
turned over to the secular authorities for
punishment Many who refused to conform to
Church teachings were burned at the stake
27
Medieval Literature and Art
Scholasticism Christian scholars using reason to
support Christian beliefs Thomas Aquinas Wrote
Summa Theologica The Divine Comedy Written by
Dante Alighieri The Song of Roland French song
of heroic deeds Canterbury Tales Written by
Geoffrey Chaucer Gothic Style Architecture most
important feature, Flying Buttresses, higher
thinner walls allowed for more glass, stained
glass, bigger churches filled with light and
beauty Illumination Decoration of books with
intricate detail and brilliant colors, work of
monks, nuns, and artisans
28
A Time of Crisis Black Death
29
The Black Death
Fall 1347, fleet of Genoese trading ships loaded
with grain left Black Sea port of Caffa and set
sail for Sicily carrying the Bubonic Plague,
also known as the Black Death Disease carried by
fleas that lived on the brown rat Trading spread
the disease In Europe 1 in 3 People died from
the Bubonic Plague People react differently
Some turn to magic and witchcraft for cures
Some Give themselves over to pleasure Some saw
it as Gods punishment and flagellate
themselves Some blame the Jews Normal life
broke down as many hid in their homes to avoid
the plague
30
The Economy Suffers
Workers and employers dieSurvivors demand higher
wages Inflation Revolts among the
peasants Would take Europe more than 100 years
to recover
31
Upheaval in the Church
Spiritual crisis, scandal and division in Roman
Catholic Church Survivors ask, Why did God
spare some and kill others? The Great Western
Schism1309, The Avignon Papacy, Pope Clement V
moved papal court to Avignon France for 70
years, 2 and at times 3 popes Church Council at
Constance (Germany) ended the crisis in 1417
restoring one pope Pope Martin V Moral
authority of Church weakened, preachers began to
call for change John Wycliffe England, said
the Bible, not the Church was the source of
Christian truth, translated Bible into English
Jan Hus Bohemia, said the Jesus was the head of
the Church not the pope, burned at the stake in
1415
32
The Hundred Years War
On top of famine, plague, economic decline, and
upheaval in the Church The Hundred Years War
(1337-1453) England v France English had
military success because of the Longbow Could
shoot 3 arrows in the time the French could
shoot 1, could pierce all but the heaviest
armor French later had military success due to
the Canon could smash castle walls helping
French capture English held castles and drive
English from Normandy Joan of Arc 1429, 17
years old, tells Charles VII God had sent her to
save France, led French to several victories but
later tried for witchcraft and burned at the
stake
33
Impact of Hundred Years War
Set France and England on different
paths France War crated a growing sense of
national feeling, allowed French kings to expand
their power England To pay for the war, kings
repeatedly turn to Parliament for money, helps
Parliament win the Power of the PursePower in
England begins to swing to Parliament
34
Society was Changing
Many changes to the late Medieval world
Castles and knights disappear, could not compete
with the longbow and cannon Monarchs needed
large armies to fight their wars, not feudal
vassals Recovering from the Black Death,
population expanded and manufacturing grewMore
trade and shipping Churches power in
decline New technologies Strong European
empires and monarchies emerge Stage is set for
further changes during the Renaissance!!!
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