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Chapter 6 Energy and States of Matter

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Chapter 6 Energy and States of Matter Energy Measuring Temperature Energy Makes objects move Makes things stop Energy from sun plants foods we eat energy to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 6 Energy and States of Matter


1
Chapter 6 Energy and States of Matter
  • Energy
  • Measuring Temperature

2
Energy
  • Makes objects move
  • Makes things stop
  • Energy from sun plants foods we eat
    energy to live
  • We need energy to do work

3
Work is done when
  • Go up stairs
  • Play soccer
  • Lift a bag of groceries
  • Ride a bicycle
  • Breathe
  • Heart pumps blood
  • Water goes over a dam

4
Potential Energy
  • Is stored energy
  • Examples
  • Water behind a dam
  • Compressed spring
  • Chemical bonds in gasoline or coal
  • Food

5
Kinetic Energy
  • Is energy of motion
  • Examples
  • Hammering a nail
  • Water flowing over a dam
  • Working out
  • Boxing
  • Burning gasoline

6
Some Forms of Energy
  • Mechanical
  • Electrical
  • Thermal (heat)
  • Chemical
  • Radiant (light)

7
Learning Check E1
  • A. A car uses more fuel when the air
  • conditioner is on.
  • True (1) or False (2)
  • B. An apple hanging on a tree has potential
  • energy that can turn into both mechanical
  • or chemical energy.
  • True (1) or False (2)

8
Solution E1
  • A. A car uses more fuel when the air conditioner
    is on. True (1)
  • B. An apple hanging on a tree has potential
    energy that can turn into both mechanical or
    chemical energy. True(1)

9
Temperature
  • Particles are always moving.
  • When you heat water, the water molecules move
    faster.
  • When molecules move faster, the substance gets
    hotter.
  • When a substance gets hotter, its temperature
    goes up.

10
Learning Check E2
  • Suppose you place water in a freezer.
  • A. The water particles move
  • 1) faster 2) slower 3) the same
  • B. The water will get
  • 1) hotter 2) colder 3) stay the same
  • C. The temperature of the water will be
  • 1) higher 2) lower 3) the same

11
Solution E2
  • Suppose you place water in a freezer.
  • A. The water particles move
  • 2) slower
  • B. The water will get
  • 2) colder
  • C. The temperature of the water will be
  • 2) lower

12
Temperature
  • Measures the hotness or coldness of an object
  • Determined by using a thermometer that contains a
    liquid that expands with heat and contracts with
    cooling.

13
Temperature Scales
14
Temperature Scales
  • Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin
  • Water boils 212F 100C 373
    K
  • Water freezes 32F 0C 273
    K

15
Units of Temperature between Boiling and Freezing
  • Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin
  • Water boils 212F 100C 373
    K
  • 180 100C 100K
  • Water freezes 32F 0C 273
    K

16
Learning Check E3
  • A. Temperature of freezing water
  • 1) 0F 2) 0C 3) 0 K
  • B. Temperature of boiling water
  • 1) 100F 2) 32F 3) 373K
  • C. Number of Celsius units between the
  • boiling and freezing points of water
  • 1) 100 2) 180 3) 273

17
Solution E3
  • A. Temperature of freezing water
  • 2) 0C
  • B. Temperature of boiling water
  • 3) 373K
  • C. Number of Celsius units between the
  • boiling and freezing points of water
  • 1) 100

18
Fahrenheit Formula
  • 180F 9F 1.8F 100C
    5C 1C
  • Zero point 0C 32F
  • F 9/5 TC 32
  • or
  • F 1.8 TC 32

19
Celsius Formula
  • Rearrange to find TC
  • F 1.8 TC 32
  • F - 32 1.8TC ( 32 - 32)
  • F - 32 1.8 TC
  • 1.8 1.8
  • F - 32 TC
  • 1.8

20
Temperature Conversions
  • A person with hypothermia has a body temperature
    of 29.1C. What is the body temperature in F?
  • F 1.8 (29.1C) 32
  • exact tenth's
    exact
  • 52.4 32
  • 84.4F
  • tenths

21
Learning Check E4
  • The normal temperature of a chickadee is
    105.8F. What is that temperature in C?
  • 1) 73.8 C
  • 2) 58.8 C
  • 3) 41.0 C

22
Solution E4
  • 3) 41.0 C
  • Solution
  • C (F - 32)
  • 1.8
  • (105.8 - 32)
  • 1.8
  • 73.8F
  • 1.8 41.0C

23
Learning Check E5
  • Pizza is baked at 455F. What is that in C?
  • 1) 437 C
  • 2) 235C
  • 3) 221C

24
Solution E5
  • Pizza is baked at 455F. What is that in C?
  • 2) 235C
  • (455 - 32) 235C
  • 1.8

25
Learning Check E6
  • On a cold winter day, the temperature falls to
    -15C. What is that temperature in F?
  • 1) 19 F
  • 2) 59F
  • 3) 5F

26
Solution E6
  • 3) 5F
  • Solution
  • F 1.8(-15C) 32
  • -27 32
  • 5F

27
Kelvin Scale
  • On the Kelvin Scale
  • 1K 1C
  • 0 K is the lowest temperature
  • 0 K - 273C
  • K C
  • K C 273

28
Learning Check E7
  • What is normal body temperature of 37C in
    kelvins?
  • 1) 236 K
  • 2) 310 K
  • 3) 342 K

29
Solution E7
  • What is normal body temperature of 37C in
    kelvins?
  • 2) 310 K
  • K C 273
  • 37 C 273
  • 310. K
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