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Islam-Submission to Allah

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Title: Islam-Submission to Allah


1
Chapter 14
The Expansive Realm of Islam
2
Muhammad and His Message
  • Born 570 to merchant family in Mecca
  • Orphaned as a child
  • Marries wealthy widow c. 595, works as merchant
  • Familiarity with paganism, Christianity and
    Judaism as practiced in Arabian peninsula

3
Muhammads Spiritual Transformation
  • Visions c. 610 CE
  • Archangel Gabriel
  • Monotheism Allah
  • Attracts followers to Mecca

4
The Judeo-Christian Foundations of Islam
5
Islam?An Abrahamic Religion
  • Muslims are strict monotheists.
  • They believe in the Judeo- Christian God,
    which they call Allah.
  • Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible,
    like the Quran, is the word of God.

Peoples of the Book
6
Abrahams Genealogy
ABRAHAM
SARAH
HAGAR
Isaac
Ishmael
12 Arabian Tribes
Esau
Jacob
12 Tribes of Israel
7
The Prophetic Tradition (25 In All)
Adam
Noah
Abraham
Moses
Jesus
Muhammad
8
The Quran
  • Record of revelations received during visions
  • Committed to writing c. 650 CE (Muhammad dies
    632)
  • Tradition of Muhammads life hadith

9
The Quran
  • Muslims believe it contains the word of God.
  • 114 suras (chapters).
  • In the name of Allah, the compassionate,
    the merciful.
  • Written in Arabic.

10
Conflict at Mecca
  • Muhammads monotheistic teachings offensive to
    polytheistic pagans
  • Economic threat to existing religious industry
  • Denunciation of greed affront to local aristocracy

11
The Hijra
  • Muhammad flees to Yathrib (Medina) 622 CE
  • Year 0 in Muslim calendar
  • Organizes followers into communal society (the
    umma)
  • Legal, spiritual code
  • Commerce, raids on Meccan caravans for sake of
    umma

12
Muhammads Return to Mecca
  • Attack on Mecca, 630
  • Conversion of Mecca to Islam
  • Destruction of pagan sites, replaced with mosques
  • Kaaba preserved in honor of importance of Mecca
  • Approved as pilgrimage site
  • Covered in kiswah (robe) annually

13
The Kaaba
14
The Five Pillars of Islam
15
1. The Shahada
  • The testimony.
  • The declaration of faith

There is no god worthy of worship except God,
and Muhammad is His Messenger or Prophet.
1
16
2. The Salat
  • The mandatory prayers performed 5 times a
    day dawn noon late
    afternoon sunset before going
    to bed
  • Wash before praying.
  • Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.

2
17
2. The Salat
  • The call to prayer by the muezzin in the
    minaret.
  • Pray in the mosque on Friday.

2
18
3. The Zakat
  • Alms giving (charitable donations).
  • Muslims believe that all things belong to
    God.
  • Zakat means both purification and growth.
  • About 2.5 of your income.

3
19
4. The Sawm
  • Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan.
  • Considered a method of self- purification.
  • No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset
    during Ramadan.

4
20
5. The Hajj
  • The pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • Must be done at least once in a Muslims
    lifetime.
  • 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage
    every year.

5
21
5. The Hajj
  • Those who complete the pilgrimage can add
    the title hajji to their name.

5
22
Jihad
  • struggle
  • Against vice
  • Against ignorance of Islam
  • holy war
  • Against unbelievers who threaten Islam

23
The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem
Mount Moriah Rock where Muhammad ascended into
heaven.
24
Islamic Law The Sharia
  • Codification of Islamic law
  • Based on Quran, hadith, logical schools of
    analysis
  • Extends beyond ritual law to all areas of human
    activity

25
Other Islamic Religious Practices
  • Up to four wives allowed at once.
  • No alcohol or pork.
  • No gambling.
  • Three holiest cities in Islam Mecca,
    Medina, Jerusalem.

26
The Caliph
  • No clear to successor to Muhammad identified
  • Abu Bakr chosen to lead as Caliph
  • Led war against villagers who abandoned Islam
    after death of Muhammad

27
The Spread of Islam
  • Easy to learn and practice.
  • No priesthood.
  • Teaches equality.
  • Non-Muslims, who were Peoples of the Book,
    were allowed religious freedom, but paid
    additional taxes.
  • Easily portable ? nomads trade routes.
  • Jihad (Holy War) against pagans and other
    non-believers (infidels).

28
The Spread of Islam
  • Great warriors with a strong cavalry.
  • Byzantines and Persians weak from fighting each
    other.
  • Unity in Islam, strengthened by the Sharia,
    coupled with fair treatment of conquered people,
    was inviting to many in defeated empires who
    desired more freedom and cohesiveness.
  • Difficulties governing rapidly expanding
    territory

29
  • The Expansion of Islam, 632 733 CE

30
Muslims in the World Today
31
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32
Countries with the Largest Muslim Population
1. Indonesia 183,000,000 6. Iran 62,000,000
2. Pakistan 134,000,000 7. Egypt 59,000,000
3. India 121,000,000 8. Nigeria 53,000,000
4. Bangladesh 114,000,000 9. Algeria 31,000,000
5. Turkey 66,000,000 10. Morocco 29,000,000
Arabs make up only 20 of the total Muslim
population of the world.
33
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34
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35
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36
Successors To The Prophet
  • After the death of Muhammad, the caliph, or
    successor to the prophet was chosen. Abu Bakr was
    nominated as the first caliph.
  • Abu Bakr would lead the first caliphate, known as
    the Rashidun or Patriarchal Caliphate.
  • The choice of Abu Bakr caused significant dispute
    as many believed that Muhammad had chosen Ali ibn
    Abi Talib, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad
    to succeed him.
  • Served as caliph 656-661 CE, then assassinated
    along with most of his followers

37
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38
Successors To The Prophet
  • Abu Bakr was followed by three more caliphs, the
    last of which was Ali ibn Abi Talib. It is with
    his succession that a division in Islam became
    more defined.
  • Sunni Muslims believe that Ali was the fourth
    caliph, a position chosen based on ability to
    lead. The Shia (Shiites) believe that Ali is
    the first Imam, and that only blood descendants
    of Muhammad can lead the Muslim people.

39
Major Muslim Empires
  • Rashidun Caliphate (622-661)
  • Umayyad Caliphate (661-750) -
  • Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba in Islamic Spain
    (929-1031)
  • Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258) -
  • Fatimid Caliphate (910-1171)
  • Mamluk Caliphate (1250-1517)
  • The Ottoman Caliphate (1517-1924)

40
Shiite Pilgrims at Karbala
41
The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 CE)
  • From Meccan merchant class
  • Brought stability to the Islamic community
  • Capital Damascus, Syria
  • Associated with Arab military aristocracy

42
Policy toward Conquered Peoples
  • Favoritism of Arab military rulers causes
    discontent
  • Limited social mobility for non-Arab Muslims
  • Head tax (jizya) on non-Muslims
  • Umayyad luxurious living causes further decline
    in moral authority

43
The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE)
  • Abu al-Abbas Sunni Arab, allied with Shia,
    non-Arab Muslims
  • Seizes control of Persia and Mesopotamia
  • Defeats Umayyad army in 750
  • Invited Umayyads to banquet, then massacred them

44
Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty
  • Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not
    exclusively Arab)
  • Militarily competent, but not bent on imperial
    expansion
  • Content to administer the empire inherited
  • Dar al-Islam
  • Growth through military activity of autonomous
    Islamic forces

45
Abbasid Administration
  • Persian influence
  • Court at Baghdad
  • Influence of Islamic scholars
  • Ulama and qadis sought to develop policy based on
    the Quran and sharia

46
Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809 CE)
  • High point of Abbasid dynasty
  • Baghdad center of commerce
  • Great cultural activity

47
Abbasid Decline
  • Civil war between sons of Harun al-Rashid
  • Provincial governors assert regional independence
  • Dissenting sects, heretical movements
  • Abbasid caliphs become puppets of Persian
    nobility
  • Later, Saljuq Turks influence, Sultan real power
    behind the throne

48
Economy of the Early Islamic World
  • Spread of food and industrial crops
  • Trade routes from India to Spain
  • Western diet adapts to wide variety
  • New crops adapted to different growing seasons
  • Agricultural sciences develop
  • Cotton, paper industries develop
  • Major cities emerge

49
Formation of a Hemispheric Trading Zone
  • Historical precedent of Arabic trade
  • Dar al-Islam encompasses silk routes
  • ice exported from Syria to Egypt in summer, 10th
    century
  • Camel caravans
  • Maritime trade

50
Banking and Trade
  • Scale of trade causes banks to develop
  • Sakk (check)
  • Uniformity of Islamic law throughout dar al-Islam
    promotes trade
  • Joint ventures common

51
Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain)
  • Muslim Berber conquerors from North Africa take
    Spain, early 8th c.
  • Allied to Umayyads, refused to recognize Abbasid
    dynasty
  • Formed own caliphate
  • Tensions, but interrelationship

52
Changing Status of Women
  • Quran improves status of women
  • Outlawed female infanticide
  • Brides, not husbands, claim dowries
  • Yet male dominance preserved
  • Patrilineal descent
  • Polygamy permitted, Polyandry forbidden
  • Veil adopted from ancient Mesopotamian practice

53
Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition
  • Islamic values
  • Uniformity of Islamic law in dar al-Islam
  • Establishment of madrasas
  • Importance of the Hajj
  • Sufi missionaries
  • Asceticism, mysticism
  • Some tension with orthodox Islamic theologians
  • Wide popularity

54
Al-Ghazali (1058-1111)
  • Major Sufi thinker from Persia
  • Impossibility of intellectual apprehension of
    Allah, devotion, mystical ecstasy instead

55
Cultural influences on Islam
  • Persia
  • Administration and governance
  • literature
  • India
  • Mathematics, science, medicine
  • Hindi numbers
  • Greece
  • Philosophy, esp. Aristotle
  • Ibn Rushd/Averroes (1126-1198)

56
Islam in America
57
Muslims in America
58
Muslim Culture in NYC
The Islamic Center, New York City
59
Islams Golden Age
  • Islams golden age peaked under the Abbasids,
    during which Muslims absorbed the customs and
    traditions of the many diverse people they ruled.
  • The emphasis on learning, which was taught by
    Muhammad, was reinforced by a flourishing economy
    based on trade.

60
Art Architecture
  • Mosques Palaces
  • Byzantine domes and arches
  • Abstract geometric patterns
  • Calligraphy
  • Often verses from the Quran
  • Drawings Paintings

61
Literature Philosophy
  • Poetry
  • Much based upon themes of the Quran
  • Preservation of Greco-Roman scholars
  • Tales
  • Most famous is The Thousand and One Nights
  • Philosophy

62
Mathematics Science
  • Algebra
  • Based upon Indian Greek advancements, the
    Muslims pioneered algebra
  • Astronomy
  • Observed the Earths rotation
  • Calculated the circumference of the earth within
    a few thousand feet
  • Medicine
  • Doctors had to pass rigorous tests
  • Hospitals set up
  • Studied diseases and wrote medical encyclopedias
    that became standard texts in Europe

63
Economics
  • Agriculture
  • Trade
  • Cultural diffusion
  • Partnerships, credit, banks
  • Manufacturing
  • Guilds regulated prices, weights measurements
  • Specialized in steel, leather carpets
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