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Human Geography of Canada

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Human Geography of Canada Developing a Vast Wilderness Three major groups in Canada the native peoples, the French, and the English have melded into a diverse and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Geography of Canada


1
Human Geography of Canada Developing a Vast
Wilderness
Three major groups in Canadathe native peoples,
the French, and the Englishhave melded into a
diverse and economically strong nation.
Canadian fur trapper.
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2
Human Geography of Canada Developing a Vast
Wilderness
History and Government of Canada
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
Economy and Culture of Canada
Subregions of Canada
SECTION 3
Unit Atlas Political
Unit Atlas Physical
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3
French and British settlement greatly
influenced Canadas political development.
Canadas size and climate affected economic
growth and population distribution.
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4
SECTION
1
continued The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry
Colonization by France and Britain French
explorers claim much of Canada in 15001600s as
New France British settlers colonize the
Atlantic Coast Coastal fisheries and inland fur
trade important to both countries Britain wins
French and Indian War (17541763) French
settlers stay
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5
SECTION
1
Steps Toward Unity
Establishing the Dominion of Canada In 1791
Britain creates two political units called
provinces - Upper Canada (later, Ontario)
English-speaking, Protestant - Lower Canada
(Quebec) French-speaking, Roman Catholic
Ruperts Land a northern area owned by
fur-trading company Immigrants arrive, cities
develop Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto
- railways, canals are built as explorers seek
better fur-trading areas
Continued . . .
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7
SECTION
1
continued Steps Toward Unity
Establishing the Dominion of Canada Political,
ethnic disputes lead to Britains 1867 North
America Act - creates Dominion of Canada as a
loose confederation (political union) - Upper
Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Quebec), Nova
Scotia, New Brunswick - self-governed part of
British Empire Expansion includes
- Ruperts Land, Manitoba, British
Columbia, Prince Edward Island - later Yukon
Territory, Alberta, Saskatchewan - Newfoundland
in 1949
Map
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8
SECTION
1
Continental Expansion and Development
From the Atlantic to the Pacific In 1885 a
transcontinental railroad goes from Montreal to
Vancouver European immigrants arrive and Yukon
gold brings fortune hunters - copper, zinc,
silver also found grow towns, railroads
Image
Urban and Industrial Growth Farming gives way
to urban industrialization, manufacturing
- within 100 miles of U.S. border due to milder
climate, fertile soil, and availability of the
railway system
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SECTION
1
Governing Canada
The Parliamentary System In 1931 Canada becomes
independent, British monarch is symbolic
head Parliamentary government - parliament
legislature combining legislative and
executive functions - prime minister, head of
government, is majority party leader
- consists of an appointed Senate, elected
House of Commons All ten provinces have
own legislature and premier (prime
minister) - federal government administers the
territories
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Parliament Hill
14
Canada is highly industrialized and urbanized,
with one of the worlds most developed economies.
Canadians are a diverse people.
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15
SECTION
2
continued An Increasingly Diverse Economy
Service Industries Drive the Economy Most
Canadians work in service industries, which
create 60 of GDP. Manufacturing accounts for
15 - Agriculture is a very small percentage of
the GDP as a result of only 5 of the land being
arable (suitable for farming) Heavy trade with
U.S. same language, open border (worlds
longest) - 1994 North American Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA) with U.S., Mexico - 75 of
Canadian exports go to U.S. - 50 of Canadas
imports come from U.S.
Image
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16
SECTION
2
A Land of Many Cultures
  • Languages and Religions
  • Original settlers are known as the Inuit and the
    First Nations
  • Mixing of French and native peoples created
    métis culture
  • Bilingual English is most common, except in
    French-speaking Quebec
  • English Protestants and French Catholics
    dominate, but often clash
  • - increasing numbers of Muslims, Jews, other
  • groups

Continued . . .
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17
SECTION
2
continued A Land of Many Cultures
Canadas Population Densest in port cities
(Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) and
farmlands Environment keeps 80 of people on
10 of land (near U.S. border) Urbanization in
1900 33 of people lived in cities, today its
80 Various ethnic groups cluster in certain
areas - 75 of French Canadians live in Quebec
- many native peoples live on
reservespublic land set aside for them
- most Inuits live in the remote Arctic north
- many Canadians of Asian ancestry live on
West Coast
Image
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18
Montreal
19
Canada is divided into four subregions the
Atlantic, Core, and Prairie Provinces, and the
Pacific Province and the Territories.
Each subregion possesses unique natural
resources, landforms, economic activities, and
cultural life.
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20
SECTION
Subregions of Canada
3
The Atlantic Provinces
Harsh Lands and Small Populations Eastern
Canadas Atlantic Provinces - Prince Edward
Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia,
Newfoundland Only 8 of Canadas population,
due to rugged terrain, harsh weather Most
people live off of the fishing and logging in the
region
Continued . . .
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SECTION
3
continued The Atlantic Provinces
Economic Activities New Brunswicks largest
industry logging (lumber, wood pulp,
paper) Gulf of St. Lawrence, coastal waters
supply seafood for export Nova Scotia logging,
fishing, shipbuilding, trade through
Halifax Newfoundland fishing, mining, logging,
hydro-electric power - supplies power to Quebec,
parts of northeastern U.S.
Image
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SECTION
3
The Core Provinces Quebec and Ontario
The Heartland of Canada Quebec City French
explorer Samuel de Champlain built fort in
1608 60 Canadas population live in Core
Provinces Ontario and Quebec - Ontario has
largest population Quebec has largest land area
Continued . . .
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23
SECTION
3
The Prairie Provinces
Canadas Breadbasket Great Plains Prairie
Provinces Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta
Known as Canadas breadbasket because 50 of
Canadas agricultural production - 60 of
mineral output - Alberta has coal, oil deposits
produces 90 of Canadas natural gas
Continued . . .
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24
SECTION
3
continued The Prairie Provinces
A Cultural Mix Manitoba Scots-Irish, Germans,
Scandinavians, Ukrainians, Poles Saskatchewans
population includes Asian immigrants,
métis Albertas diversity includes Indian,
Japanese, Lebanese, Vietnamese
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SECTION
3
The Pacific Province and the Territories
British Columbia British Columbia westernmost
province, mostly in Rocky Mountains - 1/2 is
forests 1/3 is frozen tundra, snowfields, glac
iers Most people live in southwest major
cities are Victoria, Vancouver Economy built on
logging, mining, hydroelectric power - Vancouver
is Canadas largest port, has prosperous
shipping trade
Continued . . .
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26
SECTION
3
continued The Pacific Province and the
Territories
The Territories The three northern territories
account for 41 of Canadas land Sparsely
populated due to rugged land and severe climate
- Yukon has population of 30,000
mostly wilderness - Northwest Territories
has population of 41,000 extends into Arctic
- Nunavut was created from Northwest
Territories in 1999 home to Inuit
Territories economies include mining,
fishing, some logging
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