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EDM 6210 Education Policy and Society Lecture 8 Education Policy and Social Differentiation: The Class-Formation Analysis

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Title: EDM 6210 Education Policy and Society Lecture 8 Education Policy and Social Differentiation: The Class-Formation Analysis


1
EDM 6210 Education Policy and Society Lecture
8 Education Policy and Social Differentiation
The Class-Formation Analysis
2
From Class Structure to Class Formation
  • Orthodox Marxist core mode of class analysis
  • Class location, class place and structure
    analysis The class in itself thesis
  • Class formation and class struggle The class for
    itself thesis
  • The theory of history The thesis of class
    struggle history

3
Class Formation
(Wright, 1997, p. 374)
4
(Wright, 1997, p. 379)
5
(Wright, 1997, p. 380)
Strong or weak class formation
Unitary or fragmented class formation
Revolutionary, counter-revolution or reformist
class formation
6
From Class Structure to Class Formation
  • E.O. Wright micro-macro levels of class analysis
  • Micro-level class analysis
  • Class location
  • Class places
  • Class positions
  • Class consciousness
  • Perception and observation
  • Theories of consequences
  • Preferences

7
(Wright, 1997, p. 385)
8
(Wright, 1997, p. 385-6)
9
(Wright, 1997, p. 386)
10
From Class Structure to Class Formation
  • E.O. Wright micro-macro levels of class analysis
  • Micro-level class analysis
  • Class location
  • Class consciousness
  • Class practice Activities engaged in by
    members of a class using class capacities in
    order to realize at least some of their class
    interest. (1997, p. 381)

11
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12
From Class Structure to Class Formation
  • E.O. Wright micro-macro levels of class analysis
  • Macro-level class analysis
  • Class structure
  • Class formation
  • Material interests generated from class structure
  • Class identity emerged from lived experience
  • Resources distributed in the class structure
  • Class struggle

13
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14
From Class Structure to Class Formation
  • E.O. Wright micro-macro levels of class analysis
  • Micro-level class analysis Class consciousness
  • Macro-level class analysis Class formation
  • The micro-macro linkage in class analysis

15
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16
Class Consciousness and Class Culture
  • E.O. Wright survey of class consciousness
  • Measuring class consciousness

17
(Wright, 1985, p. 146)
18
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19
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20
Class Consciousness and Class Culture
  • E.O. Wright survey of class consciousness
  • Measuring class consciousness
  • Class ideology study in three countries

21
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24
Class Formation and Struggle Debate on the
Historical Mission of the Proletarian
  • Margaret R. Somers deconstructing Marxist class
    formation theory
  • The metanarrative underlying the class formation
    theory
  • From pre-industrial to industrial society
  • Proletarianization
  • The teleological prediction underlying class
    formation theory
  • The historical mission of English working class

25
Class Formation and Struggle Debate on the
Historical Mission of the Proletarian
  • Margaret R. Somers deconstructing Marxist class
    formation theory
  • The anomalous proposition in Marxists class
    formation study
  • Why have the English working class (and just
    about all working classes) resolutely refused to
    behave properly or to perform its historical
    mission?

26
Class Formation and Struggle Debate on the
Historical Mission of the Proletarian
  • Somers Theory of class formation as social
    narrativity
  • The concept of social narrativity
  • Social narrativity is concepts of social
    epistemology and social ontology. (It) posits
    through narrartivity that we come to know,
    understand, and make sense of the social world,
    and through which we constitute our social
    identity. It matters that we come to be (usually
    unconsciously) who we are (however ephemeral,
    multiple, and changing) by our locations in
    social narrative and networks that rarely of our
    own making. (Somers, 1997, p.82)

27
Class Formation and Struggle Debate on the
Historical Mission of the Proletarian
  • Somers Theory of class formation as social
    narrativity
  • Component of social narrativity
  • Relationality of parts,
  • Temporality, sequence and places,
  • Causal emplotment, and
  • Selective appropriation

28
Class Formation and Struggle Debate on the
Historical Mission of the Proletarian
  • Somers Theory of class formation as social
    narrativity
  • Four kinds of narrativity
  • Ontological narratives and the constitution of
    narrative identity
  • Public, cultural and institutional narratives
  • Conceptual / analytical / sociological
    narrativity
  • Metanarrativity

29
Class Formation and Struggle Debate on the
Historical Mission of the Proletarian
  • Somers Theory of class formation as social
    narrativity
  • Two methodological concepts
  • Narrative identity Class identity, class
    consciousness and class action are mediated by
    narrative rather by interest
  • Relational setting It refers to the temporal and
    spatial configuration of public narrativities and
    social and cultural environment within which
    ontological narratives are constituted.

30
Class Formation and Struggle Debate on the
Historical Mission of the Proletarian
  • Somers Theory of class formation as social
    narrativity
  • Two methodological concepts
  • Narrative identity Class identity, class
    consciousness and class action are mediated by
    narrative rather by interest
  • Relational setting It refers to the temporal and
    spatial configuration of public narrativities and
    social and cultural environment within which
    ontological narratives are constituted.
  • Somers research on English working class
    formation in 1800-1850

31
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32
Narrative of citizenship formation and
constitution of public sphere OR narrative of
class formation and constitution of class society
33
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Bourdieus methodological stance in class
    analysis
  • The construction of the theory of the social
    space presupposes a series of breaks with Marxist
    theory.
  • It presupposes a break with the tendency to
    emphasize substances here, real groups whose
    number, limits, members, etc. one claims to be
    able to define at the expense of relations and
  • with the intellectualist illusion which leads one
    to consider the theoretical class, constructed by
    the social scientist, as a real class, an
    effectively mobilized group
  • a break with economics, which leads one to reduce
    the social field, a multi-dimensional space, to
    the economic field alone, to the relations of
    economic production and

34
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Bourdieus methodological stance in class
    analysis
  • The construction of the theory of the social
    space .
  • a break, finally, with objectivism, which goes
    hand in hand with intellectualism, and which
    leads one to overlook the symbolic struggles that
    take place in different fields, and where what is
    at stake is the very representation of the social
    world, and in particular the hierarchy within
    each of the fields and between the different
    fields. (Bourdieu, 1991, p. 229 my numbering)

35
Bourdieu, Pierre (1991) Social Space and the
Genesis of Classes. Pp.229-251. In P. Bourdieu.
Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge Harvard
University Press.
Pierre Bourdieu, (1930-2002)
36
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Bourdieus theory of social space
  • Concepts of social space and field
  • Social space The social world can be
    represented in the form of a (multi-dimensional)
    space constructed on the basis of principles of
    differentiation and distribution constituted by
    the set of properties active in the social
    universe under consideration, that is, able to
    confer force or power on their possessor in that
    universe. Agents and groups of agents are thus
    defined by their relative positions in this
    space. Each of them is confined to a position or
    a precise class of neighbouring position.
    (Bourdieu, 1991, p. 229-230)

37
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Bourdieus theory of social space
  • Concepts of social space and field
  • Field and field of force In so far as the
    properties chosen to construct this space are
    active properties, the space can also be
    described as a field of forces in other words,
    as a set of objective power relations imposed on
    all those who enter this field, relations which
    are not reducible to the intentions of individual
    agents or even to direct interactions between
    agents. (Bourdieu, 1991, p. 230)

38
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Bourdieus concept of capital
  • The active properties that are chosen as
    principles of construction of the social space
    are the different kinds of power or capital that
    are current in the field. (Bourdieu, 1991, p.
    230, my underline)

39
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Bourdieus concept of capital
  • Definition of capital
  • Capital is accumulated labor (in its
    materialized form or its 'incorporated', embodied
    form) which, when appropriated on a private, i.e.
    exclusive, basis by agents or groups of agents,
    enable them to appropriate social energy in the
    form of reified or living labor. It is a force
    inscribed in objective or subjective structures,
    but it is also the principle underlying the
    immanent regularities of the social world. It is
    what makes the games of societynot least, the
    economic gamesomething other than simple games
    of chance offering at every moment the
    possibility of a miracle.(Bourdieu, 1997, p. 46)

40
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Bourdieus concept of capital
  • Forms of capital
  • Economic capital is immediately and directly
    convertible into money and may be
    institutionalized in the form of property
    rights.
  • Cultural capital can exit in three states (1997,
    p. 47)
  • embodied state, i.e. in the form of long-lasting
    dispositions of the mind and body (1997, p. 47)
  • objectified state, i.e. in the form of cultural
    goods (pictures, books, dictionaries,
    instruments, machines, etc.), which are the trace
    or realization of theories or critiques of these
    theories, problematics, etc.
  • institutionalized state, i.e. in the form of
    educational qualifications (1997, p. 47)

41
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Bourdieus concept of capital
  • Forms of capital
  • Social capital is the aggregate of the actual or
    potential resources which are linked to
    possession of a durable network of more or less
    institutionalized relationships of mutual
    acquaintance and recognition or in other words,
    to membership in a group which provides each of
    its members with the backing of the
    collectivity-owned capital. (1997, p. 51)
  • Symbolic capital commonly called prestige,
    reputation, fame, etc. (1991, p.230)

42
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Concept of the space of positions As each
    forms of capital establishes itself as the active
    property in a particular a field of force, a
    multi-dimensional space of position is formed.
    Agents are thus be distributed in this space of
    positions in two dimensions, in the first
    dimension, according to the overall volume of
    capital they possess, and, in the second
    dimension, according to the composition of their
    capital in other words, according to the
    relative weight of the different kinds of capital
    in the total set of their assets. (Bourdieu,
    1991, p. 231)

43
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Concept of the space of positions
  • ..Subsequently, Bourdieu reformulates the
    fundamental dimensions in the constructing space
    of positions into three. In his own words, one
    can construct a space whose three fundamental
    dimensions are defined by volume of capital,
    composition of capital, and change in these two
    properties over time. (Bourdieu, 1979, p. 114)

44
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Concept of class One the basis of knowledge of
    the space of positions, one can crave out classes
    in the logical sense of the word, i.e. sets of
    agents who occupy similar positions and who,
    being place in similar conditions and submitted
    to similar types of conditioning, have every
    chance of having similar dispositions and
    interests, and thus of producing similar
    practices and adopting similar stances.
    (Bourdieu, 1991, p. 231)

45
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Concept of class habitus
  • Concept of habitus as methodological device
    synthesizing the controversy between
    methodological objectivism and idealism and as
    one of the essential constituting concept of
    Bourdieus Theory of Practice/Logic of Practice.

46
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Concept of class habitus
  • Definition of habitus It can simply be defined
    as a system of dispositions (Bourdieu, 1977, p.
    214) found in practices of agents and group of
    agents. More specifically, it refers to
  • "systems of durable, transposable dispositions,
    structured structures predisposed to function as
    structuring structures, that is, as principles of
    the generation and structuring of practices and
    representations that can be objectively adapted
    to their outcomes without presupposing a
    conscious aiming at ends or an express mastery of
    the operations necessary in order to attain them.
    Objectively regulated and regular without being
    in any way the product of obedience to rules,
    they can be collectively orchestrated without
    being the product of the organizing
    (orchestrating) action of a conductor (Bourdieu,
    1990, p. 53 1977, p. 72)

47
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Concept of class habitus
  • Definition of habitus .
  • The habitus, the durably installed generative
    principle of regulated improvisation, produces
    practices which tend to reproduce the
    regularities immanent in the objective conditions
    to the production of their generative principle,
    while adjusting to the demands inscribed as
    objective potentialities in the situation, as
    defined by the cognitive and motivating
    structures making up the habitus. (1977, P.78)

48
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49
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Concept of class habitus
  • Habitus and history Bourdieu conceives habitus
    as a product of history.
  • The habitus, a product of history, produces
    individual and collective practices more
    history in accordance with the schemes
    generated by history. It ensures the active
    presence of past experiences, which, deposited in
    each organism in the form of schemes of
    perception, thought and action, tend to guarantee
    the correctness of practices and their
    constancy over time, more reliably than all
    formal rules and explicit norms. (Bourdieu,
    1990, p. 54)

50
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Concept of class habitus
  • Habitus and history Bourdieu conceives habitus
    as a product of history.
  • The habitus embodied history, internalized as
    a second nature and so forgotten as history is
    the active presence of the whole past of which it
    is the product. As such, it is what gives
    practices their relative autonomy with respect to
    external determinations of the immediate present.
    This autonomy is that of the past, enacted and
    acting, which functioning as accumulated capital,
    produces history on the basis of history and so
    ensure the permanence in change that makes the
    individual agent a world within the world.
    (Bourdieu, 1990, P. 56)

51
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Concept of class habitus
  • Habitus and institution
  • Bourdieu indicates that history is not only
    objectified in habitus and also in institution.
    He underlines that within the logic of practice,
    there are two objectifications of history,
    objectification in bodies and objectification in
    institutions. (1990, p. 57)
  • The dialectic between habitus and institution
    These two modes of objectified history are
    related in a dialectic way. It is within the
    logic of practice, there lies the dialectic
    between habitus and institutions, that is,
    between two modes of objectification of past
    history. In which there is constantly created a
    history that inevitably appears as both original
    and inevitable. (Bourdieu, 1990, p. 57) On the
    one hand, institution or collective history are
    inculcated, appropriated and socialized into
    individual and constituted her habitus and
    individual history. On the other, it is in
    habitus and its generated practices that
    institution will find its way to reactivate and
    realize in daily human practices.

52
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Concept of class habitus
  • Concept of class habitus
  • One of the primary institutional and historical
    site in which habitus of agents and groups of
    agents are formed is class condition. In
    Bourdieus own words, the conditionings
    associated with a particular class of conditions
    of existence produce habitus. (1990, p. 53)
  • Class habitus, that is, the individual habitus
    in so far as it expresses or reflects the class,
    could be regarded as a subjective but
    non-individual system of internal structures,
    common schemes of perception, conception and
    action, which are precondition of all
    objectification and apperception and the
    objective co-ordination of practices and the
    sharing of a world view could be found on the
    perfect impersonality and interchangeability of
    singular practices and views. (1990, p. 60)

53
Pierre Bourdieus Theory of Class Practice
  • Class practice and lifestyle
  • In one of his major empirical work, Distinction
    A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste,
    Bourdieu demonstrates that the most distinct
    practices among social classes are to be found in
    the arena of consumptions, more particularly
    cultural consumptions. These consumptions will
    not be confined to canonized forms of culture
    such as art, literature, music, theater, etc. but
    also include consumptions in food, sport,
    newspapers and magazines, clothing, etc.
    (Bourdieu, 1987 and Weininger, 2005)
  • The distinction in class practices can also be
    revealed in difference in lifestyle or
    stylization of life, which can generally be
    characterized as the primacy of form over
    function. (Bourdieu, 1978, p. 176)
  • Other distinct class practices can be found in
    language use and body language composure.
    (Bourdieu, 1987, p. 176-177)

54
Bourdieus Reproduction Theory of Education
  • By applying the conceptual apparatuses found in
    Bourdieus theory of class practice, educational
    system, education policy and more specifically
    pedagogic action can be understood as
  • All pedagogic action is, objectively, symbolic
    violence insofar as it is the imposition of a
    cultural arbitrary by an arbitrary power.
    (Bourdieu Passeron, 1977, p. 5)

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56
Bourdieus Reproduction Theory of Education
  • Insofar as it is a power of symbolic violence,
    exerted within a relation of pedagogic
    communication which can produce its own
    specifically symbolic effect only because the
    arbitrary power which makes imposition possible
    is never seen in its full truth and insofar as
    it is the inculcation of a cultural arbitrary,
    carried on within a relation of pedagogic
    communication which can produce its own,
    specifically pedagogic effect only because the
    arbitrariness of the content inculcated is never
    seen in its full truth pedagogic action
    necessarily implies, as a social condition of its
    exercise, pedagogic authority and the relative
    autonomy of the agency commissioned to exercise
    it. (Bourdieu Passeron, 1977, p. 11-12)

57
Bourdieus Reproduction Theory of Education
  • Insofar as it is the arbitrary imposition of a
    cultural arbitrary presupposing pedagogic
    authority, i.e. a delegation of authority, which
    requires the pedagogic agency to reproduce the
    principles of the cultural arbitrary which a
    group or class imposes as worthy of reproduction
    both by its very existence and by the fact of
    delegating to an agency the authority needed in
    order to reproduce it, pedagogic action entails
    pedagogic work, a process of inculcation which
    must last long enough to produce a durable
    training, i.e. a habitus, the product of
    internalization of the principles of a cultural
    arbitrary capable of perpetuating itself after
    pedagogic action has ceased and thereby of
    perpetuating in practices the principles of the
    internalized arbitrary. (Bourdieu Passeron,
    1977, p. 31)

58
Bourdieus Reproduction Theory of Education
  • Every institutionalized education system owes
    the specific characteristics of its structure and
    functioning to the fact that, by the means proper
    to the institution, it has to produce and
    reproduce the institutional conditions whose
    existence and persistence (self-reproduction of
    the system) are necessary both to the exercise of
    its essential function of inculcation and to the
    fulfillment of its function of reproducing a
    cultural arbitrary which it does not produce
    (cultural reproduction), the reproduction of
    which contributes to the reproduction of the
    relations between the groups or classes (social
    reproduction) (Bourdieu Passeron, 1977, p.54)

59
Cultural Arbitrary of the Dominant Class
Social Space/Space of Position
Field of Force
Other Fields
Pedagogic Action (imposition of cultural
arbitrary)
Capital
Other Forms of Capitals
Pedagogic Authority
Time/History
Social Reproduction
Inculcate
Pedagogic Work
Habitus
Institution
Reactivate
Education Institution
Self (institutional) Reproduction
Cultural Reproduction
Pierre Bourdieus Reproduction in Education,
Society and Culture
60
Debate on Cultural Resistance in Education
  • Paul Willis ethnographic study of working class
    kids resistance to school culture
  • Paul Willis (1977) Learning to labor How working
    class kids get working class jobs. From 1972 to
    1975 Paul Willis studied 12 working class youths
    school life and the transmission to life on the
    shop floor.
  • Willis revealed that a kind of school
    counter-culture prevailed among his subjects.
    This culture consisted of elements such as
    anti-authority, anti-intellectual, hard-tough
    masculine identity, sexism and racism.
  • Willis argued that this school counter-culture
    had direct relationship with the main features of
    the shop-floor culture of the working class.

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Debate on Cultural Resistance in Education
  • More importantly, the study poses a significant
    question to the resistance theory in education
    and to a larger extent to the theory of
    class-culture formation, that is, what is the
    real meaning of school counter-culture to working
    class kids in the context of class reproduction
    in class society?
  • For no matter what the larger pattern of
    working class culture and cycle of its continuous
    regeneration, no matter what the severity of
    disillusion amongst the lads as they get older,
    their passage is to all intents and purposes
    irreversible. When the cultural apprenticeship of
    the shopfloor is fully worked out, and its main
    real activity of arduous production for others in
    unpleasant surroundings is seen more clearly,
    there is a double kind of entrapment in what
    might then be seen, as the school was seen
    before, as the prison of the workshop.
    Ironically, as the shopfloor becomes a prison,
    education is seen retrospectively, and
    hopelessly, as the only escape. (Willis, 1977,
    107)

63
Debate on Cultural Resistance in Education
  • John U. Ogbus theory of acting white
  • In an ethnographic study Fordham and Ogbu argue
    that one major reason that black students do
    poorly in school is that they experience
    inordinate ambivalence and affective dissonance
    in regard to academic effort and success. These
    ambivalence and dissonance are mainly invoked
    from the cultural differences between White and
    Black American. Ogbu argues that Black and White
    cultural and dialect frames of reference are
    different and oppositional. (Ogbo, 2007, 367)

64
Debate on Cultural Resistance in Education
  • John U. Ogbus theory of acting white
  • Since the cultural and linguistic frames of
    reference in schools are predominantly those of
    White, Black students are therefore experiencing
    collective identity ambivalences or even crises
    along their educational attainment paths. Ogbu
    suggests that they could adopt different
    strategies coping with the burden of acting
    white, e.g.
  • Assimilation or emulation of White,
  • Accommodation without assimilation,
  • Ambivalence, and
  • Resistance or opposition.
  • Ogbu also argues that there are social sanctions,
    in particular peer pressure, among Black youths
    against acting white. This would cost some of
    them their academic achievements.

65
Debate on Cultural Resistance in Education
  • Counter arguments against the Acting White
    theory
  • Evidences from other ethnic groups in the U.S.,
    especially Asian Americans, suggest that academic
    performances cannot simply be explained away by
    racial identity or the burden of acting White.
    As Jamie Lew illustrates in his study of Korean
    American youths academic success and failure, he
    suggests that they can be attributed to Acting
    Neither White Nor Black. (Lew 2007)
  • His findings suggest that cultural and contextual
    differences in social class are more essential
    than racial identity in accounting for academic
    success or failure among his subjects, i.e.
    Korean American.

66
Debate on Cultural Resistance in Education
  • Counter arguments against the Acting White
    theory
  • Lew therefore concludes that The stereotype of
    Asian success much like Black failure cannot
    explained solely on their cultural orientation.
    Through expanding the current debate across and
    within racial/ethnic lines, this research shows
    that culture is significant and race remain
    salient however, researchers may benefit by
    examining race relations beyond a Black and white
    discourse, and how students racial and ethnic
    identity intersect with culture, class, race, and
    school context. (Lew, 2007, 389)

67
Lecture 8 Education Policy and Social
Differentiation The Class-Formation Analysis
END
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