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Ancient India

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Ancient India Geography and Early India Mohenjo-Daro & Harappa India- Physical Indus Valley Civilizations Thrived between 2300-1700 BC Indus River Today Geography of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient India


1
Ancient India
  • Geography and Early India
  • Mohenjo-Daro Harappa

2
India- Physical
3
Indus Valley Civilizations
  • Thrived between 2300-1700 BC

4
Indus River Today
5
Geography of India
  • The geography of India includes high mountains,
    great rivers, and heavy seasonal rain.
  • India is so large that it is referred to as a
    subcontinent. A subcontinent is a large landmass
    that is smaller than a continent. Subcontinents
    are usually separated from the rest of their
    continents by physical features. India is
    largely separated from Asia by the Himalayan
    Mountains in the north and the Hindu Kush
    Mountains in the west.
  • West of the Himalayas is a vast desert.
  • The rest of India is covered by fertile plains
    and rugged plateaus.

6
Geography of India (cont.)
  • The Indus Valley was the location of Indias
    first civilization.
  • The Indus Valley is west of India in present-day
    Pakistan.
  • When heavy snows in the Himalayas melted, the
    Indus River flooded. Like Mesopotamia and Egypt
    the flooding left a layer of fertile silt. The
    silt created ideal farmland for early settlers.

7
Climate
  • In summer some parts of India receive as much as
    100-200 inches of rain.
  • The climate of India is mostly hot and humid.
    Indias monsoons (seasonal wind patterns that
    cause wet and dry seasons) influence Indias
    climate.
  • In winter, the winds that blow down the mountains
    force moisture out of India to create warm, dry
    winters.

8
Harappan Civilization
  • Historians called the civilization that grew up
    in the Indus Valley the Harappan civilization.
  • Like other civilizations, towns and cities grew
    once food surpluses resulted from progress in
    irrigation and agriculture.

9
Mohenjo-daro Civilization
10
Harappan Civilization
  • Dancing girl statue and childs toy found at
    excavation.

11
Well and Courtyard
12
Harappan Priest King
13
Indias First Cities
  • The Harappan civilization is believed to have
    thrived between 2300 and 1700 BC.
  • The Harappan civilization consists of two large,
    and similar cities, Harappa and Mohenjo Daro.
    Both cities lay on the Indus River 300 miles
    apart.
  • What are some characteristics of the cities of
    Harappa and Mohenjo Daro?
  • 1. well planned
  • 2. protected by fortresses
  • 3. brick streets that crossed at right
    angles
  • 4. storehouses
  • 5. workshops, market stalls, and houses
  • 6. public wells

14
Mohenjo-daro Today
15
Harappan Achievements
  • What were the achievements of Harappan society?
  • 1. houses with bathrooms
  • 2. pottery, jewelry, ivory objects, cotton
    clothing
  • 3. high-quality tools
  • 4. system of weights and measures
  • 5. Indias first writing system
  • 6. believed to have a strong central
    government
  • Harappan civilization ended around 1700 BC.

16
Ancient Harappan Civilization
  • Ancient Bath and Latrine

17
Ferry Boat
  • Todays boats are very similar to ancient ones.

18
Granary
19
Ancient Harappan Beads
20
Aryan InvasionGovernments and Society
  • A new group of people called the Aryans took
    power in the Indus Valley.
  • The Aryans were invaders from Central Asia. It
    is possible they caused the end of the Harappan
    civilization.
  • How were the Aryans different from the Harappans?
  • 1. the Aryans were nomadic and more warlike
    (used advanced weapons and chariots)
  • 2. didnt farm at first, didnt build
    cities
  • 3. no single ruling authority-society was
    based on family ties. Each group had its own
    leader
  • 4. no written language
  • 5. village leaders were called rajas

21
Aryan Religion
  • Aryan priests wrote the Vedas.
  • What were the Vedas?
  • They were a collections of poems,
  • hymns, myths, and rituals written by
  • Aryan priests.

22
Aryan Language
  • Because the Aryans did not have a written
    language at first, they had to memorize the poems
    and hymns.
  • The first Aryan language was Sanskrit, the most
    important language of ancient India.
  • Sanskrit started as a spoken language.
    Eventually people figured out how to write it
    down so they could keep records.

23
Summary
  • The earliest civilizations in India grew in
    the Indus Valley. At first the Harappans and
    then the Aryans lived in this fertile valley.
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