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Chapter Fourteen


There are 132 rooms, 35 bathrooms, and 6 levels in the Residence. There are also 412 doors, 147 windows, 28 fireplaces, 8 staircases, and 3 elevators. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Fourteen

Chapter Fourteen
There are 132 rooms, 35 bathrooms, and 6 levels
in the Residence. There are also 412 doors, 147
windows, 28 fireplaces, 8 staircases, and 3
elevators. At various times in history, the
White House has been known as the "President's
Palace," the "President's House," and the
"Executive Mansion." President Theodore Roosevelt
officially gave the White House its current name
in 1901. Presidential Firsts while in office...
President James Polk (1845-49) was the first
President to have his photograph taken...
President Theodore Roosevelt (1901-09) was not
only the first President to ride in an
automobile, but also the first President to
travel outside the country when he visited
Panama... President Franklin Roosevelt (1933-45)
was the first President to ride in an airplane.
With five full-time chefs, the White House
kitchen is able to serve dinner to as many as 140
guests and hors d'oeuvres to more than 1,000.
The White House requires 570 gallons of paint to
cover its outside surface. For recreation, the
White House has a variety of facilities available
to its residents, including a tennis court,
jogging track, swimming pool, movie theater, and
bowling lane.
  • The Presidency

Presidential and Parliamentary Systems
  • Presidents may be outsiders (not holding natl
    office) prime ministers are always insiders,
    chosen by the members of the majority party in
  • Presidents have no guaranteed majority in the
    legislature prime ministers always have a
  • Divided government one party controls the White
    House and another controls one or both houses of
  • See 6 examples on p.365

Presidential and Parliamentary Systems
  • Very rarely is there a unified government same
    party controls both the White House and Congress.
  • Americans say they dont like divided govt b/c
    it causes partisan bickering, political
    paralysis, and policy gridlock.
  • However, it is not clear whether or not divided
    govt alone produces gridlock or whether it is a
    bad thing or not.

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Evolution of the Presidency
  • Defining the chief executive was one of the most
    difficult tasks for the founding fathers
  • Concerned about state authority being
  • Concerned that president would use corrupt
    political practices to remain in power.
  • Biggest concerns related to how the president was
    elected, and his relationship with Congress.

Electoral College
  • Almost all states use a winner-take-all system
  • If no candidate won a majority, the House would
    decide the election
  • The Electoral College ultimately worked
    differently than expected, because the Founders
    did not anticipate the role of political parties
  • See Blue Box on pgs.371-372

The First Presidents
  • The office was legitimated by men active in the
    independence movement and in founding politics.
  • Minimal activism of early government contributed
    to lessening the fear of the presidency.
  • Relations with Congress were reserved few
    vetoes no advice from Congress to the president.
  • See pgs.368-370

Powers of the President
  • Found in Article II of Constitution
  • Potential for power found in vague clauses of the
    Constitutione.g., power as commander in chief,
    duty to take care that laws be faithfully
    executed (executive power)
  • Two types of powers those he can exercise in his
    own right and those which require consent of
    Senate or Congress as a whole.
  • Greatest source of power lies in politics and
    public opinion.
  • See pgs.373-374

The Power to Persuade
  • Often uses his natl constituency and ceremonial
    duties to enlarge his power, but must do so
    quickly b/c the second half of his term is
    devoted to running for re-election.
  • Presidents persuasive powers are aimed at three
  • Fellow politicians and leaders
  • Party activists and officeholders outside
  • The public

Popularity and Influence
  • Presidents try to transform popularity into
    congressional support for their programs.
  • Evidence of Congressional members riding the
    coattails of Presidents popularity has declined.
  • Popularity is affected by factors beyond anyones
    control consider Bushs approval ratings
    following the September 11th attacks (p.385)

Figure 14.1 Presidential Popularity
White House Office
  • Rule of propinquity power is wielded by people
    who are in the room when a decision is made.
  • White House Office, the Executive Office, and the
  • Pyramid structure most assistants report through
    hierarchy to chief of staff, who then reports to
  • Eisenhower, Nixon, Reagan, Bush, Clinton (late in
    his administration)

White House Office
  • Circular structure cabinet secretaries and
    assistants report directly to the president.
  • Carter (early in his administration)
  • Ad hoc structure task forces, committees, and
    informal groups deal directly with president.
  • Clinton (early in his administration)
  • See p.375-376

Executive Office of President (EOP)
  • Agencies that report directly to the president
    and perform staff services for him, but are not
    located in the White House.
  • Top positions are usually appointed by president,
    and must be confirmed by Senate.
  • Main agencies include OMB, DNI, CEA, OPM.
  • Out of all the agencies the OMB is the most
    important (p.377)
  • See other federal agencies on p.380

The Cabinet
  • Not explicitly mentioned in Constitution.
  • Presidents have many more appointments to make
    than do prime ministers, due to competition
    created by the separation of power.
  • Presidential control over departments remains
    uncertainsecretaries become advocates for their
  • President does have to appoint people that know
    about the subject area. For example, Sec. of
    Labor must be acceptable to the AFL-CIO, Sec. of
    Agriculture must appeal to farmers.

Table 14.1 The Cabinet Departments
  • Cabinet Firsts
  • Frances Perkins-first woman
  • Condoleeza Rice-first African American woman
  • Robert Weaver-first African American
  • Lauro Cavazos-first Hispanic
  • Norman Mineta-first Asian
  • Elaine Chao-first Asian woman

Presidential Character
  • Eisenhower orderly, military style leadership,
    delegated authority to staff, disliked being
    pinned down.
  • Kennedy bold, articulate, amusing leader
    improviser who bypassed traditional lines of
  • Nixon expertise in foreign policy disliked
    personal confrontation tried to centralize power
    in the White House.
  • Ford people-person, like circular structure,
    often appeared disorganized pardoned Nixon.

Presidential Character
  • Carter outsider, wide-range of interests,
    detail-oriented to a fault.
  • Reagan set policy priorities and then gave staff
    wide latitude leader of public opinion, called
    the Great Communicator.
  • George H.W. Bush hands-on manager, extensive
    federal govt experience, made decisions based on
    personal contacts.
  • Clinton good communicator pursued
    liberal/centrist policies.
  • George W. Bush tightly run White House agenda
    became dominated by foreign affairs following the
    September 11th attacks.

The Veto Power
  • Veto message-sent within ten days of the bills
    passage, sets forth reasons for not signing the
  • Pocket veto-bill is not signed ten days before
    Congress adjourns.
  • A bill that is not signed within ten days while
    Congress is still in session becomes a law
    automatically, w/o presidents approval.
  • Congress rarely overrides vetoes (2/3 vote).
  • President does not hold line-item veto power.
  • See p.388-389

Executive Privilege
  • Constitution does not require president to
    divulge private communications b/t himself and
  • Therefore, presidents have acted as though they
    have the privilege of confidentiality.
  • For nearly 200 years there was no reason to
    dispute this claim.
  • However, actions by JFK, Nixon, and Clinton have
    caused this claim to come under investigation.
  • See pgs.389-390

  • Presidents have the power to refuse to spend
    money appropriated by Congress.
  • The Constitution is unclear about whether the
    president must spend money Congress appropriates.
  • It does say, however, that the president cannot
    spend money Congress has not appropriated.

Signing Statements
  • Many times the president will issue statements
    along with signing a bill into law.
  • These signing statements may express the
    presidents views of the bill, tell the executive
    branch how to carry out the new law, or declare
    some part of the bill unconstitutional.
  • Oftentimes compared to a line-item veto.

The Presidents Program
  • Resources in developing a program include
    interest groups, aides and campaign advisers,
    federal departments and agencies, and various
  • Presidents may choose to have a policy on almost
    everything (Carter Clinton) or choose several
  • Constraints include public and congressional
    reactions, limited time and attention, and
    unexpected crises.

Presidential Transition
  • Only fourteen of forty-one presidents have served
    two full terms (George W. Bush became the 15th
    when he finished his full 2nd term)
  • Eight vice presidents have taken office upon the
    presidents death.
  • 22nd Amendment (1951)-limits president to serve
    two (4-year) terms.

The Vice President
  • Eight times a vice president has become president
    b/c of the presidents death.
  • Tyler, Fillmore, A. Johnson, Arthur, T.
    Roosevelt, Coolidge, Truman, L.B. Johnson
  • Prior to 2000, only five vice presidents won the
    presidency in an election without having first
    entered the office as a result of their
    presidents death.
  • Jefferson, Adams, van Buren, Nixon, H.W. Bush
  • The vice president presides over Senate and votes
    in case of tie.

The 25th Amendment (1967)
  • Allows vice president to serve as acting
    president if president is disabled.
  • Illness is decided by president, by vice
    president and cabinet, or by two-thirds vote of
  • The new vice president must be confirmed by a
    majority vote of both houses.
  • If VP resigns, dies, or succeeds president,
    president appoints a new VP.
  • Succession to president
  • VP, Speaker of House, president pro tempore, Sec
    State, Sec Treasury, Sec Defense, etc.

  • Indictment by the House, conviction by the
  • Presidential examples Andrew Johnson, Richard
    Nixon (pre-empted by resignation), Bill Clinton.
  • Neither Johnson nor Clinton was convicted by the
  • See pgs.397-398

Constraints on the President
  • Both the president and the Congress are more
    constrained today due to
  • Complexity of issues
  • Scrutiny of the media
  • Greater number and power of interest groups

Landmark Cases
  • U.S. v. Nixon (1974)-though the president is
    entitled to receive confidential advice, he can
    be required to reveal material related to a
    criminal prosecution.
  • Nixon v. Fitzgerald (1982)-the president may not
    be sued while in office.
  • Clinton v. Jones (1997)-the president may be sued
    for actions taken before he became president.