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Do Now

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Do Now What is an atom? Why do we have a periodic table? What information can we find in a periodic table? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Do Now


1
Do Now
  • What is an atom?
  • Why do we have a periodic table?
  • What information can we find in a periodic table?

2
Chapter 6
  • Biochemistry

3
Objectives
  • To define an atom.
  • To determine the make-up of an atom.
  • To list different elements that can be found on
    Earth.
  • To explain what type of information can be
    gathered from the periodic table.

4
Brain-Based Learning
Proton
Name __________________
Electron
Neutron
5
Introduction
  • Matter anything that takes up space and has
    mass
  • All matter is composed of atoms
  • Atoms smallest particle of matter that still
    has chemical properties
  • Element one atom

6
Atoms
  • Building blocks of matter
  • Contain 3 parts
  • Protons positively charged, contain mass
  • Neutrons no charge, contain mass
  • Electrons negatively charged, insignificant mass

7
Atoms make up Elements
  • a pure substance that cant be broken down into
    other substances by physical or chemical means.
  • Made up of only 1 type of atom
  • Contain a unique name and symbol.

8
Periodic Table of Elements
  • Periods horizontal rows
  • Groups vertical columns
  • elements in the same group have similar chemical
    and physical properties.

Organized based on the of protons in the
nucleus of an atom.
9
Periodic Table Information
  • Atomic number- tells us the of protons (and
    electrons)
  • Symbol- unique for each element.
  • Atomic Mass- of protons and neutrons
  • C

6
12.02
10
Practice Problems
Complete the missing information and include the
number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
11
Neutron Partners
  • List the number of protons, neutrons, and
    electrons for the following
  • Mg
  • Ca
  • Fe
  • Cl

12
Do Now
  • Answer the following based on the picture to the
    right
  • Name of Element
  • of Protons
  • of Neutrons
  • of Electrons

19
  • K

39.10
13
Objectives
  • Draw an atom.
  • Define isotopes.
  • Identify different types of common compounds.
  • Compare and contrast the two types of bonds.

14
Drawing an atom
  • Things to remember!
  • Proton Electron
  • Protons and Neutrons are in the nucleus and add
    up to the atomic mass.
  • Electrons are arranged in energy levels
  • 1st energy level holds 2 electrons
  • 2nd energy level holds 8
  • 3rd energy level holds 8
  • Etc.

15
Lets Draw Oxygen!
  • What is the atomic number of oxygen?

16
Get with your Electron Partner!
  • Draw atoms for the following elements.
  • Neon
  • Boron
  • Lithium

17
What is wrong with this picture?
Carbon -atomic symbol C -atomic
6 -atomic mass 12.02
18
Isotopes
  • Isotopes contain the same of protons as the
    element, but a different number of neutrons.
  • Ex Carbon-14
  • Contains 6 protons (still carbon)
  • Also contains 8 neutrons, instead of 6

19
Radioactive Isotopes
  • What is an isotope again?
  • Changing the of neutrons changes the stability
    of the atom, causes decay in the nucleus or
    causes it to break apart.
  • Ex Carbon-14 is used in carbon-dating. We can
    tell how old something is by how much carbon is
    left.

20
What happens if there are different number of
______ than a normal atom?
  • Protons and Neutrons?
  • More protons than electrons?
  • More electrons than protons?

21
Happy Atoms
  • Atoms need to have the right number of electrons
    around them (happy)
  • Ions- an atom that has lost or gained one or more
    electrons and carries a charge.
  • Ions can lose or gain electrons to be neutral

Na-
Cl
22
How many electrons does each of the following
want to be happy.
  • Oxygen
  • Carbon
  • Hydrogen
  • Nitrogen

23
Neutron Partners!
  • List the number of protons, electrons, and
    neutrons in each ion
  • O-
  • Na
  • N3-
  • Are any of these atoms happy?

24
Do Now
  • Identify the element and then state if it is a
    normal atom, an isotope, or an ion.

25
Objectives
  • Identify compounds.
  • Determine what information can be gotten from a
    chemical formula.
  • Compare and contrast ionic bonding vs. covalent
    bonding.
  • Explain what Vanderwalls interactions are.

26
Compounds
  • A pure substance formed when 2 or more elements
    combine.
  • Always formed using a specific ratio
  • Ex 2 molecules of Hydrogen 1 molecule of
    Oxygen will give us water (H2O)
  • Chemically and physically different from the
    elements that make them up.
  • Must be broken down CHEMICALLY, not physically

27
Chemical Formulas
  • The number before the formula states how many
    molecules
  • Ex. 4 H2O 4 water molecules
  • The subscript number states how many of that type
    of atom
  • Ex. H2O 2 hydrogen atoms

28
Lets try some examples (neutron partners)
  • For the following examples list the total number
    of atoms for each element and how many of each
    molecule.
  • C6H12O6
  • 3CH4
  • 5CO2
  • 3O3
  • 4HCl

29
How do compounds stay together?
  • Bonds!
  • 2 most common types
  • Covalent- atoms share electrons
  • Ionic- atoms gain or lose electrons to bond

30
Covalent Bonding
  • Molecule compound held together by covalent
    bonds.
  • Carbon (C) form 4 bonds (another 4 e)
  • Hydrogen (H) form one bond (1 e)
  • Nitrogen (N) form 3 bonds (3 e)
  • Oxygen (O) form 2 bonds (2 e)
  • H2O

31
Ionic Bond
  • Some atoms tend to donate or accept electrons
    more easily than other atoms.
  • Ex. Metals (D) and Non Metals (A)

32
Ionic Bonding Vs. Covalent Bonding
I need TWO volunteers!
33
Review!
  • How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in
    O2-?
  • An acid releases ____ ions in solution and a base
    releases ____ ions in solution.
  • Using the formula 3C6H12O6, how many atoms of
    oxygen are present?

34
Quiz on the info up till now!
35
Do Now
  • What are the 2 main types of bonds?
  • What happens with electrons in each type of bond?
  • What is a compound?

36
Van Der Waals Interactions
  • When molecules come close together, the
    attractive forces between slightly positive and
    negative regions pull on the molecules and hold
    them together.
  • The strength of the attraction depends on the
    size of the molecule, its shape, and its ability
    to attract electrons.

37
6.2 Chemical Reactions
  • A chemical reaction -atoms or groups of atoms are
    reorganized into different substances.
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Production of heat or light,
  • Formation of a gas, liquid, or solid

38
Parts of a Reaction
  • Reaction- Molecules breaking or coming together
  • Reactants- What goes in the reaction
  • Products- What comes out of the reaction
  • Ex Na Cl- NaCl

39
Think Pair - Share
  • Glucose and oxygen react to form carbon dioxide
    and water.
  • Identify
  • Products
  • Reactants
  • Is this a chemical equation? Why?

ATP (energy)
40
Balancing Equations
  • The law of conservation of mass states matter
    cannot be created or destroyed
  • The number and types of atoms must be the SAME on
    both sides of the equations
  • Ex. ___ H2 ___O2 ? ___H2O
  • H ____ H ____
  • O ____ O ____

41
Do Now
  • What happens during a chemical reaction?
  • What are the components of a chemical reaction.

42
Energy in Reactions
  • The activation energy - minimum amount of energy
    needed for reactants to turn into products

43
Types of Reactions
  • Exothermic- released heat energy.
  • The energy of the product is lower than the
    energy of the reactants.

44
Types of Reactions
  • Endothermic - absorbed heat energy.
  • The energy of the products is higher than the
    energy of the reactants.

45
Think Pair - Share
  • Determine whether or not the following are
    Exothermic or Endothermic reactions
  • (Proton Partner)
  • 1. Combustion reactions of fuels
  • 2. melting ice cubes
  • 3. Nuclear Bomb
  • 4. a candle flame
  • 5. cooking an egg

46
What you should know about enzymes!
  • -Specialized proteins that act as catalyst
    (speeds up a reaction)
  • - Usually end in ase
  • -Not consumed in the reaction

47
What do they do?
48
How do they work?
  • A substrate fits in the active site of an enzyme.
  • This forms an enzyme substrate complex.
  • They then break or form bonds.

49
Quick!
  • Label the parts of the reaction

50
Enzymes Continued
  • Anything that changes the shape of the active
    site stops the enzyme from working.
  • Ways to denature an enzyme
  • pH
  • Temperature

51
Do Now
  • What is the purpose of an enzyme?
  • What are the components of a solution? Give an
    example.
  • What are the 2 properties of water we talked
    about?
  • What are the 2 types of mixtures? Give an example
    of each.

52
Objectives
  • List the 4 macromolecules of life.
  • Identify the 3 different types of carbohydrates.
  • Explain the importance of carbs in the body.
  • Explain why low-carb diets can be harmful.

53
6.4 Macromolecules of Life
  • Organic Chemistry - The element carbon is a
    component of almost all biological molecules.
    (Inorganic no carbon)

54
Lets Review
  • Carbon has _____ electrons in its outermost
    energy level.
  • One carbon atom can form _____ covalent bonds
    with other atoms.

55
Molecules
  • Macromolecules -
  • large molecules formed by joining smaller organic
    molecules together.
  • Polymers -
  • molecules made from repeating units of identical
    (or nearly identical) compounds linked together
    by covalent bonds.

56
Carbohydrates
  • Monosaccharide- ranging from three to seven
    (simple sugar)
  • Disaccharide - Two monosaccharides joined
    together
  • Polysaccharide- many monosaccharides joined
    together

57
Carbohydrates
  • Ratio of carbon hydrogen oxygen of 121
  • (CH2O)n

58
Identify which molecules are carbohydrates
  • 1) C6H12O6
  • 2) CH3
  • 3) C4H2O2
  • 4) C24H36O24

59
Classify the following as mono, di, or poly
saccaride
  • 1. C6H12O6
  • 2.
  • 3. C12H24O12
  • 4.

60
Article Questions
  • Get with your proton partner and join another
    pair of proton partners! Read the article and
    answer the questions. Whatever you do not finish
    will be homework.

61
Do Now
  • Take out your carbohydrate article!
  • What are carbs used for?
  • Give an example of a simple carb and a complex
    carb.

62
Objectives
  • To explain how the body uses fats and proteins.
  • To compare and contrast saturated vs. unsaturated
    fats.
  • To understand the two types of cholesterol.

63
Lipids
  • Made mostly of C and H
  • Triglyceride
  • Fat solid at room temperature
  • Oil Liquid at room temperature

64
Saturated vs. Unsaturated
  • Saturated Fats ?-
  • Only Single bonds between the carbons
  • Solid at room temperature (typically)
  • Unsaturated Fats ?-
  • Double bonds between the carbons
  • Liquid at room temperature (typically)

65
Click me
66
Types of Lipids
Saturated fats Unsaturated fats
Structural differences all single bonds (one shared pair of electrons) some double bonds (2 shared pairs of electrons)
Phase of matter solid fats liquid fats
source come from animals come from vegetables
health Less healthy More healthy
Purpose energy storage and insulation energy storage and insulation
67
So people have a problem with.
  • Hydrogenated Oils
  • Trans fats
  • What are they?
  • Why do they have a problem?

68
Cholesterol
HDL LDL
name High density lipoproteins low density lipo proteins
function transport cholesterol from the body to the liver for breakdown and disposal transport cholesterol from the liver to the body
Health good cholesterol bad cholesterol
Purpose strengthens cell membranes strengthens cell membranes
69
Proteins
  • Made of small carbon compounds called amino acids

Central Carbon
70
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71
Atoms that make up Amino Acids
  • carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and sometimes
    sulfur.
  • Amino acids are connected together through a
    PEPTIDE BOND.

72
Proteins in the Body
  • structural -
  • hair, collagen, muscle etc
  • enzymes
  • speed up chemical reactions

73
Nucleic Acids
  • complex macromolecules that store and transmit
    genetic information.
  • Nucleic acids are made of smaller repeating
    subunits called nucleotides
  • composed of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus,
    and hydrogen atoms.

74
Think Pair Share Lets Try These
75
Think Pair - Share
  • Try THESE!
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