I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones. --Albert Einstein - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones. --Albert Einstein


I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones. --Albert Einstein – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones. --Albert Einstein

I know not with what weapons World War III will
be fought, but World War IV will be fought with
sticks and stones. --Albert Einstein
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The Cold War
The Cold War
  • Who The U.S. and allies versus the Soviet Union
    and allies
  • What An Intense rivalry which developed at the
    end of WWII between groups of Communist and
    non-Communist nations
  • When End of WWII to the collapse of the Soviet
    Union (1945 to 1991)
  • Where Europe and eventually the rest of the
  • How Through proxy wars, an arms and space race,
    covert operations, and political influence

Lecture I Origins of the Cold War
  • Beginnings of the Cold War go back to the
    revolution in Russia. In 1917 a new communist
    government is led by Vladimir Lenin
  • Many of the Western Allies view the new Russian
    government with suspicion.

The War Years
  • During WWII the leaders of Britain, the Soviet
    Union and the United States agree to work toward
    the defeat of Nazi Germany. They also begin to
    map out the future of post-war Europe.
  • The Soviet Union and the United States are allies
    out of necessity- to defeat Nazi Germany

Yalta Potsdam Conferences
  • Tehran Big Three commit to military strategy to
    crush Hitler. British wanted a southern American
    attack Stalin and Roosevelt agree on direct
    attack through France.
  • Yalta Conference February 1945. Roosevelt,
    Churchill and Stalin agree to divide Germany into
    four zones. USSR would also regain lost lands and
    free elections would be held in countries freed
    from the Nazis. Stalin is paranoid about German
    aggression wants buffer zone.
  • Potsdam Conference July 1945. Truman, Churchill
    and Stalin meet and agree to divide Berlin.
    Stalin again promises to hold free elections in
    Eastern Europe


Germany is Divided after WWII into four zones of

The same is done to Berlin
  • America ends the war strong and undamaged, unlike
    the Soviet Union, Europe, and Japan which are in
  • Borders are redrawn and and the Soviets control
    Eastern Europe the United States and allies
    Western Europe
  • Fearful of Communism spreading throughout Europe
    the United States enacts new policies

By 1948 Russia controls Eastern Europe and free
elections are not held. All these countries
become communist. Winston Churchill statesan
iron curtain has descended across the Continent.
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
  • Truman Doctrine America would help any
    non-communist country to resist communist
    pressure with Military aid. (Containment)
  • Marshall Plan Idea in which large amounts of
    American money and aid was sent to Europe to help
    non-communist countries recover from WWII.

Marshall Plan How can money for rebuilding help
stop the spread of communism?
Before and After Reconstruction
European Unity Post War
  • Politically Europeans remained divided by
    national interests despite a unified goal in
    creating a counter weight to American hegemony.
  • Economically Europe recovered quickly and used
    market based approaches which were supported by
    Keynesian economics.

Alliances NATO and the Warsaw Pact
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was a
    defense alliance, created on April 4, 1949.
  • The Countries included Belgium, luxembourg,
    Netherlands, France, Great Britain, Italy,
    Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Iceland, the United
    States and Canada (Later West Germany and
  • Warsaw Pact (formally the Warsaw Treaty of
    Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance),
    military alliance of eight European Communist
    nations enacted to counteract NATO
  • The countries included the Soviet Union,
    Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
    Hungary, Poland and Romania

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Berlin Airlift
  • When the west combined their zones to form the
    German Federal Republic the USSR responded by
    placing a blockade on Berlin.
  • Not wanting to risk war by breaking through the
    blockade, the allies flew in all supplies
  • Berlin received food and other rations through an
    airlift in 1948-9 which lasted for 11 months.

Korean War
  • The Soviet Union had troops in northern Korea and
    the U.S. had troops in south Korea at the end of
  • After most Soviet and American troops left a
    Communist group supported by the Soviets and
    China attacked southern Korea
  • The United Nations called for an action plan, led
    by the U.S., to remove the Communists from South

  • After the war the Russian people hoped that their
    loyalty would be paid back with a more tolerant
    state they were disappointed as Stalin declared
    the new fight was against the capitalists.
  • Stalin died in 1953 and the new Soviet leader
    Nikita Khrushchev seemed to want better relations
    with the West and reform in the USSR.

Socialism in one countryYou fool Trotsky!
Whether you like it or not, history is on our
side. We will bury you."
  • In 1958, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev spoke
    to the United Nations. During the course of an
    often rambling and confused speech, Khrushchev,
    always flamboyant and crude, bent over, took off
    one shoe, stood up, and started pounding on the
    lectern with it while shouting "We will bury
    you!" No single event so completely encapsulates
    the essence of the Cold War, including its
    intensity, its seriousness, and its absurdity.

Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Khrushchev was replaced was viewed as problematic
    as he was a former henchman of Stalin and yet he
    tried to distance himself.
  • New leader Brezhnev hard-liner

Arms Race
  • A conventional and nuclear arms race began
    between the United States and the Soviet Union
    after the Second World War ended this was the
    work of Big Science
  • U.S.S.R. explodes their a-bomb in 1949. U.S.
    explodes a hydrogen bomb in 1952 the U.S.S.R in
  • U.S. and U.S.S.R. build up arsenals of tens of
    thousands of Nuclear weapons.

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Drop and Cover Fear of the Bomb
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U-2 Spy Plane Incident
  • U.S. sent spy planes over the Soviet Union to
    keep track of military forces and weapons
  • Francis Gary Powers, pilot of the U-2 spy plane
    was shot down over the Soviet Union May 1, 1960.
  • He was released by the Russians in exchange for
    the release of Col. Rudolf Abel a convicted
    Soviet spy.

Threat of Nuclear War
  • That a rocket that could launch a satellite could
    also launch a nuclear warhead at a target. So
    space developments led to rapid advances in
    nuclear weapons.
  • By 1960 each side had the nuclear capability to
    destroy the earth- MAD Mutually Assured

The Space Race
  • The space race was an opportunity for the U.S.
    and the U.S.S.R. to show technological
  • First satellites, then manned flight and finally
    a moon landing
  • The space race also had military reasons such as
    the development of spy satellites and rockets
    capable of delivering nuclear weapons

  • Spies were used by both sides during the cold war
  • Spies collected information, tried to interfere
    or undermine other governments, and tried to
    influence, persuade, or force other countries to
    join there side
  • Spying was dangerous and many spies lost there
    lives during the cold war.

In 1958 Oleg Kalugin traveled to the United
States as a Fulbright exchange student -- and KGB
Aldrich Ames was probably the most damaging mole
in CIA history.
Poison Pen
Spy cameras and transmitters
Cigarette Case Gun
Coin Knife
Key chain gun
Suicide Capsules
  • NEOCOLONIALISM - Decolonization
  • OPEC
  • NATO Warsaw Pact
  • Betty Friedan
  • Socialism with a human face
  • Partition of Palestine

  • Christian Democrats, Socialists, Communists,
    Catholic Party (France)
  • Welfare State
  • Keynesian Economics
  • Common Market European Steel and Coal Community
  • Women's Movement Femiminism Betty Freidan
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