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Effective communication in organizations: Issues regarding choices between F2F, voice-telephony, IM, email and real-time video


F2F, voice-telephony, IM, email and real-time video Lill Kristiansen, Dept. of Telematics, ntnu Egil sthus, Tandberg – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effective communication in organizations: Issues regarding choices between F2F, voice-telephony, IM, email and real-time video

Effective communication in organizations Issues
regarding choices between F2F, voice-telephony,
IM, email and real-time video
  • Lill Kristiansen, Dept. of Telematics, ntnu
  • Egil Østhus, Tandberg

What is Tandberg?
  • From Tandberg.com
  • TANDBERG is the market share leader and the
    fastest growing company in the video conferencing
    industry. We hold the highest market share for
    video infrastructure products as well as video
    endpoints, whether measured in terms of revenue
    or unit volume
  • From Aftenposten 14th Febr. 2010
  • All new employees3 days course in culture
  • Picture From night event in Vigelandsparken
  • 1640 employees in 49 countries, 500 in Oslo

About the presenters
  • Lill Kristiansen
  • Former employed in Telenor RD and Ericsson
  • Now prof. in Telematics
  • Teaching now
  • ttm4130 Service intelligence and mobility
  • ttm7 Convergence
  • Research
  • Technical research (incl. Techno-Business
  • research on coordination and communication from a
    softer side (CSCWComputer Supported Coop Work)
  • Not representing Tandberg, indepent academic
  • Egil Østhus, MSc. In telematics, 2005
  • Since then employed in Tandberg with SIP, UC, ..
  • See also http//www.komtek.ntnu.no/komtekerejobb_

About the presentation
  • Background material
  • Some existing applications and prototypes
  • On soft issues
  • Organizational and human issues, some concepts
    and theories
  • Technology and infrastructure
  • Standardization vs proprietary solutions?
  • Showing the film PDA in Hospital
  • Presentation of two solutions ENME and PPCom
  • We invite you to work out scenarios / business
    plan for Simple-PPCom

Acronyms a few from technology...
  • BT Bluetooth (Blåtann in Scandinavian language)
  • CMC Computer Mediated Communication
  • F2F Face to Face
  • FMC Fixed Mobile Convergence
  • IETF Internet Engineering Task Force (std.body,
    IP) (mostly ignoring charging and QoS)
  • IM Instant Messaging
  • IMS Multimedia Subsystem (based on SIP, but
    with a business modell more similar to GSM,
    defined in 3GPP /ETSI (who also defined GSM)
  • MMoIP Multimedia over IP (or VVoIP with video and
    more, as we will be using today (hopefully!))
  • QoS Quality of Service (e.g. Reservation of
    bandwidth or radio resources etc. related to
  • SD Service Discovery
  • SIP Session Initiation protocol (call setup
    within IP-networks) (an IETF protocol)
  • VC Video Conferenceing
  • VAS Value Added Service (sometimes called
    supplementary service) (related to / on top of)
    a more basic service like basic call or VoIP)
  • VoIP Voice over IP ( IP-telephony )

Acronyms and terms a few from health care
  • Discharge letter (Norsk epikrise)
  • A written report from hospital til GP
  • EPR (Norsk EPJ)
  • Electronic patient record (/journal)
  • GP
  • General Practitioner (norsk fastlege)
  • Pager (Norsk personsøker)
  • a device still in use in health care
  • in Norway this device is one way only(and not
    integrated with phone in/out)

Terminologies from telco and comp.sci
  • Conversational service is used by 3GPP (IMS) to
    describe non-same place real time communication
    where the timing requirements support fully
    natural conversation between two humans.
  • Synchronous communication is communication taking
    place at the same time (as opposed to traditional
    mail, voicemail etc).
  • Real time communication is by some regarded as
    synonymous to synchronous communication Note 1
    . However, it may also be used somewhat
    differently for communication with strict timing
    requirements (such as lip synchronization,
    detailed jitter requirements etc.), and this is
    the way it is used in telecom.
  • Note 1 It seems that e.g. Bardram use the term
    real time in this sense without specifying any
    strict timing requirements.

Some applications for comm.coord and a
classification system
yellow notesPaper based patient journal
snail mail emailEPRproject room
voice callsvideo conf. (planned or non-planned)
Face to Face (F2F) (planned or opportunistic)
Peripheral Awareness
(example room, corridor, bed ward, same house, ..
Some presence / IM systems with GUI
(1from Cisco 2from http//missig.org/julian/pr
ojects/jabber/ 3MSN note online (PC)
vs Mobilegeneral note combined use of fixed
icons (red, green) and free text
Presence/awareness in hospital today (for
nurses) Note anonymous presence
Ceiling in corridor
Lamp outside of room (some nurse present)
Consoles by the door (old/new)
Presence / awareness ihospital.dk (research)
Location status of operation video from op. plan
for new op. fixed screen chat dedicated for
surgical department
Statuslocation activityinto a
phonebook-application on phones
  • Status Relying on manual input(ex. Operation)
  • Location (ex. OP1)Relying on a location
    tracking infrastructure
  • Activity (ex. Oper. (9-12)Fetched from a

Send text message
From AwarePhone www.ihospital.dk (implemented on
Nokia GSM phones with Java)
Business relationship of AwarePhone
  • Endpoint (phone) supports click-to-call from
    addressbook application
  • Endpoints like big screens and PC via fixed IP

VAS / applications for location and status
texting (with priority) on top of a local IP
Public GSM network
Compare to VoIP two business models
  • Skype (global, proprietary) and Telio (SIP based)
  • Offers VoIP over a best effort IP network,
  • Telio for a fixed monthly rate NOT by charging
    per minute
  • Assumes that enduser has a separate relationship
    with the ISP (Internet Service Provider)
  • NO RELATIONSHIP between application (VoIP)
    provider and the ISP (network provider). Two
    relationships for enduser
  • Supports nomadic users (enduser needs to
    find/establish relationship with local ISP by
  • IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem (SIP-based mobile
  • more bundling of network connectivity and the
    application (VoIP) into one service to the
  • More similar to GSM, supports roaming via one
    customer relationship

Soft issues (humans and organizations)
  • Media Richness Theory
  • Social translucence (or selective transparency)
  • Affordance (much used for UI/GUI)
  • Mobility work / overhead caused by mobility
  • or similar overhead to maintain right status
  • Workarounds
  • Our choice Humans shall have the final control
  • no totally automatic smart call divert to
    voicemail or similar smartness in the
  • relying instead on good use of social
    translucence / utilizing social rules obeyed by

Media richness theory
  • Media richness is defined in terms of how well a
    medium can communicate equivocal or ambiguous
  • (e.g. video of the face of the speaker, body
    language. grounding etc)
  • Face-to-face and video telephony is rich, and
    then comes voice telephony, other synchronous
    media and then asynchronous text.
  • Note Voice telephony (VoIP) and video telephony
    (VVoIP) is differentiated regarding media

Oral or written?
  • Robert and Dennis (2005) argues that non same
    time (asynchronous) communication will allow the
    receiver to carefully consider the arguments and
    that this makes well suited in many types of
    arguments and discussions. (even though not rich
    according to media richness theory (the paradox
    of richness).
  • Inside a hospital doctors use much meetings and
    oral communication (in addition to written EPR)
  • Note discharge letter from hospital to GP is
    always written text
  • which in general is less suited (that oral/ F2F)
    to communicate equivocal or ambiguous information

Social translucence
  • Eriksson and Kellogghttp//www.research.ibm.com/
  • ICT-solutions supporting accountability
  • I know that you know, hence I behave properly
  • Example 1 A door with a small window (orally)
  • Example 2 Communication by 30 persons in one
    room organizing an event (oral explanation)
  • I know (that sound is fading)
  • I know that you know (that sound is fading)
  • Everyone can be held accountable for what the
    heard, but not for what was not able to be hear
    (due to distance), people place themselves
  • Our idea make system that utilize social
    accountability e.g. in an awareness system,
  • allow persons to mark busy and utilize social
    accountability to trust people to make this
    decision only when appropriate (others can
    see/judge, hence I behave properly )
  • I know that you know that I was in busy status,
    still you called me, hence I trust that this is
    important etc.

ICT / physical world as we know it
  • Sitation from Eriksson and Kellogg
  • Designers in architecture and urbanism can
    assume the existence of a consistent and
    unquestioned physics that underlies social
    interaction. There is no such constancy in the
    digital world
  • Example from paper half-duplex telecomunication,
  • Other examples
  • Access rights/ privacy
  • In a house privacy is governed via locks and
    closed doors the physical layout of the house
  • Much more complex to understand access rights in
    Unix, Facebook, LMS (like Its Learning etc.)

  • An affordance is a quality of an object, or an
    environment, that allows an individual to perform
    an action.
  • Much used for UI/GUI design
  • see e.g. Norman, in book The Design of Everyday
  • Norman's affordances "suggest" how an object may
    be interacted with.
  • Norman's 1988 definition makes the concept of
    affordance relational, rather than subjective or
    intrinsic. This he deemed an "ecological
  • The focus on perceived affordances is relevant in
    practical design problems from a human-factors
    approach, which may explain its widespread
  • Example from St.Olav
  • Awareness can be obtained by leaving the doors to
    patient rooms semi-open. This system affords a
    gradual level of awareness/privacy via both
    visual sight and audible sounds
  • Awareness via pushing of buttons This affords a
    binary presence (less grading)

Affordances of fixed display (as used in
  • Easy to see (at a glance)
  • Hands-free operation in most cases
  • Offer awareness to many
  • (not directed only to one person)
  • Allows good shared understanding (redundant
    knowledge and redundant information)
  • In the corridor ceiling
  • Outside the rooms

FMC Fixed Mobile Convergenceor UC Unified
  • Just study the affordances of fixed and mobile
    communication systems (phones / PCs ). They
    are are not the same
  • Or study the way people use IM on PC vs IM on
  • Our aim pick the best from both worlds
  • Do not treat all devices as the same, as many
    consultants claim is wise in UC
  • It might be wise to handle both fixed and mobile
    devices in the same system,
  • but not as totally similar entities

FMC / Unified user experience
  • Picture Telenor, telektronikk
  • http//www.telenor.com/en/resources/images/051-062
  • My claim Email on PC / email on mobile etc.

Concept Mobility work
  • In GSM we have the formal protocoll of mobility
  • This was designed with the system, (in order to
    locate all mobile phones, update location area
  • In real words it is convinient that things and
    persons are mobile, but this also give rise to
  • Additional (overhead) work to search/find for a
  • Ad hoc procedures like writingyellow notes (as
    a kind of mobility management)
  • (Mobility work is described e.g. in Bardram and
  • Availability work
  • Additional (overhead) work to keep ones
    presence/status up to date
  • E.g. Absentee marking on wireless phones becomes
    more important than it was on fixed phones (more
    interrupts in inappropriate situations)
  • J. Grudin has much relevant discussion on manual
    updates of collaborative systems in general
  • Rule the one with new work must see some benefit
    for herself

  • Any unintended way (not designed by the designer)
    that the enduser works around a perceived problem
    (to solve a problem)
  • If a clock is missing in the system, place a
    clock next to it
  • If the wireless phone is too interruptive (have
    no absentee marking), take out the battery
  • May also be the case that functions exists in the
    system, but that this fact is not known by the
  • Silent-button exists on the phone, but many users
    take out battery instead (St.Olav)
  • Presence buttons at St.Olav (when nurses
    enter/leaves a patient room)
  • Buttons and lamps not always used,
  • often they leave doors semi-open instead,
  • A simple workaround
  • (the physical doors has richer/better/easier

Context matters! BUT....
  • Organizational context matters, ref. all
    litterature in CSCW (Computer Supported
    Collaborative Work)
  • BUT
  • How much of an applications neds to be tailormade
    to a particular domain (like health care), or
    even to each hospital?
  • And how much can we rely on a common solution
    which can be domesticated by the users
  • How to utelize the long tail (very special
    solutions) and who should do it? (Big telco
    operators or smaller 3rd parties alone or
    together with big telcos?)

Technology and infrastructure
  • Why (not) standards?
  • The role of (common) infrastructure
  • The role of legacy
  • (The next slides are just a personal perspective)

Why not standards?
  • Quicker time to market
  • Standardization efforts take time...
  • Possibility to lock in customers
  • Ask Microsoft !
  • NOTE Microsoft html / proper html, MSN SIP /
    proper SIP
  • Ask Apple, Amazon/Kindle and more
  • Ask Skype!
  • Note Skype offer Skype-in and Skype-out to PSTN
    and GSM (but not to other VoIP solutions)
  • One may start off proprietary, and later offer
    the result as an open specification (not
    necessarily open source)
  • PDF is an open and de facto industry standard
  • Skype is not open at all

Why standards?
  • Interoperability
  • All-to-all-telephony is ALWAYS assumed in telco
  • Independence of handset vendor, subscription,
    base station vendor, etc.
  • Competition
  • Global market
  • Ask GSM community!
  • Multiple handset vendors (Nokia, Sony-Ericson,
    Samsung, LG, ) each having a global market
  • Multiple vendors of infrastructure components
    (Ericsson, Nokia-Siemens, Alcatel-Lucent,
    Motorola )
  • Multiple service providers (Telenor, NetCom
    (/TeliaSonera), Orange, Vodephone,...
  • (Not all telephony standards are easily
    undestandable to average-joe (Java-programmer),
  • this may constrain service competiotion

SIP Session Initiation Protocol
  • A standard from IETF (Internet Engineering Task
  • Also used by traditional telecom standardization
  • 3GPP (with ETSI for UMTS) for use in IMS
  • IP Multimedia Subsystem in UMTS
  • Baseline SIP handles call set up
  • SIP Refer handles call transfer (used by us)
  • SIP allows for extensions (used by us)
  • SIP for presence
  • not used here, but relevant for UC Ubiquitous
  • Relevant for IM/presence systems

  • Everything that may be used by many
  • The network (if properly layered with open
  • AAA (authentication, authorization, accounting)
    is generric and typically used by many
  • NOTE
  • Same location technology may be used by many
    applications (if properly layered)
  • Same application (like Buddy) may use many
    types of location technology (if properly
  • Infrastructure may suffer from the chicken and
    egg problem.
  • What is the killer app?
  • This is not really a proper question for
  • Ex. smarthouse Is energy saving the killer app?
  • Ex. IMS Is video (or location or...) the killer

The role of legacy
  • Legacy is everything that works
  • Network externalities has a value
  • Owning the first fax machine has little value
  • Value of interworking with GSM and PSTN
  • Even Skype has found that useful (though
    otherwise proprietary)
  • Legacy may be a blessing but also a curse
  • May limit the way we think
  • ex email vs Facebook wall
  • Interworking with legacy may also constrain the
  • How many of the peculiar solutions in PSTN shall
    be carried over to VoIP?
  • Depends on who you asks and their knowledge and
    business interest

Film PDA in hospitals
  • A few scenes from the film will be shown

ENME (network centric)
  • A centralized solution made in cooperation with
  • originally made as the master thesis of Egil
    Østhus in 2005
  • Later published

2 Scenarios for ENME
  • Business trip
  • A mobile worker Bob about to enter the airport
    express train
  • A caller Alice phones Bob with MMoIP
  • Bob answer with PDA/phone
  • Health care
  • Use of PDA, pat. terminal, (IMloc.) phones
  • Nurse Ann phones Dr. Bob with MMoIP
  • Dr. Bob. answers on (IP)-phone

caller patient
2 Scenarios for ENME (continued)
  • Business trip
  • Later in the call
  • Traveller moves to booth with bigger screen,
    multimedia is added by the ENME service after a
    proposal towards Bob on his PDA/phone
  • Health care
  • Later in the call
  • Dr. Bob moves to booth with bigger screen,
    multimedia is added by the ENME service after a
    proposal towards Dr. Bob on his PDA/phone

same callee (different picture!)
same callee
Requirements of ENME (high level)
  • The ENME service shall be a value added service
    on top of an all-to-all telephony service. It
    shall work with a major standard MMoIP protocol.
  • ENME shall detect when a more suitable context
    occurs (i.e., fitting the proposed media types
    better). ENME shall then suggest an upgrade of
    the media types by moving the session to the new
  • The ENME service shall support mobility.
  • ENME shall work in a business case, i.e. it shall
    be possible to make a sensible charging of the
    value added service, as well as of the network
    resources used to transport the media types.
  • Substantial parts of ENME shall be demonstrated
    in June 2005 after 5 mo. work.

Architecture overview
API IMS to VAS-provider (3rd party or Telenor) is
SIP network (e.g. IMS operated by Telenor)
Design /animation
PPCom endpoint centric
  • Network centric or?
  • ENME handled context on central server(s) and via
    central SIP servers for signaling
  • This time we use a fully distributed service
  • In PPCom we are putting the endpoint center stage

Network centric vs endpoint centric
  • SIPcenter.com 14
  • The traditional network model gives service
    providers ultimate control,
  • IMS is clearly rooted in this approach
  • IMS defines only the network core and has
    little to say about edge devices
  • Our approach is different
  • We are using B2BUA on the endpoint itself
  • In this way the endpoint itself becomes a kind of
    FMC intagrator

Incoming vs outgoing calls
  • Note that several previous papers has described
    outgoing calls combining several devices
  • Research shows that it is more important to cover
    the case of an (unplanned) incoming call (see
    e.g. Belotti and Bly 2)
  • For outgoing call the user (callee) is most often
    able to find a proper terminal up front
  • Different for incoming calls (when not planned)
  • The added value will probably lie in good
    handling of the incoming case

Incoming scenarios
  • Incoming call from customer with PPCom
  • A customer calls Tom from outside the company's
  • The customer Allan calls Tom on Tom's single URI
    tom_at_acme.com from his video-equipped computer.
  • Tom receives the call on his handheld, and
    chooses to answer the call with a nearby
  • Incoming call from boss with PPCom
  • Tom is in a meeting room with some other
    employees. His boss Jane is placing a call to
    tom_at_acme.com. Since all calls appears on his
    handheld terminal before possibly transferred, he
    is in control of all calls wherever he is.
  • Depending on the social situation and the caller
    ID the human (Tom) choose either not to accept
    the call, or to accept the call and to use the
    wall mounted VC equipment in the room, or his
    personal lap top or just use his handheld phone.

Scenario Leaving the room suddenly
  • Enhancement leaving the room
  • Tom might also choose to start by using the VC
    equipment, but decide to leave the room at some
  • He will then bring his handheld with him in order
    to have a confidential talk.
  • He might then replace the streams on the VC
    equipment with voice on the handheld.
  • This shows that handling mobility / social rules
    may also be important for the value of the

Mobility and terminals in pervasive environments
  • We do not cover full personal mobility
  • We also assume that the callee is inside the
    (possibly distributed) enterprise
  • using other devices (D) also within the same
    enterprise domain (near by)
  • When outside of office environment plain SIP
    (MMoIP) is used as a basic multimedia call.

Multi CD Several possible Dis One used at a
time with C(or C used alone)
C (B2BUA) on the endpoint (handheld)
  • Note In the corresponding RFC from IETF the
    entity C is shown as a network server
  • However, C may as well the the endpoint
    (PDA/phone) as shown here

Requirements (1/2)
  • Req.H Human shall be in control of the decisions
  • Req. 1.1 The value added service PPCom shall
    work with SIP as the underlying signalling
  • Req. 1.2 Only one of the parties (caller or
    callee) need to be aware of the existence of
    PPCom. The non-PPCom subscriber shall not need
    any special software or device to participate
    beyond standard based MMoIP equipment.

Requirements (2/2)
  • Req. 2 PPCom shall detect suitable contexts
    (e.g., terminals fitting the proposed media types
    better that the current terminal at hand).
  • This knowledge shall be used in a way allowing
    human decisions.
  • Req. 3 The PPCom shall support mobility
  • MultiCD-paradigm is used
  • User is inside the (virtual / distributed)
  • I.e. No need to support personal mobility in
  • Note No support of business traveller staying at
    a foreign hotel etc. in first phase (may be added

Illustration (incoming call)
  • Much related work ignores req. 1.2 and add their
    ownSIP extensions on the external interface
    (even non-SIP extensions)
  • Req. 1.2 enables a stepwise introduction of the
    smart environment

Incoming call flow
Note user action (human in the loop) (The GUI
on handheld is not shown (no real design made yet)
Architecture separtion of SIP and SD (service
  • Note
  • BT was used in the prototype
  • Evaluation of SD is for further work
  • Issues
  • Battery
  • Scalability
  • Alternatives to BT/SD including use of manual

  • Can we build a sensible version of PPCom without
    using Bluetooth and service discovery? Issues
  • User interaction when receiving the call must
    offer a sensible set of terminals
  • May be based on pre-configured user choices?
  • How to avoid too much manual overhead
    availability work
  • Autoanswer may raise some privacy issues (and not
    only in health care)
  • For which domains?
  • General office environments?
  • Dedicated solutions for XXX domain?
  • Note The last scenario in the film offer a
    special value in this particular setting because
    dressing up in sterile is a cumbersome procedure
  • Not all use of MMoIP offer the same added value
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