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Ch 14 Sec 3- Hoover Struggles with the Depression

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Title: Hoover Struggles with the Depression Author: Homan, Dwight Last modified by: NPSD Created Date: 2/15/2004 4:33:04 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch 14 Sec 3- Hoover Struggles with the Depression


1
Ch 14 Sec 3- Hoover Struggles with the Depression
2
  Objective. - Explain Hoovers
initial response to the Great Depression.
 
14.3 Hardship Suffering During the Depression
3
Hoover tries to reassure Americans
  • Remain optimistic
  • Business as usual
  • Government could play a limited role in helping
    to solve the problems.

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Hoover writes a book called American
Individualism (1922) - Volunteerism - a
cooperative, socially responsible economic
order
Hoovers Philosophy Hoovers Philosophy
1) Summarize Hoovers philosophy on government Minimal government involvement in the economy - The governments role was to facilitate cooperation between business labor 2) IE Hoovers rugged individualism. - People succeed through their own efforts - No welfare or government handouts - Charities should provide aid to the poor
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Hoovers Philosophy
  • Power of Reason
  • Humanitarian
  • Gov. should facilitate not control
  • Rugged Individualism-Survival of the fittest

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Hoovers Philosophy II
  • No Handouts!
  • No vast Federal Bureaucracy/ No Big Gov.
  • Use State and Local Government
  • Charitable Organizations

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Hoover Takes Cautious Steps
  • Called key economic and business leaders to the
    White House
  • He asked for promises of no more layoffs or cut
    wages.
  • Helped Private Charities generate contributions.
  • 1931 Presidents Organization for Unemployment
    Relief (POUR)
  • encouraged local groups to raise money to help
    the unemployed
  • Federal aid would only be a disservice

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More Action Needed
  • Economy Shrinking
  • Unemployment rising
  • Increased Bankruptcy
  • General Misery
  • Soup Kitchens
  • Shantytowns
  • Hoboes

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3) What was the nations economic situation in
1930 and how did voters respond in the 1930
Congressional (mid-term) elections?
  • Democrats
  • 1930 mid-term elections
  • Win HoR for 1st time since 1916
  • Gain 8 seats in the Senate

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4) Describe how the Boulder Dam project helped
those unemployed by the Depression and benefited
many other Americans.
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Boulder Dam Project I
  • Approved in 1928
  • Construction began in 1930 and ended in 1936.
  • Boulder City , NV Housed the workers.
  • Hoover financed the construction by using future
    profits of electricity

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Boulder Dam Project
  • 700 million dollar public works project
  • 726ft. High and 1,244 ft. long
  • Provided electricity and flood control. (CO river
    basin)
  • Provided thousands of jobs
  • Water source for LA and LV

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  • Boulder (Hoover) Dam
  • Location AZ NV
  • Built 1931-1936
  • Cost 165 million
  • Employed 8,000 workers
  • Purpose Hydroelectric/ Flood control
  • Boulder (Hoover) Dam Facts
  • 660 ft. Thick
  • 726 ft. tall
  • Concrete 2 lane road from
  • Seattle, WA, to Miami, FL


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Americans Frustrated by 1930
  • Democrats win more seats in Congress
  • Farmers burned crops and dumped milk
  • Farm Holidays
  • Farmers block Food
  • Blame it on Hoover!

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5) What actions were taken by American farmers to
protest the economic conditions in the
agricultural community?
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Farmers Holiday Association Meeting
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6) Give some examples of how the American public
criticized and made fun of President Hoover. -
Hoover-villes - Hoover -blankets -
Hoover-flags Mellon pulled the
whistle Hoover rang the bell Wall Street gave
the signal And the country went to Hell.
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Mellon pulled the whistle Hoover Rang the
bell Wall Street gave the signal And the country
went to hell.
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Hoover Takes Action
  • Federal Farm Board It would buy crops to keep
    them off the market. (Farm Cooperatives)
  • National Credit Corporation Big banks loaned
    to smaller banks.

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Hoover Direct Intervention
  • Federal Home Loan Bank Act
  • Lowered mortgage rates for homeowners
  • Allowed farms to refinance their loans to avoid
    foreclosure.

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Hoovers Direct Action II
  • Reconstruction Finance Corp
  • 2 billion in emergency finance
  • Banks
  • Life Insurance Co.
  • Railroads
  • Large Businesses

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Critics Of RFC
  • It would not trickle down
  • Benefited corporations
  • Poor still needed direct relief
  • Too little too late.

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Hoovers Actions
  • 1931 Presidents Organization for Unemployment
    Relief (POUR)
  • encouraged local groups to raise money to help
    the unemployed
  • Federal aid would only be a disservice
  • He focused on restoring business confidence
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
  • Provided govt credit to ailing industries like
    banks, RRs, etc. to stimulate economic activity
  • Problem was low consumer demand, not supply!

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The Bonus Army
  • Spring of 1932
  • 10,000 -20,000 WWI Vets and Families
  • Arrived in Washington DC
  • Came to support the Patman Bill
  • 500 bonus to vets

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The Bonus Army Camp
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The Bonus Army
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10) What was Hoovers opinion of the Bonus
Army? 11) What happened to the Bonus Army?
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Bonus Marchers leaving
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  • General
  • McArthur
  • Directing
  • removal of the
  • Bonus Army

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Bonus Army II
  • The bill was defeated
  • The marchers set up camps
  • Hoover thought they were communists
  • Some food was provided

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Disbanding the Bonus Army
  • 2,000 marchers refused to leave
  • Hoover became nervous
  • What if the angry group became violent?
  • Hoover calls out the US Army

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Violence in DC
  • 1,000 soldiers under MacArthur and Eisenhower are
    called out.
  • 1,000 people gassed
  • Two people shot, one blinded
  • Camp was burned down

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Impact on Hoover
  • MacArthur did not respond to orders
  • Americans were outraged and stunned
  • Hoovers image suffered
  • Hoover took the blame
  • Hoover vs FDR in 1932

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Hoover encourages Americans to remain confident
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Americas Reaction to Hoover
  • Democrats
  • 1930 mid-term elections
  • Win HoR for 1st time since 1916
  • Gain 8 seats in the Senate
  • 1932 nominate FDR
  • Gov. of NY
  • Pledges a new deal for the American people
  • Overwhelming victory

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