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Foundations for Training

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Title: Foundations for Training


1
Foundations for Training
2
What does it mean to be In Shape?
  • Getting in shape means
  • Improving aerobic power
  • Flexibility
  • Strength
  • And diet while decreasing body fat and increasing
    muscle mass.
  • This general fitness is important for overall
    health.

3
PRINCIPLES OF CONDITIONING
  • Several training variables can be manipulated to
    make a conditioning program optimally beneficial.
  • Always stress quality over quantity!
  • We are going to concentrate on the following
  • Safety
  • Exercise preparation
  • Progressive overload
  • Rest and recovery
  • Periodization
  • Specificity

4
SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
  • Conditioning builds your body up. Sport tears it
    down.
  • More conditioning helps repair the body and build
    it back up again. It is a constant cycle.
  • Always think, Safety First!!
  • 1. Establish an adequate base of strength,
    aerobic fitness, and athleticism before moving
    on to the explosive phases.
  • 2. Always assess technique. Technique includes
    body position, balance, foot placement, amount
    of knee bend, and landing position. Correct
    technique helps prevent injury and optimize
    performance.

5
SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
  • 3. Warm up before each and every workout!!
  • 4. Use a break in period when starting a new
    conditioning program, or introducing new
    components.
  • 5. Always rest each body part after a vigorous
    workout, allowing 24 to 48 hrs rest and
    recovery.
  • 6. For dry land conditioning, wear proper
    footwear that provides good lateral support and
    shock absorption.
  • 7. For all training, a spotter should be present
    to assess technique and assist with movements.
  • 8. Make sure all workout surfaces are clean and
    the area is secure.
  • 9. Drink plenty of water before, during, and
    after the workout, especially in hot weather.
  • 10. FUN.

6
EXERCISE PREPARATION
  • Warm up and stretch before each workout.
  • An ideal warm up consists of light cardiovascular
    exercise at 60-70 heart rate max. (enough to
    break a sweat.
  • A good warm up increases the rate of muscular
    contraction, both agonist and antagonist.
  • Following the warm-up, complete the routine with
    stretching, which increases muscle elasticity and
    extensibility, and improves the range of motion
    across a joint.
  • Dynamic stretching is best, holding for 30 to 60
    seconds.

7
Basic Stretches
Standing Quadricep
Standing Calf Stretch
Standing IT Band Stretch
Hip Flexors and Psoas Stretch
Seated Hamstring Stretch
8
Basic Stretches
Plantar Fascitis Stretch
Shoulder Stretch
Quadricep Band Stretch
Kneeling Quadricep Stretch
Piriformis Stretch
9
PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD
  • Exercise must be stressful enough to stimulate a
    physical change in the body.
  • This involves working the muscles and energy
    systems against a heavy resistance to induce
    momentary fatigue (overloading).
  • The body will adapt and become stronger.
  • As improvements are made, adaptations to the
    program occur that continue to challenge the body
    at an increasing rate.
  • This promotes further development and improvement.

10
PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD
  • Volume refers to the total of sets and reps
    in your program.
  • Volume is quantified by sets X reps X load.
  • Large volume is used to build a base of
    conditioning.
  • Lower volume is used in high intensity training.
  • Density involves the amount of rest between
    sets.
  • Circuit training has very little density, power
    training has a high density. More rest is needed
    during more intense workouts.

11
PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD
  • Intensity is a measure of physical exertion and
    is the most important factor in physical
    adaptation.
  • More intense the training the greater the
    physical change to the body.
  • Frequency number of times you train.
  • For substantial changes, training must be
    performed 3 to 4 x weekly. Maintenance, 1 to 2x.
  • 31 principle. For every 3 months training, it
    takes 1 month to lose.
  • Duration length of training session. Length
    depends on the type of training being performed.
    Less intense longer sessions. More intense
    shorter sessions.

12
REST AND RECOVERY
  • The stimulus to the training effect is the
    training itself however, the actual physical
    improvement (adaptation) occurs after the
    training session is over.
  • Microscopic muscle tears occur during the
    workout, they need time to repair and grow
    stronger to a new level. (24 to 48 hrs)
  • Most important phase of training because this is
    when improvements are made, or injuries occur.
  • Over training will occur if adequate rest is not
    given!! (Coaches have a problem with this)

13
PERIODIZATION
  • Periodization is the schedule and design of the
    conditioning program, which divides the year into
    different cycles to help organize conditioning.
  • Based on scientific principles that suggest the
    best time for specific conditioning.
  • Accommodates game and travel schedules, with
    adequate rest and recovery.
  • Specific drills are used at certain times of the
    year to illicit the best physical response.
  • Off Season, In Season, Transition

14
Periodization Cycles
As the volume of the training decreases, the
intensity of the training will increase.
15
Periodization
16
Periodization Basics
Hypertrophy Basic Strength Strength Power
Sets 3-5 3-4 2-3 1-2
Reps 9-12 6-8 4-6 2-4
Weeks 2-3 2-3 2-3 1-2
Intensity LOW Moderate High Very High
Volume HIGH Moderate Low Very Low
17
FITT Formula
Frequency times/week Depends intensity, duration, commitment
Intensity How hard you work (amount of weight lifted) Most important variable Depends age, health, current fitness, goals, environment
Time Duration of activity ( of reps, sets) Depends intensity, goals
Type Mode of activity Depends goals, interests
18
The FITT Formula Applied to Components of Fitness
Table 11-1
OH 5-1
19
Intensity Guidelines for Muscle Conditioning
Table 11-2
OH 5-3
20
SPECIFICITY
  • The more specific the conditioning program is to
    the game/sport the more benefit the athlete will
    gain.
  • Training must simulate movement patterns, speeds
    of movement, ranges of movement, joint angles,
    contraction types, and contraction forces.

21
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
  • Other important aspects are
  • Testing and Recording,
  • Nutrition.

22
FLEXIBILITY
  • Human body has over 650 muscles and 206 bones.
  • Each muscle crosses over a specific joint in a
    way that causes the bone of that joint to move
    when the muscle contracts.
  • Bicep contraction.
  • Stretching improves flexibility and increases
    range of motion.

23
FLEXIBILITY
  • A warmed, stretched muscle is elastic and
    extensible and will contract and relax quickly.
  • A cold muscle will become injured.
  • Sport is very unpredictable so ALL muscles should
    be warmed and stretched.
  • After an exercise session the muscles
    temperature is at its warmest, so stretching is
    very important.
  • Stretching will help reduce muscle soreness and
    recover from exercise.

24
SPECIFIC FLEXIBILITY
  • Types of Stretches
  • 1. Static Stretching select a muscle group and
    gently move across a joint until you feel a
    comfortable stretch on the muscle. The muscle
    is being stretched in a stationary position.
  • Great for isolating muscles, easy to learn, and
    safe.
  • 2. Dynamic Stretching combines a warm-up and
    stretching routine. Involves active, full-body
    actions using fluid movement that may be
    specific to the sport. Time wise.

25
SPECIFIC FLEXIBILITY
  • Types of Stretches
  • 3. PNF (proprioreceptive neuromuscular
    facilitation Done with a partner. A partner
    resists while you actively stretch the muscle.
    Typically uses a stretch-contract-relax and
    deeper stretch sequence. This is advanced
    stretching.
  • 4. Ballisitic Stretching Involves light
    bouncing across a joint. Not commonly recommended
    because the bouncing is picked up by your muscle
    receptors and causes the muscle to contract. Not
    Good.

26
Warm Up and Stretching Benefits
  • Warm Up
  • 1. Makes muscles more extensible, allowing them
    to contract and relax quicker.
  • 2. Helps prevent injury
  • 3. Prepares muscles for stretching
  • Stretching
  • 1. Prepares muscles for movements
  • 2. Increases flexibility and range of motion
    (ROM)
  • 3. Done pre-game allows players to mentally
    prepare
  • 4. Done regularly produces good flexibility
    improvements

27
STRETCHING GUIDELINES
  • Always warm-up a muscle for 5-10 minutes prior to
    stretching. Stretching a cold muscle can cause
    minor muscular damage. Warm-up increase core
    temperature and the muscles elasticity and
    extensibility.
  • Isolate the muscle to be stretched with very
    strict technique. DO NOT CHEAT.
  • Move slowly and smoothly through the stretch.
    Fast movements cause the muscle to contract.
  • Do not overstretch. Receptors in your muscle
    (muscle spindles) monitor how far the muscle is
    stretching, if it goes past a natural range of
    motion it will signal the muscle to contract.
    Golgi Tendon organs judge the rate of stretch.
  • Hold the stretch in a static position for
    allotted time.

28
STRETCHING GUIDELINES
  • Inhale before you stretch. Exhale as you move
    through the stretch and continue to breath
    normally.
  • Progress to developmental stretching. Always
    perform the easy stretches first, progressing to
    the more difficult ones.
  • Come out of a stretch as smoothly as you went
    into it.
  • Stretch consistently. Regular daily stretching is
    needed for improvement.

29
WARM-UP ASSIGNMENT
  • Design a Warm-up for a group of high performance
    athletes.
  • The warm-up must consist of all the principles
    you have learned in class.
  • Requirements
  • 1. 10-15 minutes in length
  • 2. Must express stretching benefits
  • 3. Follow the proper guidelines
  • 4. Must be sport specific. (Choose a sport and
    explain why this program benefits the sport.)
  • 5. Each group will get a class to demonstrate
    their warm-up.
  • 6. Due Next Class
  • 7. Can be done in small groups.

30
WARM-UP ASSIGNMENT
  • Assessment Scheme
  • 1. Are all muscles properly warmed up before
    stretching? /5
  • Efficient stretches for each muscle group? /5
  • Benefits and guidelines properly explained?
    /5
  • Stretches sport specific? /5
  • Effort and overall expression? /10
  • Total /30

31
AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TRAINING
  • Your body has different energy systems that work
    together to fuel sport performance requirements.
  • The aerobic system provides energy for
    low-moderate intensity exercise and helps the
    body recover from fatigue.
  • The anaerobic system provides energy very quickly
    to meet the demands of intense action, such as a
    slapshot, sprinting, or stops and starts.
  • The training must be specific for the energy
    system you want to improve!!

32
AEROBIC ENERGY
  • Aerobic Power refers to energy produced by the
    aerobic system.
  • Its level is determined by measuring the rate at
    which the body can breathe in O2 to the lungs,
    transfer O2 from the lungs to the heart, deliver
    the O2 through the blood to the working muscles,
    and use the O2 in the muscles for energy
    production.
  • Aerobic Power is expressed as VO2max, the max
    volume of O2 that can be taken up and used by the
    body. (ml/kg-min)

33
AEROBIC ENERGY
  • The aerobic energy system supplies energy for low
    intensity exercise for long duration.
  • The aerobic system is of supply and recovery!! It
    supplies energy for sub-maximal efforts and helps
    players recover after intense actions.
  • A strong aerobic base allows an athlete to work
    longer at higher intensity by postponing fatigue
    and allowing a speedy recovery.
  • The quicker you recover, the more efficient you
    will be for a longer period of time.

34
AEROBIC ENERGY
  • Aerobic energy system supplies a small portion of
    the energy needed during intense efforts and most
    during moderate activity.
  • Aerobic energy system is critical for efficient
    recovery between intense work periods.
  • A high VO2 Max will help the athletes recovery
    from exercise.

35
AEROBIC CONDITIONING
  • Two ways to improve aerobic conditioning
  • 1. sub-maximal continuous exercise,
  • 2. high intensity, intermittent exercise.
  • Sub-maximal Exercise
  • 75-85 HR Max
  • 30-60 minutes
  • Improves heart ability to recover deliver O2 to
    the muscles for energy.
  • Various activities can be used.
  • No workrest ratio

36
AEROBIC CONDITIONING
  • Intermittent (Interval Training) Exercise
  • 90-95 HR Max
  • Various times
  • 11 ratio, 21 ratio, depending on intensity
  • Builds the aerobic system more efficiently and
    improves the muscles ability to extract O2 from
    the blood.
  • Athletes should first build up a base with
    sub-maximal exercise, then proceed to
    intermittent bouts of intensity.

37
AEROBIC CONDITIONING
  • Lactate Threshold the point where lactic acid
    accumulation exceeds its utilization and removal.
  • When an athlete reaches their lactate threshold,
    they can no longer compete at optimum levels.
  • Increasing an athletes aerobic ability raises
    their lactate threshold. Thus, more intense work
    can be performed over a longer period of time.
  • Always use a variety of sports to increase
    aerobic ability, this keeps it fresh.

38
AEROBIC CONDITIONING
  • Aerobic Exercises
  • 1. Road cycling
  • 2. Stationary Cycling
  • 3. Running (bkwds, ftwds, sideways, ext)
  • 4. In-Line Skating
  • 5. Elliptical

39
ANAEROBIC ENERGY SYSTEMS
  • ATP-PC System
  • Provides the most immediate form of energy.
  • Maximum intensity up to 10 seconds.
  • Explosive starts, body checks, short sprints.
  • Provides energy without O2, no lactic acid
    produced.
  • Anaerobic Glycolysis (Lactic Acid System)
  • Uses muscle glycogen and blood glucose to supply
    energy..
  • Kicks in after 10 seconds, lasts up to 2 minutes.
  • Peaks at 35 60 seconds..
  • Also supplies energy without O2, but does produce
    Lactic Acid.

40
ANAEROBIC ENERGY SYSTEMS
  • Fatigue is related to Lactic Acid build up in the
    muscles, a by product of the anaerobic glycolysis
    system.
  • Maximal effort up to 2 minutes produces lactate
    in the muscles, which prevents the muscles from
    contracting, thus slowing down performance.
  • A recovery period is needed to get rid of the
    lactate so you can produce at maximal effort once
    again.

41
ANAEROBIC ENERGY SYSTEMS
  • In Summary
  • During an intense activity such as hockey, the
    two anaerobic systems work together and are
    active for every shift. They supply the energy
    during maximal effort.
  • Lactic acid is built up, the aerobic system is
    responsible for buffering the acid out of the
    muscle so you can recover .
  • A well conditioned athlete must have a strong
    aerobic base so they can train the anaerobic
    systems harder, thus delaying the build up of
    lactate acid and producing greater results.

42
ANAEROBIC CONDITIONING
  • Poorly conditioned legs fatigue early.
  • When fatigued, athletes cannot generate power.
  • This leads to altered technique and injuries
    occur.
  • Anaerobic conditioning raises the lactate
    threshold, which allows athletes to compete at
    higher intensity before the accumulation of
    lactic acid exceeds its removal.

43
ANAEROBIC CONDITIONING
  • Conditioning needs to be periodized throughout
    the season during which you have recovery days
    along with training days.
  • It is better to do an all out 20 minute practice
    then 40 minutes of half speed.

44
Three Systems of Energy Transfer
The three systems of energy transfer and their
percentage contribution of total energy output
during all-out exercise of different durations.
45
Three Energy Systems
Energy Pathway Speed Duration Intensity Limited Fuel Source By products
Anaerobic Alactic (ATP/CP) immediate 0-10 secs maximal supply CP Cr P Energy ADP ADP ATP AMP No oxygen Cr AMP
Anaerobic Lactic (glycolytic) Moderately quick Short term 10-120 secs Near maximal intensity Discomfort Muscular fatigue Glycogen No oxygen Lactic acid
Aerobic slow Long term Low to moderate Dehydration the wall local muscular fatigue Fats CHO Oxygen Heat Water Carbon dioxide
46
STRENGTH TRAINING
  • A solid base of strength and lean muscle mass
    support an atheletes physical abilities and
    technical skills.
  • This is a pre-requisite to anaerobic
    conditioning, power, quickness, agility, and
    speed.
  • Strength is involved in every aspect of sport.
  • Absolute strength total muscular strength.
  • Relative Strength strength in relation to body
    weight.
  • A proper balance of strength protects players
    from injury and improves athletic performance.

47
DEVELOPING A STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM
  • Intensity
  • Weight training is organized be sets and reps. A
    rep is one complete range of motion with a weight
    for a particular exercise.
  • A group of reps is a set, the of reps performed
    without rest.
  • The more intense the workout the greater the
    strength development.
  • The load for a given exercise is determined by
    the of reps, the rest and the amount lifted.
  • Rest time between sets affects the amount of
    weight that can be lifted, as well as the
    muscular response. More rest heavier loads.
  • Always quality over quantity.

48
DEVELOPING A STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM
  • Speed of Movement
  • Muscle growth is related to the amount of tension
    developed within the muscle.
  • Slow velocity lifts, which produce a great amount
    of tension, are used to build a base of strength
    and muscle mass. (1-2-3 principle)
  • This is why high intensity training produces
    great results, on the last couple of reps, the
    muscle has to recruit more and more muscle fibres
    to keep moving the weight. More force is
    produced.
  • Slow velocity lifts also reduce the chance for
    injury.

49
DEVELOPING A STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM
  • Machines Versus Free Weights
  • Weight machines isolate one muscle group, where
    free weights depend upon muscle synergy (all
    muscles working together) to execute the lift.
  • Weight machines can help you develop a good base
    of strength because they are safe and heavy loads
    can be used.
  • However, athletes do not execute their sport from
    a seated position, so do not train like it. Free
    weights allow the athlete to mimic movements and
    train the core of the body. Support is the
    key!!

50
QUICKNESS AND AGILITY TRAINING
  • How fast an athlete is measured by their linear
    acceleration and maximum speed.
  • Quickness is the first step explosion from a
    stationary position. It is a read-and-react
    response.
  • Explosive speed is quickness
  • It is often quickness that separates a minor
    league player from a professional.
  • Quickness is an element that players use in every
    aspect of the game.
  • Agility and quickness combine to make a very
    effective athlete.
  • Quickness and agility training is quality not
    quantity.

51
EXPLOSIVENESS THROUGH PLYOMETRICS
  • Plyometrics are the best type of exercises to
    improve a players quickness and agility.
  • Drills are characterized by jumping, hopping,
    bounding, and a variety of foot patterns.
  • Plyos involve a rapid eccentric contraction
    immediately before a concentric contraction.
    Muscle is lengthened rapidly, then immediately
    shortened.
  • Sensors in your muscle (Golgi Tendon Organs and
    Muscle Spindles) monitor the rate and degree of
    stretch.
  • If the muscle is lengthened too quickly, then the
    sensors tell the muscle to contract immediately
    protecting it from injury.
  • When the muscle quickly lengthens, it stores
    elastic energy, then uses that energy to have a
    very powerful contraction.

52
EXPLOSIVENESS THROUGH PLYOMETRICS
  • A big, slow athlete will not magically become
    explosive and agile, but he/she can develop quick
    feet through specific training plyometrics are
    the key.
  • Plyometrics intensity refers to the degree of
    impact resulting from a drill.
  • Greater the athletes weight, the greater chance
    of injury.
  • To maximize plyo benefits and minimize risk, use
    low intensity plyos such as quick feet drills
    and stride frequency drills.

53
EXPLOSIVENESS THROUGH PLYOMETRICS
  • Follow these guidelines for effective
    plyometrics
  • Increase foot quickness by popping your feet off
    the ground. As soon as the foot touches the
    ground , pop from your toes back up.
  • Practice quickly reversing movement and exploding
    in the opposite direction.
  • Eliminate the pause that occurs at the exact
    point where the direction of movement is going to
    reverse. A pause between lowering and pushing off
    will lose the potential elastic energy and turn
    off the muscle sensors.
  • Instead of increasing vertical distances,
    increase both lateral and linear horizontal
    distances.
  • Add more complex movements (various foot
    patterns, rotations, angles, and turns)
  • Complete some of the lateral drills with a single
    leg.

54
QUICKNESS AND AGILITY CONDITIONING GUIDELINES
  • Use these guidelines for a safe and effective
    approach to conditioning for quickness and
    agility
  • At all age and levels, teach agility before
    quickness. Begin with simple movement patterns
    and dont increase foot speed until technique is
    perfect.
  • At young ages, agility is more movement specific
    than sport specific. Agility drills are not
    taxing on the joints or muscles like quickness
    and speed work is, so they are suitable for young
    athletes.
  • If that athlete has sufficient muscle mass,
    strength, and technique, begin to increase the
    explosiveness. Strength base criteria is
    squatting your own body weight. High intensity is
    squatting 1.5lbs body weight.
  • Always maintain ready position. Knees flexed and
    hips low.

55
QUICKNESS AND AGILITY CONDITIONING GUIDELINES
  • Use these guidelines for a safe and effective
    approach to conditioning for quickness and
    agility
  • Perform at full effort until neuromuscular
    fatigue. Do not seek to induce physical fatigue.
  • Incorporate visual stimulus as players improve.
  • Incorporate auditory stimulus to get the athlete
    to read and react. Example, ball hitting the
    floor.

56
SPEED TRAINING
  • Speed development is the most critical component
    to an athletes success.
  • Coaches at all levels teach fundamental skills,
    strength development and many other parameters
    that are important to the sport.
  • Many of them never teach speed!!
  • Full-out speed is evident in every facet of
    athletics.
  • Quickness is described as first gear, speed is
    the second, third, fourth, and fifth gears.
  • Some athletes are naturally faster than others.
  • Speed development is possible for all athletes.

57
SPEED TRAINING
  • Most players can develop good technique at low
    speeds, but progress to higher speed and form and
    technique is lost.
  • Strength in the legs, hips, and abdomen/core are
    essential to a players speed development.

58
CONDITIONING FOR SPEED
  • Strength and muscle mass does not distract from
    speed, it improves it.
  • With specific training, strength, size, and
    muscle mass contribute to speed
  • Speed development drills are always done full
    out, using over-speed exercises, explosive
    strength training, and plyometrics..

59
10 REQUISITES TO HIGH-SPEED TRAINING
  1. Technique
  2. Strength
  3. Power
  4. Quickness
  5. Agility
  6. Flexibility
  7. Anaerobic Energy Supply
  8. Aerobic Energy Supply
  9. Body Composition
  10. Neuromuscular

60
SPEED TRAINING GUIDELINES
  • Follow the guidelines below
  • 1. First build a strength base, increase lean
    muscle mass, and develop the energy systems.
  • 2. Use a low volume of work initially, keeping
    intensity low. Low intensity includes using
    moderate speeds and, if using plyometrics, low
    jumping height.
  • 3. Athlete should have good form and proper
    technique. You do not want them to practice
    incorrect movements. Asses balance, foot
    placement, ready positions, edges, absorption,
    and use of arms.
  • 4. Break in speed development with a low volume
    and low frequency.

61
SPEED TRAINING GUIDELINES
  • Follow the guidelines below
  • 5. Emphasize quality over quantity. Do not
    confuse with the most physically exhausting
    workout with the best.
  • 6. Keep speed development drills between 5 and
    15 seconds long enough to allow athletes to
    draw on their anaerobic energy systems.
  • 8. Allow appropriate rest between drills.
    Players who get physically fatigued form and
    this leads to decrease in performance.
  • 9. Encourage athletes to challenge themselves!!
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