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Kin 310 Exercise/Work Physiology


Kin 310 Exercise/Work Physiology Office hours - HC 2910 (lab) F 10:30-11:20 or by appointment ( class email list announcements, questions and responses – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Kin 310 Exercise/Work Physiology

Kin 310Exercise/Work Physiology
  • Office hours - HC 2910 (lab)
  • F 1030-1120
  • or by appointment (
  • class email list
  • announcements, questions and responses
  • inform me of a preferred email account
  • class notes will be posted on the web site in
    power point each week
  • can be printed up to six per page
  • lecture schedule along with reading assignment on
    web site

Energy for Exercise and Work
  • Brooks p1-10 ch 4
  • Astrand ch. 17 p 503-540
  • Mcardle, Katch and Katch Appendix D
  • Outline
  • Introduction to Exercise Physiology
  • Course overview
  • Energy, work and power
  • Calorimetry and the estimation of metabolic rate
  • Assessment of workload
  • Relative VO2, HR, Hormonal response
  • Energy expenditure over workday
  • Energy systems, work rest ratio

Exercise Physiology
  • Physiological responses to exercise depend on
  • Intensity, Duration, Frequency, Environmental
    circumstances, Diet, Health, Physiological status
  • Exercise requires the conversion of chemical into
    mechanical energy
  • Principles of bioenergetics control and limit
  • Acquisition and utilization of energy and the
    role of organ systems in supporting these
    processes will be discussed
  • Understanding short (acute) and long term
    (chronic) effects of exercise on the human
    machine is important in exercise science and

Rate Limiting Factor
  • What limits performances?
  • Proper analysis of a sport or work situation is
    important to identify
  • Pathways and metabolic sequences that are used
  • The factors which turn the rate of these pathways
    up or down
  • The steps that are limiting or slow
  • All of this is required to understanding
    function, pathophysiology (disease) and to
    concentrate efforts when training to improve
  • Eg. VO2 fig 1-5
  • Limited by cardiovascular system
  • Widely used criterion of physical fitness

  • Stress and Response
  • With appropriate stimuli, physiological systems
    respond with increased functional capacity
  • Overload but not overtrain
  • Seyle - General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
  • Alarm Reaction (shock)
  • Resistance Development (adaptation)
  • Exhaustion (staleness)
  • Principles of Fitness
  • Overload
  • Specificity
  • Reversibility
  • Individuality

Course Overview
  • Discussion of the physiological basis of exercise
    and work
  • Evaluating Energy and Workload
  • Cardiovascular and respiratory compensations and
  • Limitations and adaptations to training
  • Cellular bioenergetics
  • Providing ATP to meet demand and recovery
  • Fatigue - inability to sustain activity level
  • description of fatigue in the CNS, the
    neuromuscular junction and the muscle cell
  • Molecular level adaptation
  • activity changes the cellular environment -
    stimulating adaptation to better meet demand
  • Work place / sport analysis and assessment of
    worker /athlete capacity
  • Strength evaluation variables
  • Ageing - change in physiological capacities -
    impacts of disease and activity level
  • Exercise and the Environment
  • Heat and barometric pressure can create
    additional demands on physiological systems

  • Energy - capacity or ability to perform work -
    joules, calories
  • Work - application of a force through a distance
    - joules, calories, Kgm
  • Biological work - transport, mechanical and
    chemical work
  • Power - amount work performed over a specific
    time (workrate) - Joules/s kgm min-1
  • Transformation of energy - forms of energy can
    be converted from one form to another
  • chemical energy in food is transformed into
    mechanical energy of movement or other biological
  • Biological energy cycle

  • Metabolism - the total of processes occurring ina
    living organism
  • Because heat is produced by these processes, the
    metabolic rate can be measured by the rate of
    heat production
  • Ultimately, all metabolic processes depend on
    biological oxidation
  • Measuring O2 consumption is a good estimate of
    heat production, or metabolic rate
  • Energy Transduction
  • Photosynthesis
  • cell respiration (not ventilation)
  • cell work

  • Calorie - heat energy required to raise one gram
    of water one degree Celcius
  • Calorimetry - procedure to measure metabolic rate
  • Direct Calorimetry - measurement of heat - very
  • Indirect Calorimetry - measurement of Oxygen use
    - valid and reliable
  • Fig 4-8 Atwater and Rosa
  • Determined heat production, oxygen consumption
    and carbon dioxide production simultaneously
  • Established relationship between direct and
    indirect methods
  • Bomb calorimeter - energy value of food when
    ignited - fig 4-9
  • Appendix D - Mcardle, Katch and Katch (on

Respiratory Quotient
  • Table 4.1 - energy per unit oxygen different -
    carbohydrates 6.4 higher
  • Respiratory Quotient - Ratio of CO2 produced to
    O2 consumed
  • Value obtained gives an indication of the type of
    fuel being used in muscle
  • Pure Glucose RQ 1.00
  • Pure Fat RQ .70
  • Mixed fuel will provide intermediate value
    depending on mix
  • Fig 4.10 marathon RQ values
  • R value - an estimate of RQ that is measured at
    the mouth
  • Must consider non-metabolic sources of CO2 - Fig

Measurement of Metabolic Response
  • Evaluation provides info about absolute and
    relative intensity of exercise bout (fig 10.1a)
  • absolute VO2 (L/min or ml/Kg/min)
  • of VO2 max
  • of HR max
  • multiples of Metabolic Rate (METs)
  • 1kcal/Kg/hour at rest 3.5mlO2/kg/min
  • determination of metabolic response allows
    estimation of
  • Total energy cost
  • Nutritional requirements
  • Efficiency calculations
  • Estimation of workload indicates metabolic system
    utilization, and the potential for fatigue

Work Load Assessment
  • Assessment of work load in relation to work
  • variability in capacity
  • variability in response
  • expression of workload by absolute VO2 alone is
    almost meaningless
  • Need work load as of individual max
  • Assessment requires the determination of
  • individual VO2 max
  • VO2 requirement of imposed load
  • assessment of muscle groups being utilized, and
    the of their maximum strength -to determine
    fatigue onset

  • Maximal aerobic power
  • direct - VO2 max test
  • estimation - predictive tests
  • Assessment of Workload
  • measure O2 uptake during work
  • Fig 17-2 O2 uptake vs bike/work
  • portable devices, rapid analysis of VCO2 and VO2
    - large data base
  • field studies - collect expired air
  • Douglas bag
  • or - use flow meter to determine volume of air,
    and take samples of air for content analysis
  • Fig 17-3 commercial fisherman
  • subjects often affected - test atypical
  • Eg. Breathing through mouth not nose

Indirect assessment
  • Recall linear relationships between HR and VO2,
    VO2 and work rate
  • HR may be used to estimate workload - on
    individual basis
  • same muscle groups environmental temperature, and
    emotional stress
  • Continuously recorded HR
  • provides general picture of overall activity
    level during entire day
  • along with time activity studies collected by
  • possible to separate different activities with
    respect to HR
  • Fig 17-5 - fisherman

Comparison studies
  • Fig 17-6 - strong day - day consistency
  • Computer analysis of HR data gives
  • mean values, peak values, distribution and HR
  • Fig 17-8 comparison of direct vs indirect
    measurement /- 15
  • HR is good estimate of workload when work uses
    large muscle groups
  • Fig 17-9 arm vs leg work
  • HR is higher in arm work than leg work for the
    same work load.
  • O2 uptake for work load must be expressed as
    max of individual
  • indicates relative degree of exertion
  • HR reserve (HR max - HR rest)
  • Circulatory strain is best expressed as a
    percentage of an individuals HR reserve

Stress of Work
  • The total stress imposed on the organism by a
    given work situation (physical or psychological)
    is generally reflected by nervous and hormonal
  • Proportional to the degree of stress
  • Nervous Response
  • Inc sympathetic tone - inc HR
  • influence linear relationship
  • Eg HR vs workload
  • Hormonal response
  • total stress reflected by sympathetic response
  • Measure ep and/or nor ep with urinary excretion
    or blood samples
  • Fig 17-16, 17-17 - Catecholamines - inc with
    standing, cold and emotion
  • Also inc with duration and severity of muscular

Energy Expenditure
  • Need to establish practical limits for physical
    work loads
  • Type of work and work/rest cycles are important
  • Large individual differences in physical work
  • 30 - 40 VO2 max for 8 hour day
  • 40 of max strength in repetitive muscular work
  • restwork ratio of 21
  • physiological and psychological responses
    influenced by
  • individual max aerobic power
  • size of muscle being engaged
  • working position
  • Static or dynamic work
  • intermittent vs continuous activity
  • environmental conditions

Daily Energy Expenditure
  • Important for
  • calculation of energy needs
  • determine physical activity of groups
  • role of physical activity in health
  • Methodology
  • 24 hr recorded HR
  • time activity data
  • assessment of daily energy intake to maintain
    body weight
  • all fairly accurate /- 15
  • show large individual variability
  • 1300-5000 kcal /day
  • Table 17-1, 17-2

Energy expenditure
  • O2 uptake and HR - Table 17.1
  • Important for
  • Calculation of energy needs
  • Determine physical activity of groups
  • Role of physical activity in health
  • Methodology All fairly accurate /- 15
  • 24 hr recorded HR Time activity data (video
  • Assessment of daily energy intake to maintain
    body weight
  • Wide individual variability in energy output -
    Table 17-1,2
  • Occupation
  • Leisure activity / Physical activity
  • Environmental temp
  • Daily rate 1300 - 5000 kcal
  • Reg active male 2900 kcal/day
  • Reg active female 2100 kcal/day

Energy Expenditures
  • Work expenditures
  • Most light work lt 5 kcal /min
  • Some physical jobs 7.5 - 10.5 kcal/min
  • Permissible limits for daily work 2000-2500 kcal
  • Limits are difficult due to individual
    differences in work capacity or fitness
  • Individuals will usually self regulate the rest
  • Peak load is more important than mean energy
  • You can attain a higher 8 hour energy expenditure
    if the work is consistent and does not have peak
  • Basal Metabolic rate (BMR) - rate of energy
    metabolism in a resting individual 14-18 hours
    after eating

Energy Expenditure
  • Recreational activities
  • McArdle, Katch and Katch
  • Appendix C (on reserves)
  • Different activities have different energy
  • Cycling race 13 kcal/min
  • Golf 6 kcal/min
  • Skiing uphill fast 21 kcal/min
  • Swimming -fast 13 kcal/min
  • Running 530 mile 22 kcal/min
  • Individuals do activities at different
  • Must take body weight into account