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ME551/GEO551 Introduction to Geology of Industrial Minerals Spring 2007

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Title: ME551/GEO551 Introduction to Geology of Industrial Minerals Spring 2007


1
ME551/GEO551 Introduction to Geology of
Industrial Minerals Spring 2007
  • Geology

2
A mineral occurrence is any locality where a
useful mineral or material is found.
3
A mineral prospect is any occurrence that has
been developed by underground or by above ground
techniques, or by subsurface drilling to
determine the extent of mineralization.
4
The terms mineral occurrence and mineral prospect
do not have any resource or economic implications.
5
A mineral deposit is any occurrence of a valuable
commodity or mineral that is of sufficient size
and grade (concentration) that has potential for
economic development under past, present, or
future favorable conditions.
6
An ore deposit is a well-defined mineral deposit
that has been tested and found to be of
sufficient size, grade, and accessibility to be
extracted (i.e. mined) and processed at a profit
at a specific time. Thus, the size and grade of
an ore deposit changes as the economic conditions
change. Ore refers to industrial minerals as well
as metals.
7
Generally, industrial minerals are any rock,
mineral, or naturally occurring substance or
closely related man-made material of economic
value, generally excluding metals, fuels, and
gemstones.
8
  • Without a market, an industrial mineral deposit
    is merely a geological curiosity
  • Demand feeds back from the end-use market, to the
    end product, to the intermediate end product, and
    finally back to the mineral supplier.
  • Customer specifications include physical and
    chemical and other criteria

9
Locatable Minerals are whatever is recognized as
a valuable mineral by standard authorities,
whether metallic or other substance, when found
on public land open to mineral entry in quality
and quantity sufficient to render a claim
valuable on account of the mineral content, under
the United States Mining Law of 1872.
Specifically excluded from location are the
leasable minerals, common varieties, and
salable minerals.
10
Leasable Minerals The passage of the Mineral
Leasing Act of 1920, as amended from time to
time, places the following minerals under the
leasing law oil, gas, coal, oil shale, sodium,
potassium, phosphate, native asphalt, solid or
semisolid bitumen, bituminous rock,
oil-impregnated rock or sand, and sulfur in
Louisiana and New Mexico.
11
Salable Minerals The Materials Act of 1947, as
amended, removes petrified wood, common varieties
of sand, stone, gravel, pumice, pumicite,
cinders, and some clay from location and leasing.
These materials may be acquired by purchase only.
12
Epigenetic mineral deposit
  • formed much later than the rocks which enclose it

13
Syngenetic mineral deposit
  • formed at the same time as the rocks that enclose
    it

14
RESERVES
  • Inferred That part of a Mineral Resource for
    which tonnage, grade and mineral content can be
    estimated with a low level of confidence.
  • Indicated That part of a Mineral Resource for
    which tonnage, densities, shape, physical
    characteristics, grade and mineral content can be
    estimated with a reasonable level of confidence.
  • Measured That part of a Mineral Resource for
    which tonnage, densities, shape, physical
    characteristics, grade and mineral content can be
    estimated with a high level of confidence.

15
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16
RESERVES
  • Probable The economically mineable part of an
    Indicated and, in some circumstances, Measured
    Mineral Resource.
  • Proven The economically mineable part of a
    Measured Mineral Resource.

17
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18
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19
A mineral is where you find it. It may not be
the most suitable place in the world. U.S.
Senator Larry Craig, explaining why he is seeking
to lift limits on mine waste dumping on public
lands
20
Geology of industrial minerals deposits
21
Geology provides the framework in which mineral
exploration and the integrated procedures of
remote sensing, geophysics, and geochemistry are
planned and interpreted.
22
Factors important in evaluating an industrial
minerals deposit
  • Customer specifications
  • Distance to customer (transportation)
  • Ore grade--concentration of the commodity in the
    deposit
  • By-products
  • Commodity prices
  • Mineralogical form
  • Grain size and shape

23
Factors--continued
  • Undesirable substances
  • Size and shape of deposit
  • Ore character
  • Cost of capital
  • Location
  • Environmental consequences/ reclamation/bonding
  • Land status
  • Taxation
  • Political factors

24
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25
Why do we classify mineral deposits?

26
Why do we classify mineral deposits?
  • geological conditions of formation
  • how they formed
  • where they formed
  • exploration

27
Simple classification
  • magmatic
  • sedimentary
  • supergene
  • metamorphic

28
Classification of industrial minerals
  • End-use and genesis (Bates, 1960)
  • By unit price and bulk (Burnett, 1962)
  • Unit value, place value, representative value
    (Fisher, 1969)
  • Chemical and physical properties (Kline, 1970)
  • Geologic occurrence and end-use (Dunn, 1973)
  • Geology of origin (Harben and Bates, 1984)
  • Alphabetical (Harben and Bates, 1990, Carr, 1994)

29
Some deposits are formed by more than one process
(placers, some nepheline syenites)
30
Genetic processes that lead to the concentration
of minerals
  • Hydrothermal mineral deposits formed in
    association with magma and water
  • Magmatic mineral deposits concentrated in igneous
    rocks (crystallization verses segregation)
  • Sedimentary mineral deposits precipitated from a
    solution, typically sea water
  • Placer deposits sorted and distributed by flow of
    water (or ice) and concentrated by gravity
  • Residual mineral deposits formed by weathering
    reactions at the earth's surface

31
Genetic processes--continued
  • Lateral secretion or diffusion of minerals from
    country rocks into faults and other structures
  • Metamorphic processes, both contact and regional
  • Secondary or supergene enrichment where leaching
    of materials occurs and precipitation at depth
    produces higher concentrations
  • Volcanic exhalative

32
Hydrothermal mineral deposits formed in
association with magma and water
33
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34
Magmatic mineral deposits concentrated in igneous
rocks (crystallization verses segregation)
http//jove.geol.niu.edu/faculty/fischer/105_info/
105_E_notes/lecture_notes/Mineral_Resources/MR_ima
ges/pegmatite.jpeg
35
http//jove.geol.niu.edu/faculty/fischer/105_info/
105_E_notes/lecture_notes/Mineral_Resources/MR_ima
ges/kimberlite_pipe.jpeg
36
http//pubs.usgs.gov/bul/b2156/b2156.pdf
37
Sedimentary mineral deposits precipitated from a
solution, typically sea water http//jove.geol.niu
.edu/faculty/fischer/105_info/105_E_notes/lecture_
notes/Mineral_Resources/MR_images/death_valley_sal
t_flats.jpg
38
Placer deposits sorted and distributed by flow of
water (or ice) and concentrated by gravity
39
Beach placer sandstone deposits are tabular,
stratabound REE-Ti-Nb-Zr-Th (U) deposits.
40
Residual mineral deposits formed by weathering
reactions at the earth's surface--bauxite from
Australia
41
Lateral secretion or diffusion of minerals from
country rocks into faults and other structures
42
Metamorphic processes, both contact and regional
Skarns http//www.wsu.edu8080/meinert/Hedley.gif
43
Secondary or supergene enrichment where leaching
of materials occurs and precipitation at depth
produces higher concentrations
44
Volcanic massive sulfide deposits http//joides.rs
mas.miami.edu/files/AandO/Humphris_ODPLegacy.pdf
45
http//joides.rsmas.miami.edu/files/AandO/Humphris
_ODPLegacy.pdf
46
Shape of ore deposits
  • Tabular
  • Tubular
  • Disseminated
  • Irregular replacement
  • Stratabound
  • Open-space filling

47
Required geologic data
  • size, shape, and variability of the ore deposit
  • location information
  • lithology
  • mineralogy--abundance and morphology
  • alteration
  • structural
  • rock competency data

48
Report on reserves
  • Data Density Integration of Geological
    Information
  • Listing/Recording of Data Set
  • Data Analysis
  • Sample Support
  • Economic Parameters
  • Mineral resource Model
  • Interpolation Method
  • Mineral Resource Validation

49
Evaluation of potential orebody
  • Ore grade lots of different units, cut-off
    grade, homogeneity
  • By-products commonly critical to success Au,
    Ag, W
  • Commodity prices forcasting the future
  • Mineralogical form native vs sulfide vs oxide vs
    silicate

50
Evaluation of potential orebody
  • Grain size and shape McArthur River 200Mt,
    10Zn, 4Pb, 0.2Cu, 45ppmAg
  • Undesirable substances As, Sb calcite in acid
    leachable U ores
  • Size and shape of deposits underground vs open
    pit Fig 1.16
  • Ore character hard vs soft (blasting, wall
    support) cost and safety

51
Evaluation of potential orebody
  • Cost of capital
  • Location infrastructure and transportation
  • Environmental considerations VERY important
  • Taxation involved subject depreciation,
  • Political factors nationalization, foreign
    exchange

52
Estimation of reserves
53
  • Industrial mineral deposits differ significantly
    from other, more typical metallic mineral
    deposits and even amongst themselves.

54
Customer specifications for industrial mineral
products are frequently based solely on physical
properties rather than, or in addition to,
chemical characteristics.
55
An industrial mineral may have multiple market
applications or it may be included in multiple
end-products. It is essential to determine the
physical and chemical characteristics of the
industrial mineral in sufficient detail that
its appropriateness for each intended market can
be assessed.
56
Determination of the chemical and physical
characteristics of an industrial mineral often
involves procedures and tests that are not part
of the normal activity of an analytical
laboratory.
57
The properties of an industrial mineral
occurrence can vary markedly from location to
location and even within the same deposit. In
particular, many industrial minerals deposits are
subject to a nugget effect.
58
Published specifications and standards for
industrial minerals should be used primarily as a
screening mechanism to establish the
marketability of an industrial mineral. The
suitability of an industrial mineral for use in
specific applications can only be determined
through detailed market investigations and
discussions with potential consumers.
59
Make sure that laboratory test procedures
adequately duplicate the proposed production
process. In many cases, bulk samples as large as
500 tonnes may be required.
60
Identification of the market and the factors that
influence market demand and the potential for
success in the market are critical to determining
value for an industrial mineral and therefore
the classification of the mineral deposit as
either a Mineral Resource or Mineral Reserve.
61
Read Aggregate Handbook, chapter 16 Sampling and
testing Industrial minerals begin reading the
commodities.
62
Commodities outline
  • Introduction (definition)
  • Uses (properties)
  • Production
  • Geologic descriptions and distribution
  • Processing, marketing
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