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The Middle and Southern Colonies

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The Middle and Southern Colonies * * A New Era of Colonization After the English Civil War, King Charles IIwas restored to the throne. He repaid political ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Middle and Southern Colonies


1
The Middle and Southern Colonies
2
A New Era of Colonization
  • After the English Civil War, King Charles IIwas
    restored to the throne.
  • He repaid political favors by establishing
    proprietary colonies, grants of land to loyal
    friends.
  • Several new colonies were established

3
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4
New York
  • New Netherland founded by Peter Minuet in 1624
    to make profit
  • The king gave the Duke of York (his brother) land
    claimed by Dutch as New Netherland.
  • In 1664 an English fleet sailed into the harbor
    and demanded surrender.
  • By 1674 New Netherland was firmly in English
    hands, it was renamed New York.

5
New York
  • Diverse population English, Dutch,
    Scandinavians, Germans, French, Native Americans,
    and enslaved Africans
  • Grew and prospered under English rule
  • A treaty with the Iroquois protected the fur
    trade.
  • The Duke of York gave the land south of the
    Hudson River to two of his political allies
    Berkeley and Carteret, they named it New Jersey.
  • By early 1700s, New York and New Jersey became
    royal colonies.

6
The Middle Colonies New Netherlands Becomes New
York
  • - Thriving, tolerant and diverse colony (large
    African population dissenters).
  • Charles gave the first land grant to his brother
    James, the duke of York, awarding him this area.
  • Tensions between the Dutch and English began
    running high.

7
New Southern Colonies
  • The Carolinas
  • Was co-owned by eight men
  • Large port Charles Town
  • Georgia
  • James Oglethorpe founded colony as place for
    debtors to have a new start in life instead of
    going to prison.
  • By 1770 nearly half of the population was made of
    enslaved Africans.

8
The Carolinas
  • In two charters given by King Charles II one in
    1663 and the other in 1665 eight men became
    co-owners of Carolina.
  • The land was previously considered Virginian
    territory, stretching all the way to Spanish
    Florida.
  • They named Carolina after King Charles II
    Carolus being the Latin form of Charles.

9
The Carolinas
  • In two charters given by King Charles II one in
    1663 and the other in 1665 eight men became
    co-owners of Carolina.
  • The land was previously considered Virginian
    territory, stretching all the way to Spanish
    Florida.
  • They named Carolina after King Charles II
    Carolus being the Latin form of Charles.

10
Carolinas Continued
  • Settlement was slow and so some proprietors
    dropped out.
  • In 1670 Charles Town, the future capital of the
    colony, was founded.
  • The north of Carolina developed very differently
    than the south.

11
Carolinas Continued
  • Because of these differences, in 1729 seven of
    the proprietors sold their interest in the
    northern part of the colony to the Crown.
  • The King then made the North Carolina and South
    Carolina separate royal colonies.

12
Inside Story
  • KEY PERSON
  • James Oglethorpe
  • English humanitarian general interested in
    improving the lives of the people.
  • As a member of Parliament he investigated the
    horrendous conditions of English prisons and was
    especially concerned with honest people who had
    been thrown in prison for being unable to pay
    their debts.

13
James Oglethorpe Continued
  • Proposed starting a new colony for debtors.
  • King George II awarded Oglethorpe with his
    charter and by the next year he arrived with
    colonists and founded the city of Savannah,
    Georgia.

14
Quakers Settle Pennsylvania
  • Quakers upset people in Europe
  • Believed in direct communication with God had no
    ministers or hierarchy of priests and bishops.
  • Had meetings where their members rose to speak.
  • Believed in the equality of all men and women.
  • Were pacifists who refused to fight in wars.
  • Were only welcomed in Rhode Island.
  • William Penn received grant of land from King to
    repay a debt to his father.

15
Quakers Settle Pennsylvania
  • A tolerant colony
  • Penn named his colony Pennsylvania and named the
    city Philadelphia, Greek for City of Brotherly
    Love.
  • Wars in Europe ruined farms and trade, caused
    religious clashes
  • Refuge for Quakers and others suffering religious
    persecution
  • Offered land at reasonable prices
  • Diverse population

16
New Jersey
  • After James received New York, gave land to two
    of his political allies, Sir George Carteret and
    Sir John Berkeley.
  • Carteret, from the Isle of Jersey, named the
    colony New Jersey.
  • Berkeley sold his portion of the colony to the
    Quakers in Pennsylvania.
  • The Quakers split New Jersey between East and
    West.
  • By the early 18th Century (1700s) both New Jersey
    and New York became Royal Colonies.

17
Delaware Maryland
  • In 1638 Swedes settled Delaware
  • In 1655 the Dutch took over, colony was later
    seized by England and ruled by an appointed
    governor
  • George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) wanted a haven
    for Catholics, asked king for land
  • He died, but his son, Cecil, got rights and
    founded Maryland.
  • Toleration Act was passed to protect the rights
    of all Christians in Maryland.

18
Delaware
  • The Swedes originally settled here in 1638, near
    what is now the city of Wilmington, Delaware.
  • Swedish rule was brief.
  • In 1655 the Dutch took New Sweden.
  • The colony was taken by the English in 1664.

19
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20
Northern Colonies
  • New Hampshire John Mason received grant from
    King to settle area, becomes part of Mass in
    1641, named separate royal colony in 1679
  • Connecticut 1636, Thomas Hooker (dissenter) and
    a group leave Mass to form new colony
  • Rhode Island Roger Williams (dissenter) left
    Mass Bay and formed Providence, RI in 1638 in
    order to have freedom of religion

21
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