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Roaring 20 s, The Great Depression and the New Deal MR. WILLIAMSON SOMERVILLE HS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Roaring 20s, The Great Depression and the New

Post-War Adjustment
  • Americans yearn for normalcy after WWI
  • Wanted a return to free market, capitalism,
    reduction in federal spending, isolationism in
    foreign affairs
  • Economy recovers business expands, taxes
    lowered, government spending is lower
  • Due to mass production/Innovation Henry Ford
    cars, airplanes, plastic products,
    restaurants/hotels, new affordable goods flood
    the market

The Roaring Twenties
  • Because of strong economy, US now a consumer
  • New products make life easier (washing machines,
    refrigerators, etc.)
  • Advertising becomes popular radio mostly,
    billboards, etc.
  • Buying on credit
  • Arrangement for buying something with borrowed
    then paying the loan back
  • Stock market in the 1920s enjoyed a bull
    market, more and more Americans begin to invest
    their into stocks

The Roaring Twenties
  • New Trends in Pop-Culture Citizens now have
    Leisure Time
  • Average Workweek 45 hours compared with 70 in
    1850, from working 7 days a week to 5 days
  • Question What do people do when they have free
  • 1920s Pop Culture
  • Heroes Babe Ruth (sports), Amelia Earhart,
    Henry Ford (business)
  • New Media Radio, magazines, movies
  • The Arts Music in the Jazz Age, night clubs,

The Roaring Twenties
  • Discussion Questions
  • 1. Think of someone TODAY that would be
    extremely popular like the people above. It can
    be anybody in entertainment, music, sports or
    business. Why is that individual popular and
    respected like the ones discussed above?
  • 2. The Charleston was a very popular dance
    performed by the youth of the 1920s. What dance
    or dances of your lifetime are considered to be
    popular? Why do you think they caught on with
    the public?
  • What advancements/inventions TODAY (name 3) do
    you believe are most important to the average

Pop Culture of the 1920s
  • In todays activity, you will be comparing the
    pop culture of the 1920s to today.
  • At each station, read the information as a group,
    look at the pictures and information provided.
    Each station has specific questions to answer
    please answer in full sentences as this will be
    used for the 2nd half of todays challenge.

Pop Culture of the 1920s
  • Now that you have read through information on the
    pop culture of the 1920s today and answered
    questions about todays culture, lets compare
    and contrast the two eras. Use your answers from
    the station exercise to help with your assignment
  • You have two choices
  • 1. Essay Assignment 3 paragraphs,
    comparing/contrasting the two eras
  • 2. Venn Diagram Name/List 10 items for each
    category that are specific to pop culture of the
    1920s/today as well as what they have in common

1920s Bio Sketch Rules
  • Rules for the Computer Room Please follow! If
    not, there will be consequences.
  • No Food or drink at anytime!
  • No Social Media Websites Facebook, Twitter,
  • No music/Youtube is to be played cell phones,
    iPods are to be put away.
  • No downloads of any kindThank You!
  • Do not switch computers randomly, please notify
    Mr. Williamson if you have a problem with your
  • If you are in violation with any of the above,
    your computer privileges will be revoked and you
    will be required to research information on the
    project on your own.

Causes of the Great Depression
  • Election of 1928 Republican Herbert Hoover
    elected president amid economic/social optimism
  • However, troubling signs were beginning to show
  • Agriculture after WWI, farmers crops no longer
    needed, faced debt/bankruptcy
  • Uneven Wealth Worker output increased but wages
    did not grow as quickly industrial workers
    became less poor
  • Expansion of credit accumulation of debt from
    cars/radios begin to increase

Causes of the Great Depression
  • As stock market rises in the 1920s, people began
    to buy on margin to increase their profit
  • Borrowing large amounts of to buy stock
  • However, when share price drops, creditors demand
    the they are owed
  • As a result, homes, cars, or any asset is sold to
    repay debt
  • Black Tuesday, October 1929 huge drop in the
    stock market, the start of the GREAT DEPRESSION
  • Investors are scared, sell their investments
    pushing prices down. Investors lose 30 billion
    in 1 day

Causes of the Great Depression
  • Banking Crisis as stock market crashed, there
    was concern that banks, holding of
    individuals, would close because of bad loans to
    stockbrokers and farmers
  • People with bank accounts rushed to withdraw
  • BANK RUN when customers simultaneously withdraw
    their out of a fear the bank will close
  • DO NOT COPY - 1933, 1/5 of banks operating in
    1930 were closed
  • Millions of people see their savings vanish

Causes of the Great Depression
  • Review Quiz Complete on index card provided
  • 1. What was the primary reason farmers fell on
    hard times in the 1920s?
  • 2. What consumer goods were purchased using easy
    credit in the 1920s?
  • 3. What was the motivation for individuals to buy
    stock on margin?
  • 4. What event sparked a chain of events that led
    to the beginning of the Great Depression?
  • 5. What is a bank run and why did they occur
    after Black Tuesday?

Causes of the Great Depression
  • Hawley-Smoot Tariff
  • Tax that raised prices on foreign imports/exports
  • With excess inventory (food, goods, etc.),
    businesses could not sell overseas
  • Crisis in US reaches a global scale, everyone is
  • With stock crash/bank failures, consumer spending
  • As a result, US businesses cut production, layoff
  • With high unemployment, consumer spending
    continues to fall
  • Unemployment rate rises to 25 from a low of 3

Human Impact of the Great Depression
  • Severe poverty in both cities/farms
  • Although unemployment was high, some jobs
    remained but hours/wages were cut significantly
  • Impact
  • Smaller meals, water instead of milk, potatoes
    instead of meat
  • Translates into pop-culture, news music
  • Brother Can You Spare a Dime?

Newspaper Article Challenge
  • Your Challenge
  • Imagine you are a business reporter for the NY
    Times in the early 1930s. Your editor has asked
    you to write a 2-paragraph informational article
    on the causes of the Great Depression.
  • You Must
  • Create a HEADLINE which will grab my attention
  • Complete a 2-paragraph article discussing the
    reasons for the depression
  • Detail WHY the issues covered led to a bad
    economy in YOUR OWN WORDS
  • See rubric for grading scale, HW grade, good

Wall Walk Directions
  • Label the station you are located at. You do not
    have to write the question.
  • Discuss the primary source in your small group.
  • Complete all questions in full and complete
  • Add details where necessary
  • 6 minutes at each station, do not waste time!

Responding to the Great Depression
  • Government/Politicians had differing ideas of how
    to cure the depression
  • Conservative approach Republican
  • Leave it alone and it will improve, laissez
    faire or hands off
  • Liberal Approach Democratic
  • Increased spending on public works to create jobs
    (roads, bridges)
  • Tax corporations/wealthy to provide social
    welfare (government assistance) for citizens in

Responding to the Great Depression
  • Herbert Hoover, Republican (conservative)
    President believed the federal government should
    not give aid to the needy
  • Felt his job was to let the economy fix itself
  • Had faith in localism, idea that problems are
    solved best at the local and state govt level
  • Favored rugged individualism so people could
    better themselves through their own efforts

Responding to the Great Depression
  • However, Depression continued to worsen, became
    clear no policy was not the answer
  • Wanted to put in hands of banks/businesses
    through the Reconstruction Finance Corporation
  • Believed in trickle-down economics where they
    would use govt aid to increase
  • However, bankers and businesses do not increase
  • Public views Hoover as out of touch and
    unwilling to help them in time of need

Wall Walk Directions
  • Label the station you are located at. You do not
    have to write the question.
  • Discuss the primary source in your small group.
  • Complete all questions in full and complete
  • Add details where necessary
  • 6 minutes at each station, do not waste time!

Human Impact of the Great Depression
  • Urban vs. Rural Reality of the Great Depression
  • With no job, savings gone, citizens sell any
    asset to keep the rent-mortgage paid/pantry
  • Asset useful/valuable property, can be used to
    meet debts
  • In cities, Hoovervilles spring up in public
    land/vacant lots across the US
  • Tents/Shacks (shoddy housing), Newspapers
    Hoover blankets, Pant pockets turned inside out
    Hoover Flags

Human Impact of the Great Depression
  • The Rural Depression Experience
  • Low crop prices/high debt forces farmers to sell
    their land
  • Drought/Dust Bowl forces families to migrate out,
    referred to as Okies
  • Sought refuge in CA, OR, WA, where job could be
  • E.G. The Grapes of Wrath
  • Significant shift in population from rural to
    urban states

Urban vs. Rural Impact
  • Using your teammate, notebook/textbook , complete
    the Venn Diagram below by comparing/contrasting
    the impact of the Great Depression on the urban
    and rural environments.
  • Focus on the struggles each faced, their
    challenges, etc. Be SPECIFIC.
  • The goal is to have 5-6 items in each portion of
    the diagram
  • You have 10 minutes, please begin!

Hooverville Diary Project
  • Compose a 3-day diary as if you were a resident
    of the Hooverville in Central Park.
  • Each day must be a separate entry (1 paragraph
    long) with date, location, etc.
  • Review the rubric provided to aid writing
    (content, form, quantity) and the total points
  • Creativity is the goal here! Due Tuesday, 23rd!