From Cows to Canola An Introduction to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – From Cows to Canola An Introduction to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6adee4-ZGY1N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

From Cows to Canola An Introduction to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

Description:

From Cows to Canola An Introduction to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:44
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 28
Provided by: MarieSt6
Learn more at: http://gmos.wikispaces.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: From Cows to Canola An Introduction to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)


1
From Cows to CanolaAn Introduction
toGenetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
2
Traditional Breeding
Traditionally, plants and animals with favorable
traits have been bred to perpetuate these traits
in offspring.


The pug and beagle have been bred to produce the
puggle, a mixed breed with both pug and beagle
traits.
3
Traditional Breeding
This has been particularly important in
agriculture, where crops and animals are prized
for having certain traits.
4
Advances in Breeding Methods
  • Over time, more sophisticated breeding
    practices emerged, such as mutation breeding.
  • This is a process in which organisms are
    exposed to chemicals or radiation.
  • This changes their DNA in an effort to produce
    new desired genetic traits.

Mutation breeding (gamma radiation) was used to
develop these drought-resistant soybeans.
5
Mutation Breeding
  • MB has been applied for decades to yield products
    such as
  • Rio Red grapefruit
  • Golden Promise Barley (used in fine
    beers)
  • Nearly 200 types of bread wheat
  • Beans, lettuce, rice, oats

6
How is Genetic Engineering Different?
Genetic engineering is a laboratory technique
that allows for greater precision and a wider
array of possibilities. For example, genes from
one species can now be inserted into another.
7
Example 1 A Golden Opportunity
  • Daffodil and soil bacterium genes were
    introduced into white rice to produce Golden
    Rice.

White Rice vs. Golden Rice
8
A Golden Opportunity
  • The golden color results from elevated
    levels of beta-carotene, which boost the
    nutritional value of the rice.

Golden Rice will be grown in places that
lack adequate sources of beta-carotene.
9
Example 2 Antioxidants, Anyone?
Genes from the snapdragon flower were
incorporated into tomatoes to create this
antioxidant-rich fruit.
10
Meaningful Silence
  • Transferring genes isnt the only way genetic
    engineering can be applied. It has other uses,
    too!
  • For example, genetic engineering allows us to
    shut off genes within an organism so that the
    products they normally express are not produced.

Gene silencing techniques have been usedto lower
the allergenicity of peanuts.
11
Genetic Engineering Other Advantages
  • Plants
  • Increased crop yields
  • Pest resistance
  • Environmental tolerance (to drought, extreme
    temperatures, etc).
  • Virus resistance
  • Other organisms (animals, fish, etc.)
  • Faster growth rates
  • Ability to produce valuable proteins
    in animal milk
  • Ability to overcome limited availability
    of certain resources (eg, rChymosin)

12
Example 1 SunUp Papaya
  • The papaya ringspot virus was on course to
    wipe out the Hawaiian papaya industry.
  • This prompted the development of the SunUp
    papaya, which is genetically modified to be
    resistant to this virus.

The SunUp papaya is believed to have rescued
Hawaiis ravaged papaya industry.
13
Example 2 Got Fibrinogen?
  • Fibrinogen is a protein that helps blood to
    clot.
  • GM cows that secrete fibrinogen in their milk
    can make this protein widely available to
    patients who need it.

14
Example 3 GM foods have been a regular part of
our diets for years.
  • An estimated 75 of processed foods in the
    United States contain genetically modified
    ingredients.
  • Examples include canola oil and rChymosin, an
    ingredient found in many commercially available
    cheeses.

15
Concerns about GMOs
  • Superweeds
  • Unknown long-term health effects
  • Allergens transferred to new foods
  • ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  • ? ? ? ? ? ?
    ?
  • Cross-pollination
  • Ecosystem disruption
  • Inadequate regulation
  • Moral concerns (playing God?)

16
Example 2S Albumin
  • Pioneer Hi-Bred wanted to boost the
    nutritional value of its soy-based animal feed.
  • It developed GM soybeans containing 2S
    albumin, a protein from Brazil nuts.
  • 2S albumin is a human allergen, and the
    allergen was transferred into the beans.

Although they were intended solely for
animal consumption, Pioneers soybeans were not
released for use.
17
The Future
  • Genetic engineering has opened the door to
    countless possibilities in food, health, and
    beyond.

However, each new genetically modified
organism brings certain unknowns.
Careful monitoring and testing, regulations, and
other factors will all play a role as genetic
engineering plays a growing part inour daily
lives.
18
Review
  • Genetic engineering enables us to do
    something that isnt done via traditional
    breeding or mutation breeding. What is it?

19
Answer Transfer a Gene from One Species to
Another
This GM lettuce carries the insulin gene. It
relieves diabetes in mice and holds promise for
future applications for humans.
20
Review
Describe two ways in which the genetic makeup of
an organism can be changed via genetic
engineering.
21
Review
  • 1. A foreign gene can be added to an
    organism to create a new trait in that
    organism.
  • 2. An existing gene within the organism can be
    shut off so that the product it normally
    expresses is not produced.

22
Review
  • What kinds of advantages can genetic
    engineering impart?

23
Review
  • Virus resistance
  • The ability to produce important
    proteins in animal milk
  • Enhanced nutritional value
  • Increased crop yields
  • Pest resistance
  • Faster growth rates
  • Environmental tolerance (to drought, extreme
    temperatures, etc).
  • Ability to overcome limited availability
    of certain resources (eg, rChymosin)

24
Review
  • What are some of the concerns people have
    about genetic engineering?

25
Review
  • Development of superweeds
  • Unknown long-term health effects
  • Allergens transferred to new foods
  • Cross-pollination
  • Ecosystem disruption
  • Inadequate regulation
  • Moral concerns (playing God)

26
Discussion
  1. What do you think about genetic engineering?
  2. Do you view it as more helpful or harmful? Why?
  3. Would you eat foods that you knew were
    genetically modified? Why or why not?
  4. How do you think GM foods should be regulated?

27
Image Citations (by slide number)
  • 1. http//www.cartoonbank.com/2000/We-would-like-
    to-be-genetically-modiied-to-taste-like-Brussels-s
    prouts/invt/119426
  • 2. http//panzercow.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/p
    ug.jpg, http//www.krittercards.com/images/beagle1
    .jpg, http//petsworldri.com/yahoo_site_admin/
  • 3. http//media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s
    /01/4f/cb/a6/colorful-vegetables-at.jpg,
    http//news-libraries.m
    it.edu/blog/date/2009/01/page/2/
  • 4. http//www.pnri.dost.gov.ph/pnri.php?pnrinrd
  • 5. http//www.texascitrusexchange.com/rio_red_fac
    ts.htm, http//www2.science.unsw.edu.au/news/newsA
    rchive.html
  • 6. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FileGenetic-engi
    neering-wheat.jpg
  • 7. http//www.jamesandthegiantcorn.com/2009/11/14
    /genetically-engineered-crops-rice/
  • 8. http//www.learner.org/courses/envsci/unit/tex
    t.php?unit7secNum7, http//www.goldenrice.org/C
    ontent3-Why/why1_vad.html
  • 9. http//webecoist.com/2009/09/01/10-more-intrig
    uing-genetically-modified-fruits-veggies/
  • 10. http//runforlife3.wordpress.com/2009/04/15/p
    eanut-peanut-butter-and-jelly/
  • 11. http//homegardeningzone.com
  • 12. http//www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/seed/seeds.asp
  • 13. http//news-libraries.mit.edu/blog/date/2009/
    01/page/2/
  • 14. http//images.businessweek.com/ss/07/12/1206_
    biotech_brunch/source/5.htm, http//www.seriouseat
    s.com/2007/04/stinky-wine-shops-now-serving.html
  • 16. http//www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/biotech/safety.ht
    ml
  • 19. http//floridatrend.com/article.asp?aID89695
    759.8573667.651898.21069602.9810479.224aID250137
About PowerShow.com