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Title:

From Gene to Protein

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From Gene to Protein DNA Review Is made of nucleotides. Contains deoxyribose sugar Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine Is a double stranded molecule. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 13 July 2019
Slides: 24
Provided by: ChrisHi151
Learn more at: http://www.cpe.unt.edu
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Tags: gene | protein | proteins

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Title: From Gene to Protein


1
From Gene to Protein
2
DNA Review
  • Is made of nucleotides.
  • Contains deoxyribose sugar
  • Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine
  • Is a double stranded molecule.
  • Example A A T G G C T A T A C C G

3
RNA Review
  • Is made of nucleotides.
  • Contains ribose sugar
  • Replaces Thymine with the base Uracil.
  • Is a single stranded molecule.
  • Example A A U G G C U A U A C C G

4
What is the JOB of RNA?
  • To assist in the synthesis of proteins.

5
ENGAGEProteins, Proteins, Proteins!!!Whats
the deal with proteins?
6
Explore 1Banana Split Lab(Transcription,
Translation)
7
Explore 2
  • Designer Babies

8
Explain
  • Amino Acids the building blocks of proteins.
  • Many amino acids linked together make up the many
    different proteins in our body.
  • DNA contains the code for these proteins and
    RNAs assemble the parts.

9
Protein Synthesis overview
  • Transcription synthesis of RNA under the
    direction of DNA (mRNA)
  • Translation actual synthesis of
    a polypeptide under the direction of mRNA

10
Transcription, Translation
11
RNA Getting Ready to Do its Job
  • There is NOT just one RNA molecule!!!!
  • THERE ARE THREE!!!
  • 3 types of RNA molecules
  • 1. Messenger RNA (m-RNA)
  • 2. Transfer RNA (t-RNA)
  • 3. Ribosomal RNA (r-RNA)
  • Each RNA molecule has a specific job in making a
    protein

12
m-RNA(Transcribes the DNA)
  • Messenger RNA copies the code for a protein from
    DNA.
  • This is called TRANSCRIPTION
  • (Only Occurs INSIDE of the Nucleus of a Cell)
  • Takes code to the ribosome where the protein will
    be made.
  • m-RNA is divided into smaller units called CODONS.

13
What is a Codon?
  • Codon - series of 3-nucleotide
    words found on the mRNA for ONE amino acid
  • The genetic instructions are written in the DNA
    as a triplet code

14
Translation NOW Occurs
  • Translation
  • Interpretation or Decoding of the protein code
    from DNA
  • Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell
  • NOT THE NUCLEUS
  • Involves mRNA, as well as,
  • tRNA and
    rRNA

15
t-RNA, Slide 1(Transfer RNA)
  • Carries the specific amino acid to the ribosome.
  • Each t-RNA will hook up with a codon.
  • One or more t-RNA for each amino acid.
  • Attach to the codon and have an area called an
    ANTI-CODON.

16
tRNA, Slide 2
  • The three letter code on the tRNA is called an
    Anticodon
  • This code translates what amino acid should be
    made

17
Translation Summary
  • mRNA from nucleus is read along its codons by
    tRNAs anticodons at the ribosome in the
    cytoplasm
  • tRNA anticodon (nucleotide
    triplet) brings ONE amino acid

18
Ribosomes and rRNA
(ribosomal RNA)
  • Ribosomes
  • Protein factories
  • Only Non-membrane bound organelle
  • rRNA
  • What makes up the ribosomes of the cell.
  • Found in high concentration in the nucleolus of
    the cells nucleus.

19
mRNA, tRNA and the ribosome Working Together
20
Elaborate Codon Table Activity
21
Elaborate
  • DNA Article with Codon Table
  • Guided Practice using the Codon Table
  • Building a Protein Synthesis Manipulative

22
Sequencing Race Begins
23
Evaluate
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