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Title: Sociology and You Author: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Last modified by: Stacey Smith Created Date: 2/1/2007 7:00:27 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Splash Screen


1
Splash Screen
2
Chapter Menu
Chapter Preview Section 1 Dimensions of
Stratification Section 2 Explanations of
Stratification Section 3 Social Classes in
America Section 4 Poverty in America Section 5
Social Mobility
3
Chapter Preview 1
Chapter Preview Section 1
Dimensions of Stratification (pages 242249)
Stratification is the division of society into
classes that have unequal amounts of wealth,
power, and prestige. Karl Marx and Max Weber
studied these dimensions of stratification in
great detail.
4
Chapter Preview 2
Chapter Preview Section 2
Explanations of Stratification (pages 250253)
Each of the three perspectivesfunctionalism,
conflict theory, and symbolic interactionismexpla
ins stratification in society in a different way.
5
Chapter Preview 3
Chapter Preview Section 3
Social classes in America (pages 254258)
Sociologists have identified several social
classes in the United States. They include the
upper, middle, working, and lower classes.
6
Chapter Preview 4
Chapter Preview Section 4
Poverty in America (pages 259264)
Poverty can be measured in absolute or relative
terms. The poor in the U.S. are
disproportionately represented by African
Americans, Latinos, women, and children.
7
Chapter Preview 5
Chapter Preview Section 5
Social Mobility (pages 265268)
Social mobility, the movement of individuals or
groups within the stratification structure, is
usually measured by changes in occupational
status. Sociologists are most interested in
upward or downward (vertical) mobility.
Closed-class systems permit little vertical
mobility open class systems, such as those in
industrialized countries, allow considerable
vertical mobility.
8
Chapter Preview-End
9
Section 1-Preview
  • Stratification is the division of society into
    classes that have unequal amounts of wealth,
    power, and prestige. Karl Marx and Max Weber
    studies these dimensions of stratification in
    great detail.

10
Section 1-Key Terms
  • social stratification
  • social class
  • bourgeoisie
  • proletariat
  • income
  • wealth
  • power
  • prestige

11
Section 1-Polling Question
Which characteristic do you think determines a
persons social class? A. Wealth B. Power C. Fame
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

12
Section 1
Dimension of Stratification
  • Social stratification is the creation of layers
    of people who possess unequal shares of scarce
    resources.
  • Income, wealth, power, and prestige are the most
    important resources.

13
Section 1
Dimension of Stratification (cont.)
  • Each layer is considered a social class, or a
    segment of a population whose members hold
    similar amounts of scarce resources and share
    values, norms, and an identifiable lifestyle.

Poverty and Death
14
Section 1
How many social classes do you think exist in the
U.S. today? A. 01 B. 23 C. 45 D. More than 5
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

15
Section 1
The Economic Dimension
  • Karl Marx believed that the economy determined
    the nature of society and predicted that
    capitalist societies would be reduced to two
    social classes

16
Section 1
The Economic Dimension (cont.)
  • The bourgeoisie is the class that owns the means
    of production.
  • The proletariat is the class that labors without
    owning the means of production.

17
Section 1
The Economic Dimension (cont.)
  • Marx also noted the unequal distribution of
    economic resources.
  • Income inequality exists and is growing within
    the United States.

18
Section 1
The Economic Dimension (cont.)
  • These definitions must be considered when
    discussing this gap
  • Income is the amount of money received within a
    given time period by an individual or group.
  • Wealth refers to all the economic resources
    possessed by an individual or group.

Percentage Change in After-Tax Income, 1977 to
2002
Shares of Wealth
19
Section 1
According to Marx, a construction worker would be
considered part of which class?
A. Proletariat B. Bourgeoisie C. Neither
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

20
Section 1
The Power Dimension
  • Power is the ability to control the behavior of
    others, even against their will.
  • Marx believed that those who own and control
    capital have the power in a society.
  • Weber argued that while having money helps,
    economic success and power are not the same.

21
Section 1
The Power Dimension (cont.)
  • The following can also increase power
  • Expert knowledge
  • Social positions
  • A large group of supporters or skill at
    organizing resources

22
Section 1
Do you think if a person is wealthy, they are
also powerful? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

23
Section 1
The Prestige Dimension
  • Prestige is recognition, respect, and admiration
    attached to social positions.
  • It is defined by your culture and society.
  • It is voluntarily given.

24
Section 1
The Prestige Dimension (cont.)
  • People with similar levels of prestige share
    similar lifestyles.
  • An occupation usually dictates a level of
    prestige.

Prestige Rankings of Selected Occupations in the
United States
25
Section 1
In your opinion, which position is more
prestigious A. Doctor B. Lawyer C. Professional
athlete D. Politician
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

26
Section 1-End
27
Section 2-Preview
  • Each of the three perspectivesfunctionalism,
    conflict theory, and symbolic interactionismexpla
    ins stratification in society in a different way.

28
Section 2-Key Terms
  • false consciousness

29
Section-Polling Question
Do you think education is a determining factor in
determining ones social class? A. Definitely
agree B. Somewhat agree C. Somewhat
disagree D. Definitely disagree
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

30
Section 2
Functionalist Theory of Stratification
  • According to the functionalists, stratification
    assures that
  • the most qualified people fill the most important
    positions
  • these qualified people perform their tasks
    competently
  • they are rewarded for their efforts

31
Section 2
Which profession do you think has the highest
level of skill? A. Doctor B. Rocket
scientist C. Car mechanic D. Writer
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

32
Section 2
Conflict Theory of Stratification
  • According to the conflict theory, inequality
    exists because some people are willing to exploit
    others.
  • This is based on Marxs ideas regarding class
    conflictthe people with the power are able to
    control everyone else because they can easily
    spread their ideas.

33
Section 2
Conflict Theory of Stratification (cont.)
  • Marx used the term false consciousness to refer
    to the working-class acceptance of capitalist
    ideas and values.

34
Section 2
According to the conflict theory of
stratification, what would a foreman at a
construction worksite be considered? A. An
exploiter B. The exploited C. Both D. Neither
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

35
Section 2
Symbolic Interaction and Stratification
  • According to this perspective, American children
    are taught that a persons social class is the
    result of talent and effort.
  • Therefore, peoples self-concepts help preserve
    the status quo.

Social Stratification
36
Section 2
According to the symbolic interactionism
perspective, could a child born into poverty
become a doctor? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

37
Section 2-End
38
Section 3-Preview
  • Sociologists have identified several social
    classes in the United States. They include the
    upper class, the middle class, the working class,
    the working poor, and the underclass.

39
Section 3-Key Terms
  • class consciousness
  • working poor
  • underclass

40
Section 3-Polling Question
Which social class would do you think Bill Gates,
founder of Microsoft, is considered to be part
of? A. Upper class B. Middle class C. Work class
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

41
Section 3
Class Consciousness
  • Class consciousness is a sense of identification
    with the goals and interests of the members of a
    particular social class.
  • The American public has shown little interest in
    class differences.

American Class Structure
Social Classes in World Perspective
42
Section 3
What is the typical income of a person in the
working poor class? A. 12,000 B. 35,000 C. 55,000
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

43
Section 3
The Upper Class
  • Only 1 of the population is upper class. There
    are different levels within the upper class
  • Upper-upper class
  • Lower-upper class

44
Section 3
What percentage of the population is in the upper
class? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

45
Section 3
The Middle Classes
  • About 4050 of Americans are middle class.

46
Section 3
The Middle Classes (cont.)
  • The upper-middle class (about 14) is composed of
    those who have been successful in
  • business
  • the professions
  • politics
  • the military

47
Section 3
The Middle Classes (cont.)
  • The middle-middle class (about 30) is made of
    people such as
  • owners of small businesses and farms
  • independent professionals
  • other professionals, such as nurses and police
    officers
  • lower-level managers
  • some sales and clerical workers

48
Section 3
What percentage of the population is in the
middle-middle class? A. 20 B. 30 C. 40 D. 50
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

49
Section 3
The Working Class
  • About one-third of the population is working
    class and is made of people such as
  • roofers
  • delivery truck drivers
  • machine operators
  • salespeople
  • clerical workers

50
Section 3
What is a major concern of the working
class? A. Steady employment B. Health
insurance C. Retirement benefits D. All of the
above
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

51
Section 3
The Working Poor
  • The working poor comprise about 13 of the
    population.
  • These people are employed in low-skill jobs with
    the lowest pay
  • lowest-level clerical workers
  • laborers
  • fast-food servers

52
Section 3
Which is a typical type of job for the working
poor? A. Fast-food servers B. Low-level
managers C. Salespeople D. All of the above
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

53
Section 3
The Underclass
  • The underclass comprise about 12 of the
    population.

54
Section 3
The Underclass (cont.)
  • Characteristics of the underclass include
  • May hold part-time menial jobs or are on public
    assistance
  • Might have physical or mental disabilities
  • Many single mothers
  • Lack skills to obtain jobs
  • Entered underclass through means such as birth,
    drug addiction or old age

55
Section 3
What do you consider to be the main reason for
being in the underclass? A. Physical or mental
disabilities B. Drug addiction C. Old age D. Lack
of skills
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

56
Section 3-End
57
Section 4-Preview
  • Poverty can be measured in absolute or relative
    terms. The poor in the U.S. are
    disproportionately represented by African
    Americans, Latinos, women, and children.

58
Section 4-Key Terms
  • absolute poverty
  • relative poverty
  • feminization of poverty

59
Section 4-Polling Question
Do you think poverty in America is different than
poverty in other countries? A. Yes B. No C. Not
sure
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

60
Section 4
Measuring Poverty
  • Absolute poverty is the absence of enough money
    to secure lifes necessitiesenough food and a
    safe place to live.
  • Relative poverty is determined by comparing the
    economic condition of those at the bottom of a
    society with other members of that society.

61
Section 4
Measuring Poverty (cont.)
  • The poor comprise 12.7 of the American
    population (which means they have an income below
    19,484 for a family of four).

Number of Poor and Poverty Rate 19602004
62
Section 4
Where do you think poverty is the
worst? A. United States B. Africa C. India
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

63
Section 4
Identifying the Poor
  • The poor are comprised of
  • Minorities, especially Latinos and African
    Americans
  • People who live in female-headed households.
    (feminization of poverty)

The Distribution of Poverty in the U.S.
64
Section 4
Identifying the Poor (cont.)
  • Children under 18
  • Elderly people
  • People with disabilities

Percentage of Population in Poverty
65
Section 4
For every dollar earned by men, women
earn A. .50 B. .80 C. .90 D. 1.00
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

66
Section 4
Responses to the Problem of Poverty
  • In 1964, President Lyndon Johnson began the War
    on Poverty he wanted to help poor people help
    themselves.
  • The program was not as successful as Johnson had
    hoped.

67
Section 4
Do you think the government is doing a good job
combating poverty? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

68
Section 4
Welfare Reform
  • The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
    program limits the amount of time those people
    who are able to work may receive welfare payments.

69
Section 4
Welfare Reform (cont.)
  • Three major elements of the TANF bill
  • It reduces welfare spending.
  • It increases state and local power to oversee
    welfare rules.
  • It adds new restrictions on welfare eligibility.

70
Section 4
Welfare Reform (cont.)
  • Positive and negative changes have occurred
    because of the bill.

The Federal Government DollarWhere It Goes
71
Section 4
What percentage of the Federal Dollar is spent on
Medicaid? A. 5 B. 7 C. 10 D. 12
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

72
Section 4-End
73
Section 5-Preview
  • Social mobility, the movement of individuals or
    groups within the stratification structure, is
    usually measured by changes in occupational
    status. Sociologists are most interested in
    upward or downward (vertical) mobility.
    Closed-class systems permit little vertical
    mobility open-class systems, such as those in
    industrialized countries, allow considerable
    vertical mobility.

74
Section 5-Key Terms
  • social mobility
  • horizontal mobility
  • vertical mobility
  • intergenerational mobility
  • caste (closed-class systems)
  • open-class systems

75
Section 5-Polling Question
Social mobility refers to A. Horizontal
mobility B. Vertical mobility C. All of the above
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

76
Section 5
Types of Social Mobility
  • Social mobility is the movement of people between
    social classes.
  • Horizontal mobility involves changing from one
    occupation to another at the same social class
    level.

77
Section 5
Types of Social Mobility (cont.)
  • Vertical mobility involves a persons
    occupational status or social class moving upward
    or downward.
  • When the change takes place over a generation, it
    is called intergenerational mobility.

78
Section 5
If a doctors son becomes a social worker, what
is this considered to be? A. Horizontal
mobility B. Vertical mobility C. Intergenerational
mobility
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

79
Section 5
Caste and Open-Class Systems
  • In a caste system, there is no social mobility
    because social status is inherited and cannot be
    changed.
  • Apartheid was a caste system in Africa based on
    race.

80
Section 5
Caste and Open-Class Systems (cont.)
  • The Indian caste system is still in effect in
    some areas and is based on occupation and Hindu
    religion
  • The Brahminpriests and scholars
  • Kshatriyasprofessional, governing, and military
    jobs
  • Vaisyasmerchants and businessmen

81
Section 5
Caste and Open-Class Systems (cont.)
  • Sudrafarmers, menial workers, craftsmen
  • Untouchablesdirty, degrading tasks

82
Section 5
Caste and Open-Class Systems (cont.)
  • An open-class system, like in the U.S., allows an
    individual to determine his or her class based on
    merit and individual effort.
  • However, some groups or individuals are denied
    movement.

83
Section 5
The following are characteristics of a caste
system EXCEPT A. Marriage possible only within
the same caste B. Different castes may not eat
together C. Status is assigned at birth
D. Untouchables serve all food
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

84
Section 5
Upward and Downward Mobility
  • Great leaps in social-class level are actually
    rare.
  • The trend today is towards downward mobility due
    to the outsourcing of jobs to lower-paid foreign
    workers.
  • Katherine Newman writes about the consequences of
    this trend in Falling from Grace.

85
Section 5
Downwardly mobile people experience which of the
following? A. Lower self-esteem B. Despair C. Depr
ession D. All of the above
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

86
Section 5-End
87
Figure 8.1
Percentage Change in After-Tax Income, 1977 to
2002
Source Washington, DC Center on Budget and
Policy Priorities, 2005.
88
Figure 8.2
Shares of Wealth
Source Edward N. Wolff, Changes in Household
Wealth in the 1980s and 1990s in the U.S.
(Working Paper No. 407). The Levy Economics
Institute, May 2004.
89
Figure 8.3
Prestige Rankings of Selected Occupations in the
United States
90
Figure 8.4
91
Figure 8.5
American Class Structure
Source Adapted from Dennis Gilbert, The
American Class Structure in an Age of Growing
Inequality (6th ed.), 2003.
92
Figure 8.6
Number of Poor and Poverty Rate 19602004
Source U.S. Bureau of the Census, Income,
Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the
United States 2004, 2005.
93
Figure 8.7
The Distribution of Poverty in the U.S.
Source U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2005.
94
Figure 8.8
The Federal Government DollarWhere It Goes
Source A Citizens Guide to the Federal
Budget, Washington, D.C., 2002.
95
Snapshot
Source U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2005.
96
World View 1
Poverty and Death
Source World Health Organization, World Health
Statistics 2005.
97
World View 2
Social Classes in World Perspective
Source World Bank, 2005.
98
Transparency Menu
Sociology Chapter Transparencies
Concentration of Wealth Income Distribution Portra
it of a Typical Millionaire Unemployment Rate as
of September 2005
99
Transparency 1
100
Transparency 2
101
Transparency 3
102
Transparency 4
103
Vocab 1
social stratification
ranking of people or groups according to their
unequal access to scarce resources
104
Vocab 2
social class
segment of society whose members hold similar
amounts of resources and share values, norms, and
an identifiable lifestyle
105
Vocab 3
bourgeoisie
class that owns the means of production
106
Vocab 4
proletariat
class that labors without owning the means of
production
107
Vocab 5
income
amount of money received by an individual or
group over a specific time period
108
Vocab 6
wealth
total economic resources held by a person or
group
109
Vocab 7
power
the ability to control the behavior of others,
even against their will
110
Vocab 8
prestige
recognition, respect, and admiration attached to
social positions
111
Vocab 9
false consciousness
adoption of the ideas of the dominant class by
the less powerful class
112
Vocab 10
class consciousness
identification with the goals and interests of a
social class
113
Vocab 11
working poor
people employed in low-skill jobs with the lowest
pay who do not earn enough to rise out of poverty
114
Vocab 12
underclass
people typically unemployed who came from
families that have been poor for generations
115
Vocab 13
absolute poverty
the absence of enough money to secure lifes
necessities
116
Vocab 14
relative poverty
a measure of poverty based on the economic
disparity between those at the bottom of a
society and the rest of the society
117
Vocab 15
feminization of poverty
a trend in U.S. society in which women and
children make up an increasing proportion of the
poor
118
Vocab 16
social mobility
the movement of individuals or groups between
social classes
119
Vocab 17
horizontal mobility
a change in occupation within the same social
class
120
Vocab 18
vertical mobility
a change upward or down-ward in occupational
status or social class
121
Vocab 19
intergenerational mobility
a change in status or class from one generation
to the next
122
Vocab 20
caste system (closed-class system)
a stratification structure that does not allow
for social mobility
123
Vocab 21
open-class system
a system in which social class is based on merit
and individual effort movement is allowed
between classes
124
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