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A Global Concern

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A Global Concern Cultural Changes and the Environment Agricultural revolution Allowed people to stay in one place. Industrial-medical revolution Led shift from rural ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Global Concern


1
A Global Concern
2
Chapter Overview Questions
  • What are the main themes of this book?
  • What keeps us alive? What is an environmentally
    sustainable society?
  • How fast is the human population growing?
  • What is the difference between economic growth,
    economic development, and environmentally
    sustainable economic development?

3
Chapter Overview Questions (contd)
  • What are the harmful environmental effects of
    poverty and affluence? (Is affluence a bad
    thing?)
  • What three major human cultural changes have
    taken place since humans arrived?
  • What are the four scientific principles of
    sustainability and how can we use them to build
    more environmentally sustainable societies during
    this century?

4
What is Environmental Science?
  • The goals of environmental science are to learn
  • how nature works.
  • how the environment affects us.
  • how we affect the environment.
  • how we can live more sustainably without
    degrading our life-support system.

5
Environmental Science
  • Interdisciplinary science ecology, geology,
    chemistry,
  • Politics, engineering, economics, ethics
  • Connections and interactions between humans and
    the rest of nature
  • Validity of data questioned many variables

6
Environmental Issues
  • Population growth
  • Increasing resource use
  • Destruction and degradation of habitat
  • Premature extinction
  • Poverty
  • Pollution

7
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8
Carrying Capacity
  • The total number of organisms an environment can
    support over a specified period
  • Some factors that regulate populations include
  • Predation
  • Amount of resources (food, space)
  • Natural disasters- hurricane, volcano eruption,
    etc.
  • Disease

9
Sustainability The Integrative Theme
  • Sustainability is the ability of earths various
    systems to survive and adapt to environmental
    conditions indefinitely.
  • The steps to sustainability must be supported by
    sound science.

Figure 1-3
10
Population Growth
  • Linear Growth
  • Quantity increases
  • by a constant amount per unit of time
  • 1,2,3,4,5,
  • 1,3,5,7,9,
  • When plotted on a graph, S shaped curve appears

11
Population Growth
  • 2. Exponential Growth
  • Starts off slowly, doubles a few times, then
    grows rapidly.
  • J shaped curve
  • Current human population 6.86 billion
  • 1.2 growth increase/year

12
Core Case Study Living in an Exponential Age
  • Human population growth J-shaped curve

Figure 1-1
13
Doubling Time
  • Rule of 70
  • Doubling time is equal to
  • 70 / the growth rate
  • Example
  • If a country had a population of 100 people
  • and a growth rate of 7. How long would it
  • take for them to double their population?
  • 70 / 7 10 years

14
Population Growth, Economic Growth, and Economic
Development
  • Economic growth provides people with more goods
    and services.
  • Measured in gross domestic product (GDP)
  • Economic development uses economic growth to
    improve living standards.
  • The worlds countries economic status (developed
    vs. developing) are based on their degree of
    industrialization and GDP.

15
Global Outlook
  • Comparison of developed and developing countries.

Figures 1-5 and 1-6
16
Economic Development
  • More Developed Countries (MDC) 1.2 billion
    people
  • 20 population
  • Highly industrialized
  • High average per capita GNP
  • 85 of world wealth income
  • Uses 88 of resources
  • Creates 75 of wastes
  • US, Japan, Canada, parts of Europe
  • Less Developed Countries (LDC) 5.2 billion
    people
  • 80 of population
  • Low to moderate industrialization
  • Average per capita GNP below 4000
  • 15 of world wealth income
  • Africa, Latin America, and parts of Asia

17
Environmental Impact
P (population) X A (affluence) X T
(technological impact/unit of use) I
(Environmental impact)
18
Ecological Footprint or Environmental Impact
  • Amount of land needed to produce the resources
    needed by an average person in a country

19
National Geographic Video
  • National Geographic Channel Videos Human
    Footprint

20
Resources
  • Ecological
  • Habitat, food, shelter
  • Economic
  • Renewable
  • Non renewable
  • Potentially renewable

21
Sustainable Development
  • Assumes the right to use the earths resources
    and earth capital to meet needs
  • Obligation exists to pass the earths resources
    and services to future generations in as good or
    better shape than condition when passed to us

22
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23
Four Scientific Principles of Sustainability
Copy Nature
  • Reliance on Solar Energy
  • Biodiversity
  • Population Control
  • Nutrient Recycling

Figure 1-16
24
Tragedy of the Commons
  • Written by Garrett Hardin
  • Concerns over-use of common property
  • Clean air, open ocean and its fish, wild life
    species, publicly owned land, gases of lower
    atmosphere, space

25
Globalization
  • Social, economic and environmental change that
    leads to an increasingly integrated world
  • Economic, information and communication,
    environmental effects

26
Information Revolution and Globalization
  • International trade of goods increased
  • Transnational corporations from 7,000 to 53,000
  • Phones from 89 to 850 million
  • Passenger kilometers from 28 million to 2.6
    trillion
  • Infectious microbes transported

27
RESOURCES
  • Perpetual On a human time scale are continuous.
  • Renewable On a human time scale can be
    replenished rapidly (e.g. hours to several
    decades).
  • Nonrenewable On a human time scale are in fixed
    supply.

28
Pollution
  • Found at high enough levels in the environment to
    cause harm to organisms.
  • Point source
  • Nonpoint source

Figure 1-9
29
Environmental Worldview
  • Planetary Management or Anthropocentric
  • We are in charge of nature, always more to use,
    all economic growth is good.
  • Earth Wisdom
  • Nature for all of earths species, not always for
    more use, make a judgment call about economic
    growth.

30
Resource Conservation
  • 1903-Theodore Roosevelt
  • Set aside Pelican Island, FL to save the brown
    pelican
  • 1905- Gifford Pinchot
  • Formed US Forest Service
  • Philosophy Resources should be saved to be used
    for the greatest good, for the greatest number,
    for the longest time.

31
Moral / Aesthetic Nature Conservation
  • John Muir, Sierra Club founder
  • Fundamental right of organisms to exist for its
    own sake. . .

32
Aldo Leopolds Environmental Ethics
  • Individuals matter.
  • land is to be loved and respected is an
    extension of ethics.
  • We abuse land because we regard it as a commodity

Figure 1-A
33
Cultural Changes
  • Hunter gatherers 12,000 years ago
  • Agricultural revolution 10,000-12,000-
  • Industrial revolution 275 years ago
  • Technological revolution 50 years ago

34
Cultural Changes and the Environment
  • Agricultural revolution
  • Allowed people to stay in one place.
  • Industrial-medical revolution
  • Led shift from rural villages to urban society.
  • Science improved sanitation and disease control.
  • Information-globalization revolution
  • Rapid access to information.

35
Hunting and Gathering Societies
  • Nomadic, living in small bands
  • Population in balance with food supply
  • High infant mortality
  • Life expectancy 30-40 yr.
  • 3 energy sources
  • Sun
  • Fire
  • Muscle power

36
Agricultural Societies
  • Settled communities
  • Slash and burn cultivation to fertilize
    nutrient-poor field by ashes
  • Shifting cultivation
  • Subsistence farming

37
Effects and Environmental Impact of Agricultural
Revolution
  • Urbanization and agricultural expansion, cut down
    forests, destroyed habitats, soil erosion and
    desertification
  • Birth rate faster than death rate causes
    population increase

38
Early Industrial Societies (Mid 1700s)
  • Wood used up resulted in coal usage
  • Steam generation
  • Fossil fuel-powered farm machinery
  • Less farmers needed
  • Moved to cities

39
Advanced Industrial Societies (1914 ---)
  • Increase in agricultural products
  • Lower infant mortality
  • Improved health
  • Increase in longevity
  • Net population increase
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