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The Enlightenment

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The Enlightenment: A revolution in Intellectual Activity – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Enlightenment


1
The Enlightenment A revolution in Intellectual
Activity
2
The Enlightenment
Age of Reason
1700s
3
Human reason could
  • combat ignorance
  • fight superstition
  • end tyranny
  • build a better world

4
  • Core Beliefs
  • 1.) Reason
  • Thinkers applied reason to all areas of society
    to discover the natural laws that governed.
  • Subjected everything- all persons, institutions,
    traditions to the test of reason.

5
2.) Progress
  • From superstition to reason.
  • From darkness into light.
  • It became assumed that humans would improve each
    generation.
  • This progress would be the product of REASON.

6
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7
  • 3.)Happiness
  • Live for life on earth
  • Live by natures law and people should be happy.
  • Through progress and reason everyone could
    attain happiness.
  • (Even Britney!)

8
  • 4.)Nature
  • Society should be governed by what is natural
    (Natural Laws).
  • These laws can be discovered through reason.

9
  • 5.)Liberty
  • People should be free.
  • Enlightened ideas inspired the American and
    French Revolutions.

10
The mid 17th century End of the
Renaissance and dawn of the Enlightenment
11
Philosophers of the Enlightenment
John Locke
English
1632 1704
12
John Locke
  • 1.) People are born free with natural rights-
    life, liberty and property.
  • 2.) Government forms a social contract with the
    people.
  • 3.) Government is to protect the rights of the
    people. If it doesnt people can overthrow the
    government.-The right of revolution!
  • 4.)He was a major influence on Thomas Jeffersons
    thinking when he wrote the

Declaration of Independence
13
5.) Opposed absolute monarchs
  • Wrote that people have a right to life,
    liberty, and property
  • 6.) Believed people set up governments to
    protect their natural rights

14
We hear Locke in the Declaration of Independence
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that
all men are created equal, that they are endowed
by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights,
that among these are Life, Liberty and the
pursuit of Happiness. -- That to secure these
rights, Governments are instituted among Men,
deriving their just powers from the consent of
the governed
_______
_____
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15
Thomas Hobbes English (1588-1679)
  • 1.)Wrote Leviathan
  • 2.)People are naturally cruel, greedy, and
    selfish
  • 3.)People needed to be controlled with laws
  • 4.) People need to enter into a social
    contract give up the state of nature for an
    organized society.
  • 5.) Believed in absolute monarchy only a
    powerful government could ensure an orderly
    society

16
Baron de Montesquieu
French
1689 1755
17
Baron de Montesquieu
  • 1.) Believed in a balance of power in government
    through checks and balances
  • 2.) Favored a separation of powers among
    different branches of government.
  • 3.) His ideas became the basis for the United
    States Constitution.

18
Wrote that government should have three parts
  • Legislative
  • Executive
  • Judicial

19
We hear Montesquieu in the U.S. Constitution
Article I Legislative Powers
(Congress)
Article II Executive Powers
(The President)
Article III Judicial Powers
(The Supreme Court)
20
Voltaire
French
1694 1778
21
Voltaire
  • 1.) Advocated (defended and supported) freedom of
    religion, thought and speech
  • 2.) His ideas appear in the U.S. Bill of Rights.
  • 3.)The separation of church and state.

22
We hear Voltaire in the the U.S. Bill of Rights
Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting
an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the
free exercise thereof or abridging the freedom
of speech, or of the press or the right of the
people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the
government for a redress of grievances.
23
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
French
1712 1778
24
Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • 1.) Wrote The Social Contract
  • 2.) Favored Direct Democracy and also believed
    that the right to govern came from the consent of
    the governed.
  • 3.) He believed that government should reflect
    what the people want.
  • His ideas inspired many of the leaders of the
    French Revolution.

25
5.)Once rulers cease to protect the people
(breaking the Social Contract), the people have a
right to break away from the government
(revolution)
4.) Believed in individual liberty and that
government should reflect what the people want
26
We hear Rousseau in The Declaration of
Independence
When in the course of human events, it becomes
necessary for one people to dissolve the
political bands which have connected them with
another, and to assume among the powers of the
earth, the separate and equal station to which
the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle
them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind
requires that they should declare the causes
which impel them to the separation.
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27
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28
Adam Smith
  • Scottish economist
  • 1.) Wrote the Wealth of Nations
  • 2.)Supported laissez faire businesses allowed to
    operate with little or no government interference

29
Laissez Faire (Free Market economy) Replaces
Mercantilism (government controlled economy)
  • Physiocrats focused on economic reform
  • Rational economic system should be based on the
    natural laws of economics
  • Business operates with little or no government
    interference


30
Laissez-faire
French meaning let things alone or let people do
as they please
31
based on Supply and Demand
3.) Supported Free Market Society
When the supply is plentiful
When supply is low
And the demand is high Prices/wages
And the demand is low
Prices/Wages are
32
Two American Founding Fathers who were
extremely influenced by the philosophers of the
Enlightenment
1.) Jefferson
2.) Adams
33
The Enlightenment (Age of Reason) was not
confined to political thought
It was also the birth of modern science!
34
New Science, Old Ideas
35
The writings of
René Descartes and Francis Bacon
give birth to the scientific method.
36
Scientific Method
37
Sir Isaac Newton
English
1642 1727
38
Isaac Newton
39
Father of modern science
  • Discovered laws of gravity and motion
  • Wrote the
  • Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica

40
Mary Wollstonecraft
  • One of the first womens rights activists. Her
    ideas led to the formation of Womens rights
    groups in North America and in Europe.
  • Believed that all were equal in a society.

41
Other Notable Figures of the Age of Enlightenment
Denis Diderot took thirty years to edit the first
popular encyclopedia.
42
Edward Gibbon wrote
He was one of the first to use primary sources
for his research. Many consider him the first
modern historian.
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
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