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Political Culture, Ideology, and Landscape

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Title: Political Culture, Ideology, and Landscape


1
Political Culture, Ideology, and Landscape
2
Among Its Citizens, Are There Set American Ideals?
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Are There Set American Ideals?
  • Common American beliefs democracy, equality,
    individualism, competition, private business,
    conformity to authority, nationalism, and
    idealism.
  • The American Dream The widespread belief that
    individual initiative and hard work can bring
    economic success, and that the United States is a
    land of opportunity.
  • Do we have equality? Is racism, classism, sexism,
    homophobia, discrimination getting better or
    worse?

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Economics and Ideology
  • Political Ideology ties in directly with
    economics.
  • We have a Capitalist System based in the trade of
    goods where the ultimate goal is to achieve as
    much capital or wealth as possible.
  • In a capitalist system companies compete with one
    and another for the most wealth.

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Ideology and Capitalism
  • In a true capitalistic system, a government would
    not regulate business in any way (Adam Smith).
  • We have a modified Capitalist economy. The
    government regulates business and uses its
    authority to both influence and control.
  • Major ideological difference
  • Conservative- more free markets
  • Liberal- more government regulation

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The Political Spectrum
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Note on this one Hitler is misplaced
16
When I say liberal who and what issues do we
think of?
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Liberalism
  • Generally favors proposals for reform, open to
    new ideas for progress.
  • People who have defined it (the political terms
    are always changing) Al Gore, Bill and Hillary
    Clinton, FDR, JFK, Mike Dukakis, Jimmy Carter,
    Deval Patrick, and Barack Obama.
  • Often associated with the Democratic and Green
    parties.
  • Liberal in a classical sense (17th and 18th
    century) minimize governments role (especially
    in business).

20
Central View of Liberalism
  • There is a belief in the positive use of
    government to bring about justice and equality of
    opportunity.
  • Use government to protect the rights of
    individuals, yet willing to have government
    intervention.
  • They seek protection by having government supply
    health care, education, and housing.
  • Often supporters of Unions, Affirmative Action,
    Tax rates that rise with income level
    (progressive tax), Workers rights.
  • The government should stray away from legislating
    morals and family values.

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Criticism of Liberalism
  • Too much reliance on government to solve problems
  • Liberal programs results in higher taxes
  • Too many government restrictions hurt capitalism
    and economy
  • Creates more bureaucracy and results in more
    waste

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When I say conservative who and what issues do we
think of?
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Conservatism
  • Generally favors traditional views and tending to
    oppose change (retaining status quo).
  • People who have defined it (the political terms
    are always changing) George W. Bush, Ronald
    Reagan, Newt Gingrich, Trent Lott, Richard Nixon,
    Barry Goldwater
  • Often associated with the Republican and
    Libertarian parties.
  • Conservative in a classical sense (17th and 18th
    century) limited electorate, maintaining social
    classes provides law and order.

28
Central Views of Conservatism
  • Limited government ensures order, competitive
    markets, and personal opportunity.
  • Pro-business Government should not intervene
    with the economy. Supports Free Trade
  • Opposes higher taxes, especially relative taxes
    (flat tax). Everyone should pay the same
    percentage of tax.
  • Military has a strong role in constantly protect
    America from its enemies.
  • The government should encourage morals and family
    values.

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Criticism of Conservatism
  • With little regulation in business, there is less
    protection of workers
  • Failure to deal with social issues such as
    Sexism, Racism, and Classism
  • Allows a widening economic gap between rich and
    poor
  • Overly aggressive in military use/more difficult
    to create international consensus and diplomacy
  • Too close to the Christian Right, Corporate
    America who see all issues from an extreme
    standpoint

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Two Party System
33
vs.
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Ideology vs. Party
  • Political Ideology refers to ones beliefs about
    political values and the role of government.
  • Political Party An organized group of people
    with common values and goals, who try to get
    their candidates elected to office.
  • One is how you feel about issues and the other is
    the political organization you are registered
    with, which raises money, establishes primaries,
    and helps candidates run for office.
  • Parties are based on ideology, but are not
    mutually exclusive. Liberals are often Democrats
    and Conservatives are often Republican, but not
    always. You can be a liberal Republican or a
    conservative Libertarian, because ideology
    transcends political party.

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The Two Party System
  • The Democrats and The Republicans In the United
    States there are two major parties. This is very
    different from most western Democracies.
  • As a result, there are large gaps in ideology
    even among party members of the Democrats or
    Republicans.

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Political Base
  • The group of people which a political candidate
    or political party feels is most likely to vote
    for them. Generally people in the political base
    are more extreme in their political views and
    more likely to vote (especially in primaries).
  • Example Republicans over the last few years have
    seen their base as fiscally conservative people
    and those who are highly religious, and will
    court them in the primaries by attempting to seem
    more socially and fiscally conservative.

39
Socialism
  • Central View of Socialism Government system
    based on public ownership of important industries
    (not retail, but industries related to the
    welfare of the people electricity, water,
    health care, etc)
  • People who have defined it (the political terms
    are always changing) Ralph Nader, Bernie
    Sanders, Michael Moore, Zach De La Rocha, Jill
    Stein (many may register as Democrats)
  • Steeper tax burden, more government programs
  • Protect citizens rights, while attempting to
    create Economic Equality (eliminate
    socio-economic classes)

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Libertarianism
  • People who have defined it (the political terms
    are always changing) Harry Browne, Carla Howell,
    Arnold Schwarzenneger, Jesse Ventura, Dennis
    Miller, Bill Maher, Drew Carey, Ted Nugent, PJ
    ORourke (many may register as Republicans)
  • Central View of Libertarianism Ideology that
    individual liberty can only flourish with little
    government
  • Reduce government programs and taxes
  • Allow businesses to regulate themselves
  • Allow social welfare to be done by private
    organizations

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Political Efficacy
  • Is a persons own belief that she or he can
    influence politics through their actions and
    expression of opinion.
  • If a persons political efficacy is high, then
    they believe they have power over the decisions
    of their government.
  • If a persons personal efficacy is low, then they
    believe they have little power over the decisions
    of their government.

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Political Landscape
  • Is a term used by political scientists to
    describe the regional differences throughout a
    country. By using statistics through polling and
    determining where certain ideologies and
    political parties are predominant is gives us a
    picture of a specific areas of a nation.

47
We need a volunteer lets try to determine which
states are more liberal and which states are more
conservative
48
By using the 2004 election, which was very
polarized, may have broken the US into red (voted
for Bush - conservative) and blue (voted for
Kerry - liberal) states.
49
A 2004 Election map adjusted for population.
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  • The amount of red on the map is skewed
    because there are a lot of counties in which only
    a slim majority voted Republican. One possible
    way to allow for this to be reflected in a map
    (suggested by Robert Vanderbei at Princeton) is
    to use not just two colors on the map, red and
    blue, but instead to use red, blue, and shades of
    purple to indicate percentages of voters. Here is
    what the normal map looks like if you do this. If
    you use this method American appears less
    divided.

52
How has this changed with the 2008 election?
53
The Final Count in 2008
INSERT MAP HERE
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Is America Bluer Now?
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Demographics
  • Demographics the study of the characterizations
    of populations
  • Political Socialization the process where their
    community or society in general influences ones
    political beliefs
  • Ethnocentrism selective perception that leads
    one to believe in the superiority of ones nation
    or ethnic group.

57
US Total Population
  Current US Population Total 300 million (as of
2007)
58
Legend (persons per sq.mi.) 0-1 (white) 1-4
(yellow) 5-9 (yellow-green) 10-24 (green) 25-49
(teal) 50-99 (dark teal) 100-249
(blue) 250-66,995 (violet)
59
Race and Ethnicity
  • Race a grouping of human characteristics based
    on appearance, usually skin color and eye shape
    (White, Black, Asian, Native American)
  • Ethnicity a social division based on national
    origin, religion, language, and culture (Latino,
    Pacific Islander, African American, Polish
    American, Chinese American, Afro-Caribbean,
    Native Hawaiian)
  • Multiracial Sociological term to describe a
    person of one or more race.

60
Demographics of U.S. by Race/Ethnicity
  • White 72.4
  • African American 12.6
  • Asian American 4.8
  • American Indian 0.9
  • Pacific Islander 0.2
  • Multiple Races and Other 9.1
  • Hispanic 16.4
  • (based on 2010 Census)

61
Minority Population in the US
62
Cities with Highest Percentage of Caucasians
  • Portland, Oregon (75 )
  • Seattle, Washington (68 )
  • Indianapolis, Indiana (67 )
  • Columbus, Ohio (67 )
  • Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (65 )
  • Nashville-Davidson, Tennessee (64 )
  • Jacksonville, Florida (62 )
  • Phoenix, Arizona (56 )
  • Charlotte, North Carolina (55 )
  • Source Washington Post analysis of 2000 census
    data

63
Portland, Oregon
64
How do whites vote?
  • Whites make up about 224 million people and 80
    of all voters (Census 2010)
  • Whites voted for Bush (58), Kerry (41) in 2004
    and Bush (54), Gore (42), and Nader (3) in
    2000.
  • In 2008, Whites voted for McCain (53) and Obama
    (45).

65
White Males and Females
  • White males voted for Bush (62) and Kerry (37)
    (CNN). In 2008, White males voted for McCain
    (57) and Obama (41). (PEW)
  • White females voted for Bush (55) and Kerry
    (44). (CNN). White females voted for McCain
    (53) to Obama (46). (PEW)

66
Cities with Highest Percentage of Blacks
  • 1. Detroit, Michigan (81.6)
  • 2. New Orleans, Louisiana (67.3)
  • 3. Baltimore, Maryland (64.3)
  • 4. Atlanta, Georgia (61.4)
  • 5. Memphis, Tennessee (61.4)
  • Cities ranked are those over over 400,000 (from
    Census 2000). Includes Latinos identifying
    racially as blacks.

67
Detroit, Michigan
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How do African Americans vote?
  • African Americans make up about 39 million people
    and 11 of all voters (Census 2010)
  • Blacks voted for Kerry (88), Bush (11) in 2004
    and Gore (90), Bush (9), and Nader (1) in
    2000. (CNN) In 2008, Blacks voted for Obama (95)
    to McCain 4 (PEW).

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Cities with Highest Hispanic Populations
  • East Los Angeles, California (97)
  • Laredo, Texas (94)
  • Brownsville, Texas (91)
  • Hialeah, Florida (90)
  • McAllen, Texas (80)
  • El Paso, Texas (77)
  • Santa Ana, California (72)
  • El Monte, California (72)
  • Oxnard, CA (66)
  • Miami, Florida (66)
  • Cities ranked are those over 100,000 (from Census
    2000). Locations do not include those inside the
    Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

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East Los Angeles, California
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How do Latinos vote?
  • Latinos make up about 50 million people and 8 of
    all voters (Census 2010)
  • Latinos voted for Kerry (62), Bush (32) in 2004
    and Gore (62), Bush (35), and Nader (2) in
    2000. (CNN) Latinos voted for Obama (66) to
    McCain 32 (PEW).

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Cities with Highest Asian Populations
  • 1. Honolulu, Hawaii (55.9)
  • 2. Daly City, California (50.7)
  • 3. Fremont, California (37.0)
  • 4. Sunnyvale, California (32.3)
  • 5. Garden Grove, California (30.9)
  • 6. San Francisco, California (30.8)
  • 7. Irvine, California (29.8)
  • 8. Santa Clara, California (29.3)
  • 9. Torrance, California (28.6)
  • 10. San Jose, California (26.9)
  • Cities ranked are those over 100,000 (from Census
    2000).

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Honolulu, Hawaii
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How do Asians vote?
  • Asian Americans make up about 15 million people
    and 2 of all voters (Census 2010)
  • Asians voted for Kerry (56), Bush (44) in 2004
    and Gore (55), Bush (44), and Nader (1) in
    2000. (CNN) In 2008, Asians voted for Obama (61)
    and McCain (39)

76
American Indians
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Laguna Indian Reservation, New Mexico
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How did American Indians vote?
  • The concentration of American Indians in the US
    is traditionally in the west and centered on
    Indian reservations.
  • American Indians/Pacific Islanders make up about
    3 million people and lt1 of all voters (Census
    2005)
  • American Indians/Pacific Islanders voted for
    Kerry (54), Bush (40) in 2004 and Gore (55),
    Bush (39), and Nader (1) in 2000. (CNN)

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Class in the U.S.
  • 2000
  • White Collar 58
  • Blue Collar 32
  • Farming 1
  • Other 8 
  • 1960
  • White Collar 39
  • Blue Collar 40
  • Farming 12
  • Other 9

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Poverty and the United States
  • Approximately 7 percent of whites, 10 percent of
    Asians, 20 percent of Latinos, 24 percent of
    American Indians, and 28 percent of African
    Americans are living under the poverty line.
    (Census 2000)

81
How do poor and wealthy people vote?
  • Extremely wealthy people (over 350,000) make up
    3 million and about 3 of all voters.
  • Wealthy people (over 92,000/under 350,000) make
    up about 60 million people and 18 of all voters
    (Census 2005).
  • Poor people (under 22,000) make up about 75
    million people and 10 of all voters (Census
    2005).

82
The Middle Class
  • Middle class people (over 25,000 and under
    92,000) make up 162 million people and about 59
    of all voters.

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Wealthiest Cities in US
  • 1 San Jose, CA 71,765
  • 2 Anchorage, AK 61,565
  • 3 San Francisco, CA 60,031
  • 4 Virginia Beach, VA 55,781
  • 5 San Diego, CA 51,382
  • 6 Anaheim, CA 49,622
  • 7 Raleigh, NC 47,878
  • 8 Seattle, WA 46,650
  • 9 Washington, DC 46,574
  • 10 Honolulu, HI 46,500
  • Cities with population over 250,000. Rank city
    median household income, 2004.

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San Jose, California
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Poorest Cities in the US
  • 1. Miami, FL 24,031
  • 2. Newark, NJ 26,309
  • 3. Cleveland, OH 27,871
  • 4. Detroit, MI 27,871
  • 5. Buffalo, NY 28,544
  • 6. St. Louis, MO 30,389
  • 7. Philadelphia, PA 30,631
  • 8. Milwaukee, WI 31,231
  • 9. New Orleans, LA 31,369
  • 10. El Paso, TX 31,764
  • Cities with population over 250,000. Rank city
    median household income, 2004.

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Males and Females
  • According to Census 2000, there are 143.4 million
    females and 138.1 million males. Females made up
    50.9 percent of the population, compared with
    51.3 percent in 1990.

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Soccer Mom Election 1992 and 1996
90
Nascar Dads Election 2000 and 2004
91
Sexual Orientation
  • Between 5-10 of the population identifies as gay
    or lesbian
  • Issues of strong concern within the gay
    community discrimination and gay marriage/civil
    unions. Often identify with liberal ideology and
    vote Democrat
  • Log Cabin Republicans are an organization for gay
    and lesbian conservatives.

92
Religion and the United States
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Some Key Issues with the Religion Vote
  • Different religions views these issues
    differently, but they have been divisive.
  • Abortion, Gay Marriage, Poverty, Death Penalty
    were some of the most highly cited social issues.
  • Foreign policy and defense were cited as the most
    important issues by all voters who identify with
    a religion.

97
Age and Voting
  • 18-29 (17)
  • 30-44 (29)
  • 45-59 (30)
  • 60 and Older (24)
  • (Parentheses is percentage of total voting
    population)

98
Education and Voting
  • No High School (4)
  • High School Graduate (22)
  • Some College (32)
  • College Graduate (26)
  • Post-graduate Study (16)
  • (From CNN. Parentheses indicate percentage of
    total voting population.)

99
Higher Education in the U.S.Percent of Adults
Age 25 and Older with Some College Experience or
More, 2000
100
Demographical Cleavage
  • Reinforcing cleavages divisions in a society
    that reinforces groups more homogeneous nature
    (Example Italy is very divided between
    Socialist leaning north and Catholic/socially
    conservative south)
  • Cross-cutting cleavages divisions in a society
    that cut across demographic categories to produce
    groups that are more heterogeneous(Example In
    Canada, although there are differences between
    the French speaking areas of the East and the
    English speaking areas of the west, language
    isnt a deciding factor for many issues.

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Public Opinion
102
Recognition
  • Who are some of the most recognized politicians
    today?
  • Why?

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What is Public Opinion?
  • The distribution of individual preferences for,
    or evaluation of, a given issue, candidate, or
    institution within a specific population.
  • Many independent companies, from news outlets to
    private polling firms do polling about voting
    preferences in elections, issues, and
    perceptions.

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Examples of Polling
  • From the Gallup Organization
  • 2000 (margin of error /-3)
  • Before vote Bush 48, Gore 46, Nader 4
  • Actual vote Gore 48, Bush 48, Nader 3
  • 2004 (margin of error /-3)
  • Before vote Bush 49, Kerry 49, Nader 1
  • Actual vote Bush 51, Kerry 48, Nader 1

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Support for the Death Penalty in the U.S.
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What is Margin of Error (/-)
  • The margin of error is a statistic expression for
    the amount of random sampling error in a survey's
    results. It helps us gauge the validity of a
    poll.
  • 95 of the time the true number is with the
    /- number
  • A smaller sample size creates a larger margin of
    error and a larger size creates a smaller margin
    of error.

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How does it work?
  • Ask for individual preferences from a random
    sample of people (usually via phone)
  • Proper random sampling that represents a good
    cross section of the population being studied
  • Proper wording of questions that avoid biases
    language
  • Thorough analysis of data, pollsters make
    predictions of the view of the public or specific
    demographics
  • Note Internet polls are not scientific and hold
    no validity

115
Examples of Historical Bad Polling
  • In 1936, Franklin Delano Roosevelt had been
    President for one term. The magazine, The
    Literary Digest, predicted that Alfred Landon
    would beat FDR in that year's election by 57 to
    43 percent (and a landslide in the Electoral
    College 370-161). The Digest mailed over 10
    million questionnaires to names drawn from lists
    of automobile and telephone owners, and over 2.3
    million people responded - a huge sample.

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  • The Great Depression had begun in 1929. The
    Literary Digest had made two fatal mistakes.
    Their list of names was biased in favor of those
    with enough money to buy cars and phones (who
    were more likely wealthy and against FDRs social
    programs), a much smaller portion of the
    population in the thirties than it is today. (and
    keep their magazine subscription, which would be
    the first thing I would drop)
  • The Digest had depended on voluntary response
    (not a random sample). FDR was the incumbent,
    and those who were unhappy with his
    administration were more likely to respond to the
    Digest survey.
  • When a sample is biased, a large number of
    subjects cannot correct for the error.You need a
    completely random sample for an accurate poll!

119
George Gallup
120
Gallup
  • At the same time, a young man named George Gallup
    sampled only 50,000 people and predicted that
    Roosevelt would win. Gallup's prediction was
    ridiculed as naive. After all, the Digest had
    predicted the winner in every election since
    1916, and had based its predictions on the
    largest response to any poll in history. But
    Roosevelt won with 62 of the vote.
  • Gallup used a completely random sample that
    represented a accurate cross section of the
    United States. To this day Gallups company is a
    leader in polls.

121
Dewey and Truman in 1948
  • The Chicago Tribune (and other papers) in 1948
    relied on polls of voter's preferences based on
    phone surveys which. In 1948, this produced a
    biased sample of affluent voters (who could
    afford telephones and also maintain a stable
    address), and who were thus more likely to
    support the Republican Dewey.
  • Some pollsters had been so confident of Dewey's
    victory that they simply stopped polling voters
    weeks before the election and thus missed a
    last-minute surge of support for the Democrats.

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Polling Changes
  • After 1948, pollsters would survey voters until
    the day before the election, then they would also
    announce their results on television as polls
    closed and results came in.
  • Since then television networks have agreed to not
    release results until after the polls closed on
    the west coast to avoid causing a last minute
    surge.
  • After the election of 2000 (Bush vs. Gore) many
    polling agencies stopped using exit polls (due to
    inaccuracy) and instead rely on actual results,
    while others promised to not disclose results
    until after polls have closed.

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Polling Dilemmas
  • Bradley Effect Explanation for observed
    discrepancies between voter opinion polls and
    election outcomes when a white candidate and a
    non-white candidate run against each other. Named
    for Tom Bradley, an African-American who lost the
    1982 California gover nor's race.
  • Lead or Momentum Effect When a lead in the polls
    result in a greater increases of a candidates
    lead as people jump on the bandwagon or realize
    others support of candidates may be a reason to
    support them.

128
Organizations that Poll in the US
129
Margin of Error (/-)
  • Why is there a margin of error?
  • Not everyone (polled) is of the attentive
    public.
  • This means not everyone pays attention to public
    affairs and current events.
  • Not everyone (polled) votes in elections.
  • If results are within the margin of error they
    are statistically insignificant.

130
Polling
  • Polarization When two opposing sides feel
    intensely about an issue.
  • Intensity The amount of support a member of the
    public has for an issue.
  • Latency Opinions a member of the public have
    that exist but are not fully developed, often
    because they have not spent significant time
    thinking about them.
  • Salience The extent to which a member of the
    public believes an issue is relevant to them.

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What influences Public Opinion?
  • Family and Upbringing
  • Amount of and Type of Schooling
  • Mass Media
  • A Persons Employment
  • Demographics
  • The Economy
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