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Developmental Psychology

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The specialized study of how an individual s physical, social, emotional, moral, and intellectual development occur in sequential interrelated stages – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developmental Psychology


1
Developmental Psychology
The specialized study of how an individuals
physical, social, emotional, moral, and
intellectual development occur in sequential
interrelated stages throughout the life cycle
2
Infancy and Childhood
  • Chapter Project
  • Interview your parents about
  • how you acted in the early ages
  • from birth to now.
  • 2)Collect pictures of yourself
  • during the same period.
  • 3)Using the information obtained,
  • create a child development book
  • of yourself discussing your physical,
  • motor, social, emotional, cognitive,
  • language development.

3
Infancy and Childhood
In your book, try to include a)height
weight at birth and various stages of your
development. b)age when first crawled,
walked, rode a bicycle, spoke a word,
developed special skill such as dancing,
drawing, or singing.
4
Infancy and Childhood
To begin the next segment of this chapter, you
will take on the roles of child psychologists.
Take out a writing implement and some paper and
be prepared to take notes on the films you are
about to see. Record specific behaviors you note
at the various ages shown. The Green Mile Rule
is in effectno discussion of these tapes outside
of this classroom.
  • Physical
  • Motor
  • Cognitive
  • Social
  • Emotional
  • Language

5
Infancy and Childhood
Peter3 hours old Niki3 years old
Peter4 months old Niki3 years old
Peter11 months old Niki4 years old
Niki1 year old
Niki18 months old
Peter2 years old Niki5 years old
Niki2 ½ years old friends2 ½ 3
Peter3 years old
6
Infancy and Childhood
People learn faster and learn more in their early
years than at any other time in their lives.
Developmental psychology the study of changes
that occur as people grow up and older.
7
Infancy and Childhood
Birth from total protection to a world of
lights, sounds, touches and temperature
extremes.
Inherited, automatic, coordinated reflexes.
Grasping reflex stimulus of touch on palm of
babys hand.
8
Infancy and Childhood
Inherited, automatic, coordinated reflexes.
Rooting reflex
if baby is touched
anywhere near the mouth, move head and mouth
toward source of the touch.
Part of the feeding process
9
Infancy and Childhood
Inherited, automatic, coordinated reflexes.
Sucking reflex
baby can suck, breathe
air and swallow milk twice a second without
getting confused.
Direct gazes toward bright patterns and faces.
10
Infancy and Childhood
Infancy
Infancy a period that lasts until approximately
18-24 months in agewhen speech becomes well
developed
11
Infancy and Childhood
The Maturation Process
The infant will generally
Lift head at 3 months
Smile at 4 months
Grasp objects at 5-6 months
12
Infancy and Childhood
The Maturation Process
Crawl at 8-10 months
Pull self into standing position also at 8-10
months
Walk 3-4 months after pulling into a standing
position
13
Infancy and Childhood
Maturation process
internally
programmed growth.
Month Activity
0 Fetal posture
1 Chin up
2 Chest up
3 Reach and miss
14
Infancy and Childhood
Month Activity
4 Sit with support
15
Infancy and Childhood
Month Activity
  • Sit on lap
  • grasp object

6 Sit on high chair grasp
dangling object
7 Sit alone
16
Infancy and Childhood
Month Activity
8 Stand with help
9 Stand holding furniture
10 Creep
11 Walk when led
  • Pull to stand by
  • furniture

17
Infancy and Childhood
Month Activity
13 Climb stairs
14 Stand alone
15 Walk alone
18
Infancy and Childhood
Remember, the maturational plan inside each
child is unique.
No two babies are exactly alike, and no two
mature according to the same time table.
19
Infancy and Childhood
The Development of Language
Language and thought are closely intertwined
Grammar
the ability to arrange symbols
in new combinations to produce new meanings.
Especially well developed in the human brain.
20
Infancy and Childhood
The Development of Language
Step 1 One must learn to make signshand or
mouth
Step 2 Learn to give signs meaning
Step 3 Learn grammar
Children learn steps at own speed
21
Infancy and Childhood
The Development of Language
First year average child makes many sounds.
Late first year sounds begin to sound more
like language the child hears
Imitate speech they hear
React to praise
Usually says first word
22
Infancy and Childhood
The Development of Language
During 2nd year leap in language
developmentusing sounds as symbols
Early words often pertain to things the child
can see or touch
Primitive, incomplete words
23
Infancy and Childhood
The Development of Language
Age 2 500-1,500 word vocabulary
Join words into 2-word phrases
18 months-5 years children add 5-10 words per
day to their vocabulary
4-5 years, vocabulary of several thousand
words.
24
Infancy and Childhood
The Development of Language
Grammar at 2 telegraphic speech words left out,
but meanings usually clear
Where my ball? Daddy fall down
Understand some rulessuch as keeping words in
same order as adults.
25
Infancy and Childhood
The Development of Language
At first, use correct form of verb.
Example Daddy went yesterday.
Later, after learning grammar rule for forming
past tenses, they replace correct form with a
combination of the rule what they hear
Daddy goed yesterday.
26
Infancy and Childhood
Learning
Do things that produce rewards and avoid doing
things that produce punishments.
Imitate other people
Respond to the environment.
27
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
Jean Piaget
Swiss psychologist
Studied intellectual development of children
Most influential of child psychologists
28
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
Intelligence, or the ability to understand,
develops gradually as the child grows.
Children arent dumb in the sense of lacking a
given amount of information.
29
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
Rather, they think a different way than older
children and adultsthey use a different kind
of logic.
Thus, intellectual develop- ment involves
quantitative changes (growth in the amount of
information) . . .
30
Infancy and Childhood
. . . as well as qualitative changes
(differences in the manner of thinking.)
Understanding the world involves the
construction of schemas, or mental
representations of the world.
31
Infancy and Childhood
Assimilationwe try to fit the world into our
schema.
Accommodation change our schema to fit the
characteristics of the world.
32
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
Piaget newborns have a set of ready-made
responses
Blink in bright light
Grasp objects
Suck things put near their mouths
33
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
Object Permanence
If you hide a toy
of an infant, she acts as if it had ceased to
existgrabs whatever else she might find.
34
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
If you hide a toy
of a 7-12 month old,
while she is watching, she will search for it,
near where she saw you hide it.
If you do more than once and hide it once behind
your back, she will continue to search in the
original place.
35
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
Object Permanence
If you hide a toy
of a 12-18 month old,
she will search in the last place she saw it.
But if you try to conceal it as you pretend to
hide it, the child will act surprised but
continue to search in other places. She knows
that it must be some- where.
36
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
Object Permanence
Latter step is major--
the child has
progressed from a stage where her own actions
were the center of the world to one where she
realizes that people and objects are
independent of her actions.
37
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
Object Permanence
Things
continue to exist even though I cannot see or
touch them.
When a child achieves object permanence, Piaget
says she has begun to engage in representational
thought.
38
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
That sure is a cool car that our neighbors bought.
39
Infancy and Childhood
Representational thought the childs
intelligence is no longer one of action only
the child can now picture (or represent) things
in her mind.
Piagets daughter and the temper tantrum an
excellent imitation using symbols.
40
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
Principle of Conservation
The principle that a given quantity does not
change when its appearance is changed.
Most children acquire around ages 5-7
41
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
Principle of Conservation
Children under 5 do not generally think about 2
dimensions
They do not seem to understand that a change in
width can be compensated for by a change in
height
42
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
Principle of Conservation
Children 7 and older will be able to determine
that the second jar contains the same amount as
the first.
43
Infancy and Childhood
Intellectual Development
Between 5 12, children develop a working
knowledge of the world cognitive advancement.
But, their thinking is very concretemust
physically work out problemscant solve in
their heads or use abstract reasoning.
44
Infancy and Childhood
Piaget four stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor Stage
Birth to 2 years
Thinking displayed in action
18 monthsunderstands concept of object
permanence
45
Infancy and Childhood
Piaget four stages of cognitive development
Preoperational Stage
2-7 years
Beginning of symbolic representation
First language drawing of pictures that
represent things
Problem solving cannot do in head
46
Infancy and Childhood
Piaget four stages of cognitive development
Preoperational Stage
Egocentrismself-centered focus
Animistic thinking
Centration
Irreversibility
47
Infancy and Childhood
Piaget four stages of cognitive development
Concrete Operational Stage
7-11 years
Can think of several dimensions at same time
Elementary arithmetic problems
48
Personal Development
Piaget four stages of cognitive development
Formal Operational Stage
11-adult
Thinking more abstract and hypothetical
Able to consider many alternative solutions to
problems
Contemplate future form values
49
Infancy and Childhood
Other issues in intellectual development
Sexual identity
4-5 yearsboys want to play with boys girls
with girls
4 yearschildren believe that people can change
their sex by wearing clothes designed for the
other sex similar external changes
50
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development
Konrad Lorenzpioneer in the field.
1973 Nobel prize for medicine or physiology
Used animals and their behavior to study human
emotional development.
51
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development
Discovered that infant geese become attached to
their mothers in a sudden, virtually permanent
learning process called imprinting.
Within a few hours of hatching, follow first
thing they see that moves treat as their mother.
52
Infancy and Childhood
A movie about imprinting
53
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development
Lorenz--goslings learned most easily during the
critical period 13-16 hours after birth
54
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development
Lorenz substituted himself or a toy goose, drug
across the ground
55
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development
Lorenz--goslings learned most easily during the
critical period 13-16 hours after birth
If goslings had been imprinted with a human or
toy, the goslings would prefer the human or toy
company to other geese.
56
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development
Harry Harlow studied rhesus monkeys
Who can remember Harlows experiment?
Later experiments monkeys raised without real
mothers grew up with serious emotional problems.
57
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development Harlows Experiments
Would not play, mate, or defend themselves.
When frightened by a strange human, would attack
their own bodies rather than make threatening
signs of aggression.
58
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development
Babies begin to form an attach- ment to mothers
or surrogate mothers at about 6 months.
When they can distinguish one person from
another and are beginning to develop object
permanence
59
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development
Attachment especially strong 6 months to 3
years.
Three yearschild able to remember and imagine
his/her mother and retain a relationship with
her even if she is absent
60
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development
Separation anxiety
10-12 monthsupset when mother takes to
someones house and leaves without them.
61
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development
Theories differ on affects of maternal separation.
One theory children separated from mothers 6
months--3 years may never be able to form
attachments to other people.
Institutionalizationpossible intellectual
psychological damage to the child.
62
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development
On-going debate do mothers who work during 6
months3 years of childs life hurt the child?
63
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development
Break into groups of 3-5 and discuss the
following situation.
A 3-year-old has an almost exclusive attachment
to her mother. When the mother tries to leave
the girl for a while, even to play with others,
she cries or tries to go after the mother. The
mother usually gives in and lets the girl stay
by her side. (continued)
64
Infancy and Childhood
Emotional Development
In fact, the mother has quit her part- time job
because whenever she left her daughter at day
care or with one of the girls grandmothers, the
girl threw tantrums or remained with- drawn.
What advice would you give to the mother?
65
Infancy and Childhood
Socialization
Learning the rules of behavior of the culture in
which you are born and grow up in.
Acceptable and unacceptable behavior in living
with others.
66
Infancy and Childhood
Socialization
Some social rules are clear and inflexible.
Example incest
Most social rules room for individual decisions
or gray areas between right and wrong.
Some rules change from situation to situation
67
Infancy and Childhood
Socialization
Some rules apply to certain categories of people
(boys Girls)
Children must learn the rules of society and
when to apply them
68
Infancy and Childhood
Socialization
The second dimension of sociali- zation
acquiring an identity as a member of a
particular society and as an individual
69
Infancy and Childhood
Socialization
The third dimension of socialization is learning
to live with other people and with yourself
Others have rights
You have limits
70
Infancy and Childhood
Freud Psychosocial Development
All children are born with powerful sexual and
aggressive urges that must be tamed.
Controlling urges leads to a sense of right and
wrong.
Boys girls differ in development
71
Infancy and Childhood
Freud Psychosocial Development
First years of life
boys and
girls similar experiences
Erotic pleasure through the mouth sucking on
mothers breast
Weaningperiod of frustration. Child first
experiences not getting what he/she wants
The Oral Stage
72
Infancy and Childhood
Freud Psychosocial Development
Stage 2 Anal Stage of development
Anus source of erotic pleasure
Child enjoys holding in or pushing out feces
Toilet training curbs freedom child learns
social control
73
Infancy and Childhood
Freud Psychosocial Development
Stage 3 Phallic Stage
Major conflict ages 3-5
Child discovers he/she can obtain pleasure
through genitals
Child becomes aware of differences between
genders
74
Infancy and Childhood
Freud Psychosocial Development
Rivalry established between child and parent of
same gender
for affections of parent of opposite gender
Unconscious struggle
75
Infancy and Childhood
Freud Psychosocial Development
Son for mother Oedipal conflict
Oedipus Rex
Hates, but also fears, dad
To prevent punishment (castration) the boy buries
sexual feelings tries to emulate the father
76
Infancy and Childhood
Freud Psychosocial Development
Boys process identification with the
aggressorassumes the fathers values and moral
principles
As he learns to behave like a man, he
internalizes his fathers morality
Fathers voice voice of conscience
77
Infancy and Childhood
Freud Psychosocial Development
Girls experience Electra Complex
Wants to possess father and exclude mother
To escape punishment and possess father, she
begins to identify with her mother
78
Infancy and Childhood
Freud Psychosocial Development
Girls experience mothers triumphs and failures
as if her own
Experiences penis envy suspects that her mother
has removed the penis she once had.
To make up for this deficiency, desires to
marry a man like dad.
79
Infancy and Childhood
Freud Psychosocial Development
Stage 4 Latency Stage
Age 5
Sexual desires pushed into backgroundexplore
world and learn new skills
Sublimation redirecting sexual impulses into
learning tasks
80
Infancy and Childhood
Freud Psychosocial Development
How the child resolves Oedipal/ Electra complex
influences his/her relationships with opposite
gender throughout life.
81
Infancy and Childhood
Freud Psychosocial Development
Stage 5 Genital Stage
Adolescence
Equal satisfaction giving and receiving pleasure
Freud Adolescence completion of development
82
Infancy and Childhood
Erik Erikson
Socialization is neither so sudden nor so
emotionally violent as Freud claims
Psychosocial develop- mentsocial approval just
as important as a childs sexual and aggressive
urges
83
Infancy and Childhood
Erik Erikson
Development is a lifelong process
People develop depending on how other people
respond to their efforts
Develop sense of autonomy if efforts are
applauded doubts value of achievements if
ignored or punished
84
Infancy and Childhood
Erik Erikson
Eight stages of psychosocial development
Age 0-1 Trust vs. mistrust
Age 1-3 Autonomy vs. doubt/shame
Age 3-6 Initiative vs. guilt
Age 6-12 Industry vs. Inferiority
85
Infancy and Childhood
Erik Erikson
Adolescence Identity vs. role confusion
Early Adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation
Middle Age
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Later Adulthood Ego Integrity v. despair
86
Infancy and Childhood
Learning Theories
Through conditioning
Through imitation
Albert Bandura
Through role taking childs play that involves
assuming adult roles, thus enabling the child to
experience different points of view
87
Infancy and Childhood
Its time for a short group exercise. Form into
groups of 1-4 people and share childhood memories
of when you and some friends made up a role
taking game. What did you do and what did you
learn? Select the best story to share with the
class.
88
Infancy and Childhood
Its time for another exercise. In Europe a
woman was near death from a very special kind of
cancer. There was one drug that the doctors
thought might save her. It was a form of radium
that a druggist in the same town had recently
discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but
the druggist was charging ten times what the drug
cost to make. He paid 200 for the radium and
charged 2000 for a small dose of the drug. The
sick womans husband, Heinz, went to everyone he
knew to borrow the money, but he could only get
together about 1000.
89
Infancy and Childhood
He told the druggist that his wife was dying, and
asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay
later. But the druggist said, No, I discovered
the drug and Im going to make money from it.
So Heinz got desperate and broke into the mans
store to steal the drug for his wife. Should
Heinz have done that? Why or why not?
90
Infancy and Childhood
Moral Development
Lawrence Kohlbergsix stages of moral
development
Stage 1 Egocentricitydo not consider other
peoples points of view no sense of right
wrong Main concern avoiding punishment
91
Infancy and Childhood
Kohlberg Moral Development
Stage 2 Marketplace Orientation
Help someone if he helps you hurt someone if
he hurts you
Stage 3 Acute sensitivity to what other people
want and think want social approval they apply
rules of others literally rigidly
92
Infancy and Childhood
Kohlberg Moral Development
Stage 4 Law and Order
Lawmoral ruleobeyed because of a strong belief
in established authority
Moral thinking at this stage is very rigid many
people remain at Stage 4 their entire lives
93
Infancy and Childhood
Kohlberg Moral Development
Stage 5 Main concernis a law fair or just?
Laws are never absolute must change as society
changes
Stage 6 Acceptance of ethical principles that
apply to all. The Golden Rule moral laws
cant be changedmore important than any written
law
94
Infancy and Childhood
Anna Mulrine, Are Boys The Weaker Sex? U. S.
News and World Report, July 30, 2001
95
Infancy and Childhood
Are Boys the Weaker Sex?
  • 70 of Ds and Fs
  • Two thirds of learning disabled students
  • 90 of alcohol and drug violations
  • 4/5 of crimes in juvenile court
  • 80 of high school dropouts ADD
  • diagnoses
  • 2007 universities9.2 million women
  • 6.9 million men
  • OHS Class of 2008 top 25 15 G 10 B

96
Infancy and Childhood
Are Boys the Weaker Sex?
  • Real biological differences making boys
  • More impulsive
  • More vulnerable to benign neglect
  • Less efficient classroom learners

Girls ahead of boys in almost every measure of
well-being Average 11th grade boy writes with
the proficiency of an 8th grade girl
97
Infancy and Childhood
Are Boys the Weaker Sex?
  • Male fetus at greater risk of peril from
  • almost all obstetric complications
  • By the time a baby boy is borntrailing
  • average girl developmentally by 6 weeks
  • Boys more attuned and more sensitive
  • than previously thought

98
Infancy and Childhood
Are Boys the Weaker Sex?
  • Brainsmales less gray matter than
  • females more white matter
  • Femalesthicker corpus callosums
  • Two-lane highway vs. narrow path
  • Femalesmore facile in verbal skills
  • Boysmore white matter (excel at gross
  • motor skills
  • Male emotional brainmore primitive
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