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Developmental Psychology

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Developmental Psychology Research Studies Cross Sectional Studies Study comparing development between age groups over relatively short period Longitudinal Study Study ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developmental Psychology


1
Developmental Psychology
2
Research Studies
  • Cross Sectional Studies
  • Study comparing development between age groups
    over relatively short period
  • Longitudinal Study
  • Study tracing development of one age group over
    more extensive period

3
Developmental Psych
  • Study of physical, mental, and social changes
    over the life span. (Womb to tomb)
  • Focus is on 3 critical issues
  • Nature / Nurture (Extent of influence)
  • Gradual, Continuous process (escalator), or
    sequence of stages? (rungs on a ladder)
  • Stability / change Personality traits Stay the
    same, or change over time?

4
Prenatal Development
  • One mature egg / 200,000,000 sperm The race
    begins.
  • Conception to birth (9 months)
  • Zygote fertilized egg begins cell division

5
ConceptionUnion of Egg and Sperm(Egg-85,000 x
size of sperm!)
6
Prenatal Development
  • First week zygote of 100 cells- begin to
    specialize in structure and function (from one
    original cell!)
  • 10 days zygote implants to uterine wall (outer
    placenta / inner embryo)
  • Genetic plan determines how all organs will form
    differentiation cells specialize (The great
    mystery)
  • By one month millions of specialized cells
  • By 6 weeks organs form, heartbeat
  • Fetus 8th /9th week (human form)
  • Somatic nervous system commands spontaneous
    movements (not felt by mom until about 16th week)
  • 6 months stomach functional, responsive to sound

7
Prenatal Development
  • 40 days 45 days 2
    months(60) 4 months (120)

8
Prenatal Development
  • Placenta screens out some potentially dangerous
    substances
  • Teratogens toxic substances such as HIV, some
    drugs (nicotine alcohol), can pass through
    placenta
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome symptoms mental
    retardation, poor motor coordination, impaired
    attention, and hyperactivity

9
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Leading cause of mental retardation depresses
    activity in nervous systems)

10
Prenatal Development
  • Neurons grow at rate of 250,000/minute!
  • By birth, infant has approx. 23 billion

11
Physical Development
  • Maturation
  • Biological, universal growth processes / orderly
    changes in behavior
  • relatively uninfluenced by experience
  • sets the basic course for development while
    experience adjusts it

12
The Newborn
  • Will turn towards mothers voice
  • Hearing dominant sense at birth
  • Vision 8 to 12 inches
  • Prefers sweet fluids

13
Newborns Reflexes (Instincts) at birth
  • Rooting Reflex
  • tendency to open mouth, and search for nipple
    when touched on the cheek
  • Grasping Reflex Automatic grasping of objects
    placed in palm or toes
  • Sucking Reflex Touch an object or nipple to the
    infants mouth and shell make rhythmic sucking
    movements
  • Moro Reflex Hugging motion if startled or babys
    position changed

14
The NewbornHabituation
Percentage of time spent looking
15
Habituation
  • Babies spend more attention on new stimuli / the
    more familiar, the less attention paid
  • Method by which one studies a babys cognition (
    measured by attention span)

16
Early Development
  • Questions for thought
  • At what age do babies begin to walk? What
    specific brain or neural development do you think
    makes this possible?
  • What is infantile amnesia? At what age does this
    condition end and memory truly begins?
  • What development makes memory possible?
  • If babies cant remember before 3 ½ yrs., whats
    the point in environmental stimulus?

17
Infancy Neural Development
  • Until 18 months
  • Infantile Amnesia No long-term memory prior to
    3 ½ years / brain circuits not yet connected /
    process of maturation
  • By 4 yrs., brain has nearly doubled
  • 3-6 yrs most rapid neural growth frontal lobe
  • (Association areas thinking, memory, language-
    last to develop)
  • Synaptic pruning if not used then disconnect,
    but not destroyed

18
Infancy Physical Development
  • Developing brain enables physical coordination
  • Sequence of physical development is universal-
    Examples?
  • Crawl before walk
  • Roll over before sit
  • Physical progression follows neural, muscular
    progression
  • Why do identical twins sit up, walk on nearly the
    same day?
  • Same genetic code

19
Attachment Theories
  • What is learned in the cradle, lasts to the
    grave.

20
Social Development
  • Attachment Theories
  • Traditional Theory Infant attachment created
    through need for nourishment.

21
Harlows Monkey ExperimentsRethinking
Attachment
  • 1950s-60s
  • Early separation of infant monkeys
  • Soft baby blanket vs. wire cylinder with bottle
  • Result
  • Contact / touch critical for early attachment,
    emotional security

22
Harlows ExperimentSurrogate Mother
23
Harlows Experiment
24
Origins of Attachment
  • Touch (Harlow)
  • Familiarity Forms attachment
  • Critical Period Optimal period right after
    birth in which exposure creates proper
    development
  • Imprinting attachment based on first experience
    (gosling, chick, duckling) mother / Fly
    Away Home

25
Erik Erikson Parenting and Trust
  • Positive early parenting basic trust
  • Basic trust world is predictable, reliable
  • Basic trust as foundation for adult relationships

26
Mary Ainsworth Attachment Study
  • Secure attachment (60 of infants)
  • comfortable in mothers presence / Mothers
    departure initial distress / Mothers return
    seek contact
  • Insecure attachment
  • Cling to mother /Mothers departure extended
    distress or indifference / Return cling or
    indifference
  • Avoidance attachment
  • Indifferent to mothers presence, departure,
    return
  • Conclusion
  • Sensitive mothers / fathers securely attached
    infants
  • Studies isolating temperament confirmed parenting
    theory

27
Social Development
  • Harlows monkeys raised without touch showed
    extreme anxiety (fear) in novel situations
    throughout development

28
Attachment Questions
  1. At what age does separation anxiety peak for
    children?
  2. Does our capacity for attachment through touch
    dissipate over time?
  3. Do most child abuse victims turn out to be child
    abusers? Explain.
  4. Have studies confirmed that day care negatively
    affects attachment?

29
Social Development
  • Groups of infants left by their mothers in a
    unfamiliar room (from Kagan, 1976).

30
Self-ConceptThe Developing Child
  • The Rouge Test Self-Recognition (Video)

31
Parenting Styles
  1. Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect
    obedience. (Strict- Because I said so.
  2. Permissive parents Few demands, little
    punishment- (submit to childs demands / Do your
    own thing.)
  3. Authoritative parents Demanding and responsive
    (Enforce and explain / justify the rules / Open
    discussion with teenagers / exceptions to rules)

32
About your parents
  1. Which parenting style most reflects your
    parent(s)?
  2. Do you think this style is productive for you?
  3. Which style would you most prefer? Explain.

33
Research says
  1. Authoritarian lower self-esteem, lower social
    skills
  2. Permissive more aggressive, immature
  3. Authoritative highest self-esteem,
    self-reliance, social competence
  4. Do you fit the description? Explain.

34
Remember
  • Correlation is not causation.
  • Name any other variable that might be the cause
    of these results.

35
In conclusion
  • Parenting (nurture) does matter in developing
    emotional well-being.
  • (Genetics is not necessarily your destiny.)

36
Stage Theories in
  • Developmental Psychology

37
Theories on Cognitive Development
  • Jean Piaget
  • 1999 Selected by Time Magazine as one 20 most
    influential scientists and thinkers of the 20th
    century
  • British psychologist survey named Piaget as the
    most influential psychologist of the 20th century

38
Piaget and Cognitive Development
  • Paris 1920s
  • Theory of Childs cognitive stages
  • intrigued by childrens wrong answers
  • Traditional assumption Childs mind a miniature
    version of adults children simply know less
  • Piaget Children reason in strongly illogical
    ways thus think, reason differently than adults

39
Cognition
  • all mental activities associated with thinking,
    knowing, remembering or communicating

40
Schema
  • Schema
  • Concepts (mental molds into which we pour our
    experiences)
  • Identify / rationalize this picture.
  • Whats wrong with it? Why cant we make sense of
    it?

41
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
42
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43
Sensorimotor Stage A life lived, but not
thought out.
  • Birth 2 years (learning through senses,
    movement)
  • Thinking at same speed as movment
  • Object permanence (Piaget 8 months)
  • Awareness that things continue to exist even when
    not perceived (hidden)
  • Stranger Anxiety (8 months)
  • Building Schema
  • Assimilation interpreting new experience in
    terms of existing schema (apply same concept to
    all things generally similar (Example?)
  • Accommodation Adapting schemas to incorporate
    new information (Accommodate differences)

44
Sensorimotor Stage
45
Preoperational Stage
  • 2yrs 6/7 yrs
  • Use of language
  • cant perform operations of concrete logic

46
Preoperational
  • Key Ideas
  • Speed of thinking increases / faster than
    movement
  • All objects have thoughts, feelings (magical
    thinking)
  • Egocentrism Cant perceive things from others
    point of view (to age 3)
  • Theory of mind (age 4) Understand anothers
    perspective / infer others feelings
  • 3 yr old
  • Autism Impaired theory of mind

47
Concrete Operational Stage
  • 7 yrs 11 yrs
  • Logical thinking develops (concrete logic)
  • Conservation Quantity remains same despite
    changes in shape. (Volume, Area, Number)
  • Understand math transformation and conservation
  • 4812 12-48

48
Formal Operational Stage
  • 12 yrs thru adulthood
  • From concrete to abstract thinking
  • Example hypothesis testing, metaphors,
    analogies
  • Not all adults use formal operations to the same
    degree, and some not at all.
  • Example How would you be different if you were
    born on a planet that had no light?

49
Criticisms of Piagets Theory
  • Development seen as more continuous than Piagets
    stages
  • Much of his work based on studying his own three
    children!
  • Age associations are inaccurate (too late)
  • Example 7 is too late for concrete operational
  • Stimulation at early age education, computers
    etc.

50
Kohlbergs Moral Stages of Development
Morality of abstract principles to
affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical
principles
Postconventional Level (Self-defined morality)
  • As moral development progresses, the focus of
    concern moves from the self to the wider social
    world.

to gain approval or avoid Disapproval Morality
of law and social rules
Conventional Level Early adolescence
Morality of self-interest to avoid punishment or
gain concrete rewards
Preconventional Level Up to age 9
51
In conclusion,
  • AS our thinking matures, so too does our
    morality (Piaget Kohlberg)
  • Morality is not simply learned, but mentally
    constructed in sequential stages
  • Criticisms of Kohlberg
  • Moral reasoning only (actions define morality,
    not thoughts)
  • Cultural bias Chicago kids only
  • Carol Gilligan Bias towards women men justice
    / women feelings of others (relational)
  • Morality More Intuitive or Cognitive?
  • Social intuitionist moral feelings precede moral
    thoughts
  • Moral action perspective social influences to do
    the right thing

52
Erik Erikson Psychosocial Stages of Development
  • Neo-Freudian
  • Focus from sexual to social
  • Life is conflict / struggle / stress
  • sequence of social stages, each critical for
    personality development
  • Each stage presents conflict personality needs
    vs. social demands crisis, or turning point in
    development
  • Positive outcomes of past conflict better
    chance of positive outcomes in future
  • (To some extent, stages are continuous)

53
Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development
54
Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development
55
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56
Introducing Adolescence.
  • 1. Pick three words (adjectives or nouns) that
    you think best describe your adolescent years.

57
Adolescence
  • Introducing adolescence
  • How do we define it?
  • Life between childhood and adulthood
  • What is its time frame?
  • Beginning of puberty, ending with adult
    independent status (teen years!)
  • How do we describe it?
  • Stress and storm

58
Adolescence and Neurological Development
  • If you get in trouble with your parents, why
    might you plead less guilty by reason of
    adolescence?
  • Build a case in defense of the teenager. Cite
    specific evidence of physiological brain
    development discussed in your article.
  • According to evolutionary psychology, adolescence
    might be the most functional, adaptive period of
    ones development over the life span. Explain
    the basis of this argument citing specific
    examples from your article.

59
Adolescence and Physical Development
  • Puberty
  • the period of sexual maturation
  • capable of reproduction

60
Physical Development
  • Primary Sex Characteristics
  • body structures that make sexual reproduction
    possible
  • ovaries--female
  • testes--male
  • external genitalia
  • Secondary Sex Characteristics
  • nonreproductive sexual characteristics
  • female--breast and hips
  • male--voice quality and body hair
  • Menarche (meh-NAR-key)
  • first menstrual period

61
Body Changes at Puberty
62
Adolescence
  • In the 1890s the average interval between a
    womans menarche and marriage was about 7 years
    now it is over 12 years

63
Adolescence
  • Throughout childhood, boys and girls are similar
    in height. At puberty, girls surge ahead
    briefly, but then boys overtake them at about age
    14.

64
Adolescence and Cognition
  • Piagets Stage?
  • Pruning (neural connections increase til
    puberty)
  • Frontal Lobe develops during teens
  • FL lags behind Limbic System (hormonal rage
    overrides logic impulsive, risky actions
    (stress and storm)
  • Prefrontal Cortex Last part of the brain to
    develop fully (executive decisions compromised)

65
Teenagers and Crime
  • Supreme court recently declared juvenile death
    sentences unconstitutional on basis of teen
    brains developmental immaturity

66
So, on the basis of what you know
  • Should 16 year olds be able to drive?

67
The fact is.
  • 1 in 5 16 yr. olds crash their car within the
    first year
  • 77 of fatal crashes by 16 yr. olds involve
    driver error
  • 16 yr. olds are involved in fatal crashes at 5x
    the rate of drivers 20 yrs or older
  • 2/3 of Americans think 16 is too young (up from
    50 in 1995)

68
On the other hand
  • No distinct transition in brain development 18,
    21, 25, older???
  • Brain continues to develop well into adulthood
  • Myelin formation doesnt peak until 45 yrs.
  • Not an issue of brain development, an issue of
    ethics. (Criminal justice system)

69
Adolescence Social Development
  • Identity
  • ones sense of self
  • the adolescents task is to solidify a sense of
    self by testing and integrating various roles
  • Intimacy
  • the ability to form close, loving relationships
  • a primary developmental task in late adolescence
    and early adulthood

70
Adolescence Social Development
  • The changing parent-child relationship

71
The New Science of the Teenage Brain, Nat.
Geographic
  • The article proposes that the unique attributes
    of the adolescent can be explained by brain
    maturation and evolutionary psychology.
  • Build a specific case in defense of the
    irresponsible, impulsive adolescent based on the
    information discussed in the article.
  • Your focus should be brain maturation and
    evolutionary psychology.
  • Due in our next class.

72
Adulthood
  • Is there a prime of life? If so, when?
  • Physical peak in the early 20s
  • Most fertile in 20s
  • Cognitive abilities- little change through middle
    age (65-75 significant decline)
  • Personal income Peaks between 45-54 (declines
    after 65)
  • 2. What age constitutes adulthood?
  • 3. What age constitutes middle age?
  • What age constitutes old? Very old?
  • Do you associate old age more with condition, or
    years?

73
True or False?
  1. Life satisfaction peaks in the fifties and then
    gradually declines after age 65.
  2. Recognition memory- the ability to identify
    things previously experienced, declines with age.
  3. Older people become more susceptible to
    short-term illnesses.

74
Adulthood Physical Development
  • Sexual Reproduction
  • Women
  • After 20s decline in fertility
  • 35-39 yrs. (single intercourse ½ chance of
    pregnancy compared to your 20s)
  • Menopause end of menstrual cycle
  • Around 50
  • Decrease of estrogen
  • hot flashes (hormonal challenges)

75
Sexual Reproduction
  • Men
  • No cessation of fertility
  • No sharp decline in sex hormones
  • Gradual decline in sperm count / testosterone
  • Sexual drive / activity continues through life
    span (for men and women)

76
Life Expectancy
  • Women on average live 5 more years than men
  • Males more prone to die
  • By age 100, women outnumber men 5-1

77
Sensory Development
  • Vision
  • Pupil shrinks, lens less transparent- reduces
    light reaching the retina (at 65, 1/3 light to
    retina than 20s)
  • Dont you want a light on?
  • Hearing, smell and distance perception all slowly
    diminish

78
Adulthood Physical Development
  • The Aging Senses

1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
0
10
30
50
70
90
Age in years
79
Adulthood Physical Development
  • The Aging Senses

90
70
50
10
30
50
70
90
Age in years
80
Adulthood Physical Development
  • The Aging Senses

90
70
50
10
30
50
70
90
Age in years
81
Health
  • Aging weakening immune system (more susceptible
    to disease (cancer / pneumonia)
  • Later adulthood fewer short-term ailments (flu
    / colds
  • Neural processing gradually slows
  • Fatal driving accidents increase sharply after 75
    (at 85, higher than 16!)
  • Brain cells- gradual loss- by 80, brain 5
    weight reduction
  • Womens brain degenerates slower than men!
  • Exercise feeds the brain (oxygen helps form new
    cells and preserve neural connections)

82
Adulthood Intelligence
  • Fluid Intelligence
  • Speedy abstract reasoning / very gradual decline
    after 20s
  • Crystallized Intelligence
  • Knowledge base / continues to expand through
    lifetime

83
Alzheimers
  • Dementia mental erosion (memory, processing
    etc.)
  • Caused by decline of acetylcholine
  • 3 of world population after age 75
  • Memory and then reasoning degenerates
  • 5 to 20 years emotionally flat to disoriented to
    incontinent to mentally vacant
  • 2 ailments in neurons (diagnose before symptoms)
  • shriveled protein filaments in cell body
  • plaques (globs or degenerating tissue)

84
Adulthood Dementia
  • Incidence of Dementia by Age

85
Facing Death / Trauma
  • Elisabeth Kubler-Ross On Death and Dying, 1969
  • 5 Stages of Grief
  • Denial
  • Anger
  • Bargaining
  • Depression
  • Acceptance
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