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Review- What effects do organisms do pioneer species have on an environment undergoing primary succession

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Review- What effects do organisms do pioneer species have on an environment undergoing primary succession Explain- why do communities change over time – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 9 July 2019
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Title: Review- What effects do organisms do pioneer species have on an environment undergoing primary succession


1
  1. Review- What effects do organisms do pioneer
    species have on an environment undergoing primary
    succession
  2. Explain- why do communities change over time
  3. Apply Concepts- When a whale or other large
    marine mammal dies and falls to the ocean floor,
    different waves of decomposers and scavengers
    feed off the carcass until nothing remains- do
    you think this is an example of succession-
    explain

2
Ch 4 Ecosystems and Communities
  • 4.3 Succession

3
  • Krakatau exploded in 1883, leaving a tiny, barren
    island.
  • 2 years later grasses were growing
  • 14 years later there were 49 plant species, along
    with lizards, birds, bats, and insects
  • 1929, a forest containing 300 plant species had
    grown
  • How did the island ecosystem recover so quickly.

4
Ecological Succession
  • Series of more-or-less predictable changes that
    occur in a community over time
  • Some species move in and some die out
  • Number of species typically increase.

5
Primary Succession
  • Succession that begins with bare rock.

6
Primary Succession
  • Pioneer Species
  • First species to colonize barren areas
  • Lichenmutualistic symbiosis between a fungus and
    an alga- often the first life
  • Fix atmospheric nitrogen, break down rock, and
    add organic material to form soil.

7
Secondary Succession
  • Succession that begins with some surviving
    species and soil
  • Occurs faster than primary succession
  • Often follows natural or human disturbance.

8
Climax Communities
  • Species in a stable, mature environment that
    wont change into a different community.

9
Natural Disturbances
  • Secondary succession in healthy ecosystems after
    natural disturbances often reproduces the
    original climax community.

10
Human-Caused Disturbances
  • Ecosystems may or may not recover from extensive
    human disturbances.

11
Succession Lab
  1. Place a handful of dried plant material into a
    clean jar
  2. Fill the jar with boiled pond water and determine
    the initial pH of the water
  3. Cover the jar and place it in an area that
    receives indirect light
  4. Examine the jar every day for the next few days
  5. When the water in the jar appears cloudy, prepare
    microscope slides of water from various levels of
    the jar using a pipette to collect the water
  6. Look at the slides under the low powered
    objective lens and record your observations

12
Succession Analyze and Conclude
  1. Infer- Why did you use boiled water
  2. Infer- Where did the organisms you saw come from
  3. Draw Conclusions- Was ecological succession
    occurring- give evidence to support your answer
  4. Evaluate and Revise- Check you results against
    those of you classmates- Do they agree, how do
    you explain the differences
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