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GRAMMAR AND PUNCTUATION

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grammar and punctuation revise and review word classes – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GRAMMAR AND PUNCTUATION


1
GRAMMAR AND PUNCTUATION
  • REVISE AND REVIEW
  • WORD CLASSES

2
LESSON AIMS
  • Revision of word classes and being able to
    identify them correctly in our writing
  • How to identify the use of nouns, adjectives and
    verbs in written sentences.
  • To be able to identify the use of prepositions,
    conjunctions and adverbs in written form.

3
NOUNS
  • Nouns name people, animals, places and concepts
    etc.
  • They can be singular or plural, such as
    science/sciences, or philosophy/philosophies.
  • Nouns play an important part in the sentence
    because they tend to be the key elements.
  • For example "The students handed in their essays
    which were then marked by the tutor".
  • You would probably agree that the nouns (in
    italics) carry much of the important information
    in the sentence.
  • Sometimes nouns are preceded by "a/an" or "the"
    but this can affect the meaning of the sentence.

4
NOUNS - EXAMPLE
  • For example"Students are an asset to modern
    society" or"The students are an asset to modern
    society". Note the difference in meaning - the
    first sentence implies students in general,
    whilst the second implies a particular group of
    students, such as "The students (at this college)
    are...."  

5
PRONOUNS
  • Pronouns are words used to replace nouns. Common
    pronouns are I, me, you, he, him, her, they,
    them, mine, yours, his, hers and theirs. One of
    their functions is to save us having to repeat
    nouns.

6
PRONOUNS - EXAMPLE
  • For example "The student gave me his book",
  • not "The student gave me the students book"
  • or "That pen belongs to Sara. It is hers",
  • not "That pen belongs to Sara. It is Saras".

7
ADJECTIVES
  • An adjective is a describing word. It can appear
    on its own in the sentence or go before the noun
    it relates to. Some examples might be
  •       They have interesting jobs.      Their
    jobs are interesting.      Examination essays
    are challenging.
  • One way to think of adjectives is in terms of
    adding detail to the nouns they describe, as in
    the last example above.
  •       What type of essays are they?     
    Challenging ones!

8
VERBS
  • A verb is a word used for actions or states. For
    example
  •       They are writing (action)      He went out
    (action)      I will be ready soon (action)
  •       They are early (state)      She got wet
    (state)

9
VERBS - EXAMPLE
  • In formal written English, a sentence needs a
    verb in order for it to make sense
  • I ( verb) cheese
  • can then create sentences like
  •  I love cheese, I am going to buy cheese, I cant
    stand cheese, Id rather have cheese etc.
  • Verbs have different tenses for talking about the
    present, past and future.
  • Also, the verb may change depending on who or
    what is doing the action.

10
VERBS - TENSES
  • For example
  •       He enjoys/I enjoy, or      Shelley paid
    the bill/      The bill was paid by Shelley.
  • In essay writing, make sure that your sentences
    contain verbs, otherwise sense will be missing
    from what you are trying to say.

11
ADVERBS
  • An adverb gives us more information about a verb,
    an adjective or another adverb. It may tell us
    about how, when, or where something happened.
  • For example
  •       They strongly agreed.      He is usually
    late.      She works fast.      They work here.

12
PREPOSITIONS
  • A preposition shows the relationship of one word
    to another. For example, it can provide
    information about time and place. Such as
  •         The book is on the table, not in my
    bag.        Please arrive before nine or after
    eleven.
  • Also, some prepositions simply go with certain
    words, such as
  •         result in, keen on, impatient with.
  • Common prepositions are
  •         in, on, at, for, under, over, from, to,
    into, with, before, after, around, near, past,
    opposite and between.

13
CONJUNCTIONS
  • These are linking words which join groups of
    words and sentences. If you do not use enough of
    them, your sentences will seem abrupt. Here are
    some examples of conjunctions
  •         He felt motivated because his results had
    improved.
  •         I was tired, but I continued to work.
  •         Due to the fact that the weather is
    worsening, classes will finish earlier. However,
    lessons will resume tomorrow.

14
CONJUNCTIONS - 2-
  • Notice that in the first two sentences, the
    conjunction links two ideas in a particular
    relationship. In the third sentence, the same is
    true, but the conjunction is at the beginning of
    the sentence. In the last sentence, however
    links with the previous sentence.
  • Therefore conjunctions can link both within and
    between sentences.

15
COLONS AND SEMI-COLONS
  • Colons and semi-colons are important aspects of
    punctuation, and can help to organise and add
    structure to your writing.
  • There are, however, certain rules which govern
    their use.

16
Colons()
  • Should only be used as follows.
  •     To introduce a list. For example
  •      An essay usually includes the following
    components an introduction, a main body of text
    and a conclusion.    To show a link between
    the units of meaning, the second explain or
    summarising the first. For example
  •   The results of the referendum were very clear
    there was a need for a change in policy.

17
SEMI-COLONS ()
  • Semi-colons are useful in long sentences, but be
    careful not to over-use them. They give a longer
    pause than a comma, but not as long as a full
    stop. They are typically used as follows.
  •     To separate items in a list. For example
  • In the library, there were several students
    reading journal articles a couple of lecturers
    checking the stock and a librarian returning
    books to the shelves.
  •     To provide a break in a sentence, while
    showing the relationship between the two parts.
    For example
  •       Night was falling he knew all was lost.

18
SEMI-COLONS -2-
  • To express an idea which is too short to merit
    a new sentence. For example
  •       Wherever possible, students should try to
    organise their academic work by using 'planning
    tools' these can help to clarify ideas.
  • In some cases semi-colons are followed by linking
    words, as in the following example.
  •       They were unsure regarding the outcome of
    their assignment they were about to undertake
    nevertheless, they would give it their best
    attempt.
  • The semi-colon can be a powerful tool in helping
    you to organise your writing, and present your
    ideas clearly and meaningfully.
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