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Rise of New Leaders


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Title: Rise of New Leaders

Rise of New Leaders and Ideas in Europe during
the 1930s
Who Would You Vote For?
Contestant 1 I am a womanizer, have
self-interested policies and unfortunately
suffer from ailing health.

Contestant 2 I have a drinking habit and a
defiant tongue or attitude
Contestant 3 I am a decorated war hero, do not
drink and want to create a stable economy
Who Did You Vote For?

Contestant 3

Contestant 2
Contestant 1
Black Tuesday 1929 - stock market
Treaty of Versailles
Great Depression during 1930s
Increasing influence of new political parties
that emphasize state control -For example
Communism, Nazism, Fascism
Total Control of State by a Dictator
  • What is it?
  • Describe its characteristics

  • Government establishes complete control of all
    aspects of the state (political, military,
    economy, social, cultural)
  • Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies,
  • Strict controls and laws
  • Military state (secret police, army, military)
  • Censorship (opposing literature and ideas)
  • Propaganda (media radio, newspapers, posters)
  • One leader (dictator) charismatic
  • Total conformity of people to ideas and leader
  • Terror and Fear

These theories, specifically Communism and
Fascism, are completely different theories that
are bitterly opposed however they exhibit the
same behaviour
  • I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet
    Union from 1922-1953.
  • What is Communism?
  • based on theory by Karl Marx
  • revolutionary idea of a political,
    economic and social system that creates a
    classless society
  • state ownership and control of the means of
    production (no private ownership)
  • Soviet Communism or Stalinism, was more of
    a totalitarian and military state combined
    with elements of communism

  • I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of
    Italy from 1922 to 1943.
  • What is Fascism?
  • intense nationalism and elitism
  • totalitarian control
  • interests of the state more important than
    individual rights
  • maintain class system and private ownership

Interesting Fact Fascism name was derived from
the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority
consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax
  • I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or
    dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945.
  • What is Nazism?
  • extremely fascist , nationalistic and
  • based on beliefs of the National Socialist
    German Workers Party
  • belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan,
    the master race
  • belief that all Germans should have lebensraum
    or living space in Europe
  • Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germanys
    problems on them

Nazi Controls

Nazi Military State
  • GESTAPO the Secret State Police
  • SS (Schutzstaffel) Defense Corps black
    shirts, an elite guard unit formed out of the
  • SA (Sturmabteilung) Stormtroopers
    "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that
    protected leaders and opposed rival political
  • Lebensraum (living space) concept that
    emphasized need for territorial expansion of
    Germany into east
  • Wehrmacht German army
  • HJ (Hitler Jugend) Hitler Youth
  • Einstazgruppen Nazi Death Squad mobile
    killing units
  • Volk all inclusive concept of nation, people
    and race, implying the superiority of German
    culture and race led to policy of
    Volksgemeinschaft (idea of a harmonized racial
    Nazi community in government policies and

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The Eternal Jew Depiction of a Jew holding gold
coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under
his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint
of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this
promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings,
and in some cases violence against the Jewish
This Nazi propaganda poster reads, Behind the
enemy powers the Jew.
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Policy of Appeasement
  • Appeasement
  • willingness to surrender to an aggressors
    demands to avoid war
  • reduction of international tensions through
    removal of causes of friction concessions to
    disgruntled nations to lessen their tendency to
    take aggressive actions
  • How was it used prior to World War II?
  • Acceptance that Hitler could not be stopped and
    needed to be negotiated with (even at the expense
    of the smaller independent countries)
  • Accepted because of sympathy and guilt felt by
    Britain and USA of unjust Treaty of Versailles
  • Reality
  • Blindness to true nature of Hitlers agenda
    program for Eastern Europe
  • Positive and Negatives Reasons for appeasement?

From W. Robson, Twentieth-Century History,
1973. There had been nothing weak or foolish
about the attitude of the Western leaders. They
tried to settle differences by discussion and
conciliation, methods that had been highly
successful in the 1920s. Their failure was due to
the fact that Hitler took consolation for
weakness and found that he could get his own way.
He could have been stopped earlier but only at
the risk of war. Discussion was the method of
gentlemen, which explains why Chamberlain and the
Western leaders favoured it and Hitler did not
Steps to War
  • Was the Treaty of Versailles truly the cause of
    World War II?
  • How did appeasement contribute to World War II?
  • Why did the League of Nations fail?
  • What role did isolationism play?
  • Could Hitler have been contained at any time
    prior to 1939?
  • How did World War II begin? What were the steps
    to war?
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