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Climate Change, Convention, Protocol and CDM


An Orientation Workshop on CDM Opportunities in the Small Scale Sector India Habitat Centre, New Delhi Kalipada Chatterjee Climate Change Centre – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Climate Change, Convention, Protocol and CDM

Climate Change, Convention, Protocol and CDM
An Orientation Workshop on CDM Opportunities in
the Small Scale Sector India Habitat Centre,
New Delhi
Kalipada ChatterjeeClimate Change Centre March
25-26, 2004
Global WarmingScience of Climate Change
  • During the last two decades two important events
    occurred which have far-reaching consequences for
    life on our planet These are
  • appearance of ozone hole
  • compelling scientific evidence of global warming

Greenhouse gases, effect and Climate Change
  • Increased emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs)
    cause global warming leading to climate change
  • Recent studies have given conclusive evidence
    that both the appearance of ozone hole and global
    warming are caused mainly by human activities.

Atmospheric concentration of CO2, N2O, CH4
ppmv parts per million by volume ppbv parts
per billion (thousand million) by volume pptv
parts per trillion (million million) by volume
What factors determine global climate ?
  • There are many factors, both natural and of human
  • What natural factors are important ?
  • Solar radiation
  • Energy absorbed from solar radiation is balanced
    by outgoing radiation from the Earth and the
    atmosphere, in the form of long wave radiation
    (invisible infrared radiation)

  • There are several natural factors which can
    change the balance between the energy absorbed by
    the Earth and the emitted by it in the form of
    long wave infrared radiation such factors cause
    radiative forcing on climate.
  • These are
  • Output of energy from the sun (its variability
    over the 11 year solar cycle and slow variations
    in the Earths orbits)
  • Apart from solar radiations itself, the most
    important radiative forcing arises from the
    greenhouse effect.

Greenhouse Effects
Short wave solar radiation can pass through the
clear atmosphere relatively unimpeded but long
wave radiation emitted by the warm earth surface
is partially absorbed and then re-emitted by a
number of trace gases also known as green house
gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere Main natural
atmospheric GHGs are water vapour, carbon dioxide
(CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and
How do we know that natural greenhouse effect is
real ?
  • Natural greenhouse effect keeps the earth warmer
    by 330C (from minus 180C to plus 150C) than it
    would otherwise be, thus making it warm enough
    to be habitable
  • Secondly, measurements from ice cores going back
    160,000 years show that the Earths temperature
    closely paralleled the amount of CO2 and methane
    in the atmosphere.
  • The greenhouse effect is real it is a well
    understood effect, based on established
    scientific principles.
  • Satellite observations of the radiation emitted
    from the Earths surface and atmosphere
    demonstrate the absorption due to the greenhouse
    gases. Effective emitting temperature of the
    Earth as seen from space is about 255 K and the
    globally averaged surface temperature is about

Why the GHGs are increasing
  • The GHGs in the atmosphere are increasing mainly
    due to human activities which include
  • Energy production from fossil fuels
  • Industries
  • Transport
  • Construction
  • Agriculture
  • Land use change and deforestation
  • Rapid population growth

What is the role of the atmosphere ?
  • The mean annual concentration of CO2 is
    relatively homogenous through out the troposphere
    (the troposphere is mixed on a time scale of
    about 1 year)
  • The pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration
    was about 280 ppmv as reconstructed from ice core
    analyses, to-day (1990) the level is about 353
    ppmv (1ppmv CO2 equals to 2.12 GtC or 7.8 GtCO2)

What is the role of Ocean ?
  • On time scales of decades or more, the CO2
    concentrations of the unperturbed atmosphere is
    mainly controlled by the exchange with the
    oceans, which is the largest of the carbon
  • What is the role of earths vegetation and soils
  • The most important processes in the exchange of
    carbon are photosynthesis, plant respiration, and
    microbial conversion of the organic material in
    the soil back into CO2
  • The carbon balance can be changed considerably by
    the direct impact of human activities (land use,
    land use change, forestation)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
  • The first assessment report brought out in 1990
  • The Second Assessment Report brought out in 1995
  • A considerable progress has been made in attempts
    to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic
    influences on climate
  • The main conclusion of the SAR is that
  • the balance of evidence suggests a discernible
    human influence on global climate

Third Assessment Report, 2000
  • Some salient conclusions
  • Climate change is not just an environmental
    issue, but is part of the larger challenge of
    sustainable development
  • An increasing body of observations gives a
    collective picture of a warming world and other
    changes in the climate system
  • the global average surface temperature has
    increased over the 20th century by about 0.60c

Global mean surface temperatures have increased
  • Global average sea level has risen
  • between 0.1 and 0.2 m during the 20th century
  • Warm episodes of the El nino-Southern Oscillation
    (ENSO) have been more frequent, persistent and
    intense since mid 1970s
  • In parts of Asia and Africa, the frequency and
    intensity of droughts have been observed to
    increase in recent decades
  • Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and aerosols due to
    human activities continue to alter the
    atmospheric composition that are expected to
    affect the climate

CFCs 11 and 12
The contribution from each of the human-made
greenhouse gases to the change in radiative
forcing from 1980 to 1990. The contribution from
ozone may also be significant, but cannot be
quantified at present
  • There are new and stronger evidence that most of
    the warming observed is over the last 50 years
  • Human influences will continue to change
    atmospheric composition throughout the 21st

  • Global average temperature and sea level are
    projected to rise under all IPCC emission
  • globally average surface temperature is projected
    to increase by 1.4 to 5.80c
  • In the SAR temperature increases projected was in
    the range of 1.0 to 3.50c

Projected rate of warming is much larger
Mean sea level is projected to rise by 0.09 to
0.88m by 2100, but with significant regional
Effect on human health
Reduced winter mortality in mid- and
high-latitudes Increased incidence of heat
stress mortality, and the number of people
exposed to vector-borne diseases, such as malaria
and dengue and water-borne diseases such as
cholera, especially in the tropics and
Developing countries are the most vulnerable to
climate change
  • Impacts are worse - already more flood and
    drought prone and a large share of the economy is
    in climate sensitive sectors
  • Lower capacity to adapt because of a lack of
    financial, institutional and technological
    capacity and access to knowledge
  • Climate change is likely to impact
    disproportionately upon the poorest countries and
    the poorest persons within countries, increasing
    inequities in health status and access to
    adequate food, clean water and other resources.

Technologies and policies exist to reduce GHG
Impacts of Climate Change
Climate Change would have potential impacts on
  • water resources
  • agriculture
  • energy
  • forests
  • urban centres
  • human health
  • on economy and quality of life
  • rainfall and its distributions
  • cyclones
  • sea level rise etc.

  • Present difficulties in the Climate Change Impact
    Studies are
  • uncertainties of Climate Change
  • difficulties in quantification of impacts,
    particularly in economic terms
  • data gaps
  • incomplete knowledge of linkages between climate
    change and other systems

Climate Change Impacts of Particular concern to
Asia / India
  • Agriculture
  • Water resources
  • Coastal Zones
  • Forest resources
  • Human Health
  • Agriculture and Food Security/ Indian Scenario
  • the single largest component of Indias economy
    30 of GDP
  • provides employment to 68 of the total workforce
  • accounts for 21 of total exports
  • 65 of the net swon area of 142 mha is rainfed
  • highly climate sensitive sector

Climate change adversely affects
  • terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems such as
    forests, deserts, lakes, stream and wetlands
  • water resources
  • currently 1.3 billion people do not have access
    to adequate supplies of safe water
  • food and fiber production
  • infrastructure and human settlements in coastal
    areas, due to flooding and inundation,
  • increased mortality and illness due to heat waves
    vector borne diseases
  • climate change could increase the frequency and
    magnitude of floods and droughts

Climate Change and Indias Concern
  • The third assessment report of IPCC (IPCC 2000)
    projects that under the combined influence of
    GHGs and sulphate aerosols climate may warms
    globally by 1.4 to 5.80C by the next 100 years
  • Over the Indian region, the warming will be
    restricted to
  • 1.4 0.130C in 2020
  • 2.5 0.40C in 2050
  • 3.8 0.50C in 2080
  • Rainfall is projected to increase by 2 (2020) to
    7 (2080)
  • Sea level is projected to rise between 0.09 to
    0.88 m in the period 1990 to 2100
  • Extreme events such as excessive rain, flash
    floods, droughts, cyclones and forest fire are
    likely to increase.
  • The combined effect of climate change and
    increase in extreme events is expected to lead to
    significant impacts on water resources,
    agriculture, on food security, human health,
    habitat and fragile ecosystems like mangroves etc.

Climate Change Convention
During the June92 Earth Summit at Rio de Janerio
representatives of 154 countries signed theUN
Framework Convention on Climate change.
  • Objectives of the UNFCCC
  • To achieve stabilisation of GHG concentrations in
    the atmosphere at a level that would prevent
    dangerous anthropogenic interference with the
    climate system
  • Such a level should be achieved within a
    time-frame to
  • (a) to ensure food production is not threatened,
  • to enable economic development to proceed in a
    sustainable manner

Climate Change Convention
During the June92 Earth Summit at Rio de Janerio
representatives of 154 countries signed theUN
Framework Convention on Climate change
  • The UNFCCC came into force on March 21, 1994. As
    on CoP 9 (at Milan, Italy December, 2003) there
    are at present 188 Parties to the Convention.

Addressing Global Warming and Climate Change
  • The possible options are
  • Mitigation of climate change
  • Adaptation to climate change

Vulnerability to climate change
Vulnerability to climate change can be addressed
through the ability of human systems to adapt and
cope with climate change but it depends on such
factors as
  • Wealth
  • Technology
  • Education
  • Information
  • Skills
  • Infrastructure
  • Access to resources
  • Management capabilities

In addition many communities and regions that are
vulnerable to climate change are also under
pressure from forces such as
  • Population growth
  • Resource depletion
  • Poverty

Vulnerability to climate change
Signals of climate change are already becoming
  • Many regions of the world particularly developing
    countries are experiencing devastating floods
  • Unprecedented continental scale droughts
    resulting in
  • loss of human life
  • biodiversity
  • food production
  • slowing down economic growth
  • affecting development
  • Orissa super cyclone of October 1999, continental
    scale drought during the summer of 2002 in
    India, severe heat waves over some parts of
    Europe during the summer of 2003 are few examples

UNFCCC Developing Countries Perspective
  • The Climate Change Convention is not merely for
    the stabilisation of the concentration of GHGs in
    the atmosphere
  • poverty eradication and
  • economic and social development
  • in the developing countries, are also central,
    though implicit in the Convention

Basic Principle Agreed Upon in UNFCCC
  • Protecting the climate system
  • for the benefit of present and future generations
    of human kind
  • on the basis of equity and
  • in accordance with their common but
    differentiated responsibilities and respective
  • Developed country Parties agreed to take a lead
    in combating climate change and adverse effects

Climate change remains the most important global
challenge of humanity
Kyoto Protocol
  • The Protocol to the Convention on Climate Change
    was adopted during CoP 3 in Kyoto, Japan in 1997.
  • The Protocol was opened for signature on 16 March
  • Will enter into force after it has been ratified
    by at least 55 Parties to the Convention
    accounting for at least 55 of the total 1990
    CO2 eq emissions from the developed countries
  • To date 120 Parties have ratified the Protocol
    including 32 developed countries (Annex 1)
    representing 44.2 of the emissions
  • Under Article 3 of the Protocol the Annex 1
    countries agreed to quantified emissions
    limitation and reduction commitments (QELRCs) by
    at least 5.2 percent below their 1990 levels.
    The six green house gases included are CO2, CH4,
    N2O, PFCs, HFCs and SF6.

Kyoto Protocol (Contd)
  • For cost effectiveness of fulfilling this
    commitment, three flexibility, mechanism were
  • JI (among developed countries)
  • CDM (between developed and developing countries)
  • Emission Treading (among developed countries)
  • These reductions are to be achieved during the
    first commitment period 2008-2012
  • Opportunities to reduce emissions through CDM
    project activities in developing countries are
    enormous at a fairly low cost particularly in the
    energy, energy efficiency, transport, building
    materials (brick, cement and steel), municipal
    wastes, animal husbandry sectors

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
  • The purpose of CDM is to
  • assist developing countries in achieving
    sustainable development
  • contribute to the ultimate objective of the
    Convention i.e. stabilisation of greenhouse gas
    concentration in the atmosphere at a level that
    would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
    interference with the climate system, and
  • assist developed countries in achieving
    compliance with their Quantified Emission
    Limitation and Reduction commitments (QELRCs)

  • Capacity building in project development and
  • Social development, economic development,
    environment protection and technological
    development and transfer, leading to the
    realisation of sustainable development and to
    address to Indias main agenda poverty
    eradication and better quality of life to people
  • Additional foreign investments
  • A share of CERs
  • A cleaner path for rapid economic development

  • According to Marrakesh Accords, participation
    requirements of a developing country Party (e.g.
    India) in the CDM Process are
  • Voluntary
  • A Party not included in Annex I may participate
    in a CDM project activity if it is a Party to the
    Kyoto Protocol, and
  • Have set up a Designated National Authority (DNA)

Enabling Environment for CDM in India
  • Indias ratification of the Kyoto Protocol
  • Designated National Authority (DNA) in place
  • GoIs endorsement of a number of CDM Projects so
  • Enabling environment was further strengthened by
    hosting the COP 8 at New Delhi, Prime Minister of
    Indias address at COP8 and Delhi Declaration

  • Focus of the abatement strategy is CO2 emissions
    reductions in the energy sector and forestry
    sectors and CH4 emissions reduction in the
    agriculture sector
  • Mitigation Options in the energy sector
    identified are
  • improvements in energy efficiency through
    upgrading currently employed technologies and
  • introduction of advanced technologies that are
    more efficient
  • use of renewable energy sources wherever feasible
    to bring down the carbon content of the grid, to
    provide sustainable energy, and as a
    decentralised energy source at remote areas

Focus of the Present Orientation Workshop and
  • Focus
  • Initiate a process and bring different
    stakeholders from state and country level to a
    common platform for raising awareness and build
    capacity on the clean development mechanism,
    particularly in the small scale sector such as
    brick, rice mill, hotel and small scale renewable
    energy project activities as defined under the
    Marrakech Accords (CoP7) and recent CDM executive
    board modalities and procedures on small scale

Focus of the Present Orientation Workshop and
  • Expectation
  • This orientation workshop under IGES and CCC, DA
    initiatives will lead to a three year CDM
    capacity building programme amongst the different
    stakeholders in India.
  • Assist Project Developers to initiate CDM project
    activity in their respective sectors.
  • Facilitate to develop, design and implement a
    number of CDM projects under the small scale
    sector and strengthen learning processes by doing
  • Assist in achieving sustainable development
  • Assist in the mitigation and adaptation to
    climate change, poverty eradication and rural
    development in the longer term to address to
    poverty eradication and providing better quality
    of life to all.

  • Among the NGOs, Development Alternatives has set
    up a Climate Change Centre
  • Activities of the Climate Change Centre are
    categorised under three broad heads
  • A. Research
  • Development of methodologies
  • Analysis and determination of baselines
  • Analysis and documentation of experience and
    lessons learned worldwide for capacity building
  • Quantified indicators of sustainability for CDM

  • B. Facilitations
  • Project formulation
  • Approval process
  • Identification of partners and technologies
  • Providing linkages to reduce transaction costs
  • Assisting in negotiations
  • C. Outreach and Awareness
  • Organising regional workshops on CDM project
  • Participation in CoPs,
  • Closely interacting with Govt. and Industry on
    issues on climate change, CDM etc. particularly
    on policy analysis and operational issues
  • Bringing out publications, research papers /

Initiatives taken by the Various Stakeholders in
India can be further Reinforced by proactive role
of financial institutions
  • Finance being one of the main hurdles in the
    promotion of Renewable Energy, a proactive role
    with well defined programmes of the Financial
    Institutions may considerably help in
    accelerating promotion of RETs in the rural
    development through CDM
  • By internationally agreeing to a minimum price of
    per tonne of CO2 reduced particularly through
    small scale CDM activities
  • Minimising transaction costs / upfront costs

  • Clean Development Mechanism
  • catalyses sustainable development in longer term
  • promote international co-operation in mitigation
    of climate change in short as well as longer term
  • increase resilience and coping capacity of
    communities through increased sustainable
    livelihoods and other tools for adaptation to
    climate change
  • narrow the gap between the haves and have nots in
    longer term
  • may lead to equitable distribution of resources
    in longer term
  • will address to rural development and poverty
    eradication in India in the longer term

To speed up the process of CDM in India and to
encourage different stakeholders, GoI may
introduce a concept of CARBON RESERVE by
banking carbon reduced or sequestered in line
with Indias gold reserve and foreign exchange
reserve as a part of Indias climate change
policy in the longer term.
Thank you