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Railroad Technology

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Railroad Technology As the basis for a Skype virtual SIG Presentation Ken Sandock 10-1-14 Railroad technology has always been at the forefront of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Railroad Technology


1
Railroad Technology
  • As the basis for a
  • Skype virtual SIG
  • Presentation
  • Ken Sandock 10-1-14

2
  • Railroad technology has always been at the
    forefront of engineering
  • Steam
  • Hydraulic
  • Pneumatic
  • Electrical
  • Electronic
  • Combustion - pollution

3
HISTORY
  • Cars had mechanical brakes operated by brakemen
    on top of cars turning wheels
  • George Westinghouse invented the Safety Air Brake
    in 1868, allowed faster running
  • Manual mechanical and other systems soon became
    inadequate to safely control traffic
  • Electric signals and turnout switch control
    enabled safer more efficient operation also
    invented and developed by Westinghouse

4
Track Circuit
  • Line is divided into insulated blocks 1 mile
  • Battery across rails keeps relay closed
  • Train wheels short track and opens relay
    indicating train location and setting stop
    signal, adjacent signals, crossing guards, etc
  • Fail-safe break or power loss opens relay,
    still in use newer methods

5
Control devices - semaphore
  • Hand-operated from 1841
  • Electro-pneumatic from 1881
  • Motorized from 1890s
  • Lights (flame and bulb) and lenses soon added
  • These were 3-12 volts from large glass batteries
  • Could be controlled locally or remotely,
  • Dispatcher or automatic track relay
  • Power loss goes to stop indication fail safe

6
(No Transcript)
7
Light signals
  • PRR positional signal 1915 multi bulbs
  • simulate semaphore, no moving parts, redundant
  • Searchlight 1932 better optics, see farther
  • Moving filter, removed along I-10 this year
  • Replaced by hood multibulb-filter lens units
  • Colors set by national code in 1905
  • Traffic signals came in 1912-14, 2 color
  • Many now use LEDs
  • Train must stop at unlit signal fail safe

8
IRM light display
9
WHAT TO CONTROL
  • Mainline
  • single, double, multitrack
  • sidings, crossovers along lines, business side
    tracks
  • Crossing of different lines at grade level
  • Lift and swing bridges
  • Road crossings
  • Station tracks control dozens to hundreds of
    trains at large and small stations every day
    manually from the 30s and 40s and today with
    computers

10
How to control
  • Local at trackside
  • Armstrong lever rod from tower
  • Electric (pneumatic) from tower
  • Mechanical interlocking machine
  • CTC Relay logic interlocking
  • Computer logic interlocking
  • long distance operation hundreds of miles.
  • big RRs have one central dispatch location

11
Armstrong tower levers non-interlocking, no
indicator
12
HOW TO COMUNICATE
  • Track warrants, timetables, train orders
  • Still used, led to time zones in US
  • Bells, whistles, hand signs, lanterns
  • Telegraph orders and news 1850-70s
  • How Harvey Houses filled orders quickly
  • Telephone to control points and wayside
  • Multiple wires on poles for signals, control
  • Radio in engines 1950s, microwave wayside
  • Fiber optic So Pac Rr Info Net Technology
  • Sold excess capacity commercially
  • Coded signals through rails, now can control
    engine functions, monitor conditions

13
Southern Pacific Sunset Limited Luxury
Route Now Amtrak
14
CAB SIGNALS steam engines electric
15
MECHANICAL INTERLOCK
  • Levers control turnouts and signals
  • In large cabinets with cams preventing unsafe
    conflicting operation
  • Indicator board above shows occupied block and
    turnout, signal status
  • Used for stations and line crossings

16
Chicago Union Station North Tower 2013 - inactive
17
Interlocking Machine
18
Centralized Traffic Control
  • Dispatcher panel controlled many miles
  • 2 panels Yuma-Tucson, Tucson-El Paso
  • Tucson gtcomputergt California (SP) gt Omaha (UP)
  • Switches operated relays with closed loop to
    track sensors, turnout and signal conditions.
  • Relays wired to automatically give preferences of
    routing under routine conditions, fail safe
  • Automatic Train Control with manual override

19
CTC for Yuma-Tucson in Tucson Depot
20
UP mission control
21
MSP Twin Cities BNSF monitor
22
IRM CTC and relays
23
POSITIVE TRAIN CONTROL
  • Now being implemented by law
  • Must be compatible all railroads and Amtrak
  • Involves track and engine sensors, GPS
  • Can control engine functions and stop train
  • Uses radio data communication each block
  • Works over standard dispatcher system

24
Engine Control
  • Electric and diesel engines have electric
    control, including rapid transit and light rail
  • Analog or digital control, with AC or DC motors
  • All have standard interface for 50 years
  • MU - Multiple Unit operation
  • Standard plugs, signal lines, protocols
  • Allow multiple engines control from lead cab
  • Allow push-pull transit with engineer in end
    coach
  • Allow radio remote control and helper engines in
    middle and at end of train

25
SIMULATORS
  • Home computer programs allow operation
  • Keyboard, joystick, and custom consol
  • Museums can use diesel control stands.
  • All these functions can be applied to model RR
    layouts CTC, ATC, computer control
  • Automatic or multiple operator control
  • Railroad companies use full sized units to train
    and test engineers with different situations
  • Similar to pilots

26
Diesel cab with desk controls
27
Southern Arizona Transportation Simulator Display
28
Diesel standard cab with radio
29
St. Paul Roundhouse Display
30
Simulator Screen
31
CONCLUSION
  • TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATING TECHNOLOGY
  • The caboose left at the end of the 20th century.
    Its job was train observation for defects and
    monitor brake air pressure. The conductor could
    stop the train with a brake valve. The lights
    marked the end of the train. You can see this at
    the Gadsden-Pacific model train museum here in
    Tucson with a full size equiped caboose open for
    visiting.
  • Wayside detectors inspect the trains now
  • Brake pressure is monitored by FRED, flashing
    rear end device with radio signals to the
    engineer. We have displays of all in this talk at
    the Southern Arizona Transportation Museum, at
    the Amtrak Depot by Maynards and Hotel Congress.
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