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Autonomy in the global era: Euro-regionalism and new policy spaces in education


Autonomy in the global era: Euro-regionalism and new policy spaces in education Laura C. Engel International Education Program The George Washington University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Autonomy in the global era: Euro-regionalism and new policy spaces in education

Autonomy in the global era Euro-regionalism and
new policy spaces in education
  • Laura C. Engel
  • International Education Program
  • The George Washington University
  • Washington DC

Overview of the paper
  • Presents recent research in Spain
  • Why Spain?
  • Dominant frameworks Nation state and education
    policy formation
  • How the study was framed
  • Development of new policy spaces in education
  • Devolutionary processes/New regionalisms (from
  • Europeanization (from above)
  • In context of recent growth in transnational
    migration Exploration of whether new spaces of
    education hold particular consequences for
    non-European immigrants.

My Research and the Case of Spain
  • Why Spain?
  • Politics of educational reform in 1980s and 90s
  • Spain A miracle model
  • Nation state transformation Rebirth of Spanish
  • Studies show policy being produced in
    self-contained, sealed off space

Globalization and Nation State Transformation
  • Globalization as planet speak
  • Globalization and the nation state
  • Simply the intensification of global
    interconnectedness which is transforming the
    existing world order most conspicuously through
    its challenge to the primacy of the nation-state
    in its present form.

Nation State Transformation (Dominant Frameworks)
  • Dominant frameworks
  • Weak-state theories retreat and erosion
    (Strange, 1996)
  • Strong-state theories rejuvenation (Hirst
    Thompson, 1996)
  • State-centrism/methodological nationalism
  • the assumption that the nation/state/society is
    the natural social and political form of the
    modern world (Wimmer Schiller, 2002)

Nation State Transformation (Dominant Frameworks)
  • Globalization
  • Global-National (zero-sum game)
  • Binary oppositions
  • Cosmopolitanism vs. localism Unity vs.
    diversity Universalism vs. particularity
    Weak-state vs. strong-state
  • Assumptions
  • All power rests in center
  • Governments as sole actors
  • Internal national politics as fixed

Setting the Context (Spain)
Francoist Spain (40 provinces)
Post-Franco Spain (17 CCAA)
Setting the Context (Catalonia)
Research and New Policy Spaces (views)
  • Policy as a process (Taylor et al., 1997)
  • Policy not separate from context. Rather context
    is terrain from which policy problems are
    developed and understood (Ozga, 2000)
  • Initial stages of context, policy influences and
    pressures, policy negotiation, and the production
    of policy.
  • Education policy is a lens into dynamic and
    complex changes

Research Questions and Methods
  • Key questions
  • In what ways has democratization of the
    post-Franco era influenced education policy
    formation in Spain and Catalonia?
  • What is the relationship between EU integration
    and education policy formation in Spain and
    Catalonia? How are global and European policy
    pressures negotiated and produced at regional and
    national levels?
  • Empirical work (2005-2008) Barcelona, Madrid,
    and Brussels
  • Interviews (policy-makers, government officials)
  • Key policy documents

Nation State Transformation From Below
  • Paper discusses the example of the revision of
    the Statute of Autonomy in Catalonia as a process
    which has continued to deepen regional autonomy
    against what the government has referred to as
    new times and new challenges
  • It is first significant to outline the role of
    regions in the process of devolution.

Nation State Transformation From Below
  • Stage Category CCAA
  • First (1979-1980) Historical nations
    Catalonia, Basque Country  
  • Second (1981-1992) Grade One
    Fast Track Andalusia, Canary
  • Islands, Valencia, Galicia,

  • Navarre
  • Third (1992-2000) Grade Two
    Slow Track Aragón, Asturias, Balearic
  • Islands, Cantabria,

  • Castilla-La Mancha,
  • Castilla y León,

  • Extremadura, La Rioja,
  • Madrid, Murcia
  • Key in initial and continued process of

New Policy Spaces From Below
  • Shifts in nation-state and policy driven from
  • Deepened autonomy through devolutionary processes
  • Reformed Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (2006)
  • Original Statute of Autonomy (1979)
  • 2003-2004 New regional and national govts.
  • these are new times, new challenges, new
  • Contentious processes in revision process
    Nation and Catalan as official language.

New Policy Spaces From Above and From Below
  • Intersection of regional, central state, European
  • Regions continue to assert themselves in policy
    arenas above the nation state
  • Scale-jumping
  • EUs vision of regions and regional governance as
    way forward in construction of Europe
  • Role of regions in European integration
  • Overlap of regional, central state, European
    scales Conception of citizenship

New Policy Spaces Governance Citizenship
  • Catalonia, Spain and Europe
  • A conception of the ideal citizen as flexible,
    multilingual, accepts broader European ideals of
    democracy and has a plural sense of belonging
    which embraces the local, regional, central state
    and the European.
  • New policy on curriculum illustrates shift away
    national citizenship toward an image of Spain as
    a multicultural, democratic, modern European

New Policy Spaces Transnational Migration
  • Yet, in the embodiment of these values and in
    context of deepened autonomy, it is significant
    to critically examine how non-European immigrants
    are reflected.
  • Immigration (Spain)
  • 1998 3.2 of total population foreign born
  • 2006 11.9 of total population foreign born
  • 2009 roughly 4.5 million immigrants (15 of
    total population)
  • Large proportion considered non-European
  • Public discourse, legislation, immigration
    policy immigrant problem and a matter of war
    (Agrela, 2002)

New Policy Spaces Transnational Migration
  • As Spanish state transformed in relation to
    pressures from below (devolution) and from above
    (Europeanization), new educational legislation
    aims to promote the creation of a multicultural
    and multiscalar society.
  • Conception of ideal citizen limited to three
    spaces the Autonomous Community, the
    nation-state, and Europe.
  • Diversity is acceptable in these three spaces,
    but only in relation to European natives

  • Beyond methodological nationalism to present a
    perspective of continued development of
    overlapping spaces in education regional,
    central state, European.
  • 21st century global world, state autonomy in
    relation to education policy increasingly
    influenced by range of pressures
  • Devolution and Europeanization supranational
    scale legitimizes regional nationalism (reforming
    governance and citizenship).
  • National citizenship replaced by ideal citizen
    (highly exclusive and limited)

Thank you. Questions?
Additional slides
Barcelona, Madrid and Brussels 35 Interviews
with various system actors including
policy-makers and government officials.
Documents from all three sites were also
collected and analyzed, which became a major
source of rich data. Policy documents were
collected from sources from the period of 1979 to
2006, including European Commission, Committee
of the Regions, regional Catalan office in
Brussels, the Generalitat and Department of
Education in Barcelona, and the Ministry of
Education and Science in Madrid.
European Union Enlargement 1957 - 2007
Source (map) S. Solberg
Nation, state, nation-state and national state
used in numerous and often ambiguous ways to
denote territory or land, institutions and
government (with particular administrative and
legislative responsibilities) and individual,
group and community belonging. State
Governments administrative and legislative
powers Nation Group or community with shared
cultural, linguistic, historical and ethnic
identities, as an imagined community (Anderson
1983) Nation-state Assumes a defined and
demarcated territory, which contains a singular
people united by a common language, religion and
Dominant Frameworks (in study of education policy
Global-Nation State or Europe-Nation State
Center-Periphery Framework