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Medieval Minds

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Medieval Minds Christianity Confronts Philosophy in the Roman Empire and Beyond Dark Ages & Medieval Mind Christianity took hold of Roman Empire in AD 313 (Roman ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medieval Minds


1
Medieval Minds
  • Christianity Confronts Philosophy in the Roman
    Empire and Beyond

2
Dark Ages Medieval Mind
  • Christianity took hold of Roman Empire in AD 313
    (Roman Empire fell in AD 476)
  • Europe sank into Dark Ages.
  • Christian Church established as pre-eminent
    religion of Western world
  • Dogma
  • Church got power and wealth by its creed

3
Duality in Medieval Christianity
  • Languages
  • Kingdoms
  • Humanity
  • Ruler

4
Gods Relation
  • Greek philosophy God in relation to cosmos
  • Gives order (Anaxagoras, Plato)
  • Movement (Aristotle)
  • Reason (Stoics)
  • Christianity God in relation to history
  • Directly involved in human affairs
  • God became human being

5
Christianitys Image of God
  • Monotheism
  • Creationism
  • Omnipotence
  • Divine paternity

6
Christianitys Concept of Humanity
  • Made in Gods image
  • Soul is immortal
  • Resurrection
  • What does this do to history?

7
Platonic Christian Thought
  • Theology
  • Another world
  • World of senses made in image of ideas
  • Creator deity
  • Good above all else
  • Anthropology
  • Immortality of soul
  • Souls true home is in world of ideas
  • Souls are judged after death

8
Rise of Christian Church
  • Evangelization Period
  • Faith is spread through missionaries
  • Became official Church of Rome
  • Patristic Period (2nd-8th centuries)
  • Church dogma is systematized and codified
  • Defending itself against pagans or crushing
    critics by calling them blasphemers
  • Scholastic Period (9th 16th centuries)
  • Christian philosophy evolves based on Plato and
    Aristotle but still based on dogma
  • Main school of thought of Medieval Age

9
Augustine of Hippo(AD 354-430)
  • From N. Africa
  • Followed Manichaeanism
  • Struggled with sensual nature
  • God grant me chastitybut not yet.
  • Eventually converted to Christianity, became
    priest and Bishop of Hippo (Algeria)

10
Plato and Augustine
  • Adapted Platonic principles that fit neatly into
    Christian dogma
  • Sought to Christianize Plato
  • Started point is faith-based
  • Beliefs of Holy Mother Church not fallible
  • Everything came from God

11
God and Free Will
  • If God is all-knowing and all-powerful, how can
    there be free will and evil in the world?
  • If actions existed in the mind of God, then
    people should not be held responsible
  • Augustines response
  • Time
  • Free will

12
Original Sin
  • Original Sin given to Adam and Even in Garden of
    Eden when disobeyed God
  • Evil exists because of this
  • Augustines Response to Nature of Evil

13
Anselm of Canterbury(1033-1109)
  • Credo ut intelligam (I believe that I may
    understand)
  • Faith comes first before understand world around
    us
  • Anselms Ontological Argument
  • There is contradiction in denying existence of
    God.

14
Thomas Aquinas1225-1274 AD
  • Sought to Christianize Aristotle
  • Reconciled the dilemma of Faith v. Reason
  • Religion and reason do not represent separate
    truths and therefore mutually exclusive (what was
    called Double Truth) there is one Truth.

15
Human Intellect of Aquinas
  • Humanity did not need divine intervention to
    think
  • Need to observe to ascertain the Form
  • Can not truly grasp Form because embedded in the
    corporeal reality

16
Proving Gods Existence
  • Motion is a reality (to human perception)
    Primary MoverGod
  • New things come into being all the time First
    Cause God
  • All things change and based on something else for
    their existence Original God
  • Inherent perfection in nature Perfection God
  • Order exists everywhere Organizer God

17
Universals
  • Like Aristotle, Aquinas believes everything
    actuality (what it is) potentiality (what it
    will become)
  • Knowledge is both sensitive and intelligent.
  • Intelligence is divided into abstraction,
    judgment and reasoning

18
William of Ockham1300-1349
  • Ockhams Razor
  • When all things are considered, the simplest
    explanation is the truest one.
  • In other words, Aristotle and Plato are
    nonsensical
  • Physical reality exists in and of itself
  • Knowledge comes from direct sensory experiences

19
Food for Thought
  • Please take a moment to consider the following
  • Does God exist and if so, how do you prove it?
    If not, how do you know?
  • Are humanitys actions done with a purpose from
    God or do humans have Free Will?
  • For tomorrow, write down your thoughts in 1-2
    paragraphs.
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