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Imperialism, Alliances, and War

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Title: Imperialism, Alliances, and War


1
Imperialism, Alliances, and War
2
1850-1900
  • Europe exercised influence over rest of world
    emigrants streamed out
  • almost all of Africa divided b/t European
    nations, dominance formed a world economy
  • Fostered hostility and competition in Europe and
    a terrible war that undermined its strength
  • peace settlement disillusioned idealists in the
    West, treated Germany harshly
  • frenzy for imperial expansion destroyed Europes
    peace, prosperity and dominance

3
Expansion of European Power and New Imperialism
  • Explosive developments in science industry
    agriculture and military powered Europe
  • allowed a few Europeans to impose will on others
  • Europeans had another weapon
  • they thought their way of life was better to
    everyone elses
  • Colonial expansion seen as bad until 1867
  • contradicted capitalism
  • After 1867
  • European states spread control over 1/5 world
    land area
  • New Imperialism

4
The New Imperialism
  • New Imperialism invested capital in less
    industrialized country
  • transform local economy and culture and would
    loan money or intimidate local rulers
  • Failing that dominant power would establish more
    direct political control
  • full annexation
  • Colony
  • Protectorate
  • spheres of influence

5
Motives for the New Imperialism The Economic
Interpretation
  • Lenin Imperialism is the monopoly stage of
    capitalism
  • European powers didnt make full monopoly
  • not many colonies formed

6
Cultural, Religious, and Social Interpretations
  • Justifications for imperialism
  • duty to bring civilization to backward peoples
  • tool of social policy
  • Britain
  • Joseph Chamberlain argued for empire as source of
    profit to finance welfare
  • some argued colonies would attract a countrys
    excess population
  • most went to America)

7
Strategic and Political Interpretations the
Scramble for Africa
  • Great Britain
  • Only power w/extensive overseas holdings on eve
    of the scramble
  • Britain purchased major interest in Suez canal
    1875
  • when Egypt troubled, British established
    control/advanced into Sudan

8
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9
North Africa
  • Who took over N. Africa
  • How was the take over of North Africa unique?
  • What specific territories were taken over?

10
Egypt
  • Who took over Egypt
  • How was the take over of Egypt unique?
  • What issues made Egypt a complicated territory to
    control?
  • What specific territories were taken over?

11
The Belgian Congo
  • Who took over the Congo
  • How was the take over of the Congo unique?
  • What issues made the Congo a complicated
    territory to control?
  • What specific territories were taken over?

12
France and Smaller Nations
  • 1830
  • sent expedition to attack pirates in Algiers
  • extended their control
  • took over Algeria, Tunisia, annexed West Africa,
    Congo and Madagascar
  • smaller states acquired new African colonies
  • compelled Britain to expand
  • political status equated with of colonies

13
Germany
  • Bismarck declared protectorates over
  • Southwest
  • East Africa
  • Togoland
  • Cameroons
  • acquired only for diplomatic position

14
The Irrational Element
  • Germanys annexations started scramble
  • areas not profitable/strategic
  • In Asia, Japan emerged as great power
  • Frightened other powers interested in China
  • Russia, France and Germany forced Japan out of
    Liaotung Peninsula
  • US proposed Open Door Policy 1899
  • became informal protectorate for all of Western
    Hemisphere
  • By turn of century
  • most of world came under industrialized
    West(except for Ottoman Empire
  • fate closely tied w/European developments)

15
Emergence of the German Empire and the Alliance
Systems (1873-1890)
16
  • German Empire revolutionized diplomacy
  • Britain/Russia retained standings
  • Austria severely weakened
  • nationalism threatened disintegration
  • France damaged by Franco-Prussian War
  • afraid of new neighbor

17
Bismarcks Leadership (1873-1890)
  • After 1871, Bismarck declared Germany satisfied
  • didnt want territory
  • afraid of war
  • cooled French resentment
  • prevented alliance of France w/another nation

18
War in the Balkans
  • Bismarck established Three Emperors League
  • Germany/ Austria/Russia(1873)
  • Collapsed from Austro-Russian rivalry from
    Turkish War in 1875
  • Ottoman weakness caused Serbia/Montenegro/others
    to rebel
  • Russia joined fray
  • Ottoman Empire forced to sue for peace
  • Treaty of San Stefano(1878)
  • Russian victory
  • got money/land,
  • alarmed other powers, jingoism superpatriotism

19
The Congress of Berlin
  • Disraeli sent fleet to Constantinople
  • Britain/Austria/ Russia met at Berlin under
    Bismarck
  • Bulgaria reduced,
  • Austria-Hungary given Bosnia/Herzegovina
  • some territories divided up
  • Balkan states annoyed by settlement
  • resented Austrian occupation
  • south Slavic question a threat to Europe

20
German Alliances with Russia and Austria
  • Bismarck made secret treaty w/Austria
  • Would aid each other if attacked by Russia
  • Frightened Russia into bargaining w/Germany
  • Aimed to resolve conflicts in Balkans w/Austria

21
The Triple Alliance
  • Italy joined dual Alliance with Austria and
    Germany 1882
  • Bismarck negotiated the Reinsurance Treaty
  • Russia would stay neutral if attacked
  • William II gained German throne in 1888
  • Impetuous
  • disagreed strongly w/Bismarck, wanted an empire

22
Forging of the Triple Entente (1890-1907)
  • Franco-Russian Alliance
  • after Bismarcks retirement in 1890
  • system of alliances collapsed
  • succeeded by General Leo von Caprivi
  • alienated Russia
  • drove Russians toward France
  • alliance against Germany signed 1894

23
Britain and Germany
  • Germany became enemy in British eyes
  • overtook British production
  • William II tried to ally w/Britain, but changed
    his mind
  • Barred British attempts to build railroad from
    Capetown to Cairo
  • other blocking in Africa wanted to show Britain
    that Germany could make trouble for them
  • Germany got a navy in 1898 under Admiral Alfred
    von Tirpitz,
  • doomed to failure,
  • wasted German resources/began naval race
    w/Britain, they abandoned friendship
  • At first, Britain wasnt concerned
  • embarrassed from Boer war
  • tried to make Alliance
  • Germans refused, held out for greater concessions

24
The Entente Cordiale
  • British ended splendid isolation
  • Allied w/Japan to defend against Russia,
  • settled differences w/France
  • after Russo-Japanese War of 1905
  • British apprehension toward Russia was lowered

25
The First Moroccan Crisis
  • 1905, William II tried instigating independence
    in Morocco
  • challenge to France
  • Germans demanded international conference to show
    power
  • met in 1906 in Spain
  • Austria sided w/Germans
  • Spain sided w/Britain/ France
  • Germany overplayed their hand, pushed
    France/Britain together

26
British Agreement with Russia
  • With French support
  • British made agreement with Russia like Entente
    Cordiale
  • settled quarrels in Asia
  • Triple Entente formed vs. Triple Alliance
  • Germany felt encircled
  • let up on Austria in Dual Alliance
  • Bismarcks alliances shattered

27
The Road to War (1908-1914)
  • Ottoman empire controlled strip of Balkan
    Peninsula,
  • mostly nationalist Slavs,
  • wanted Serbia to unite Slavic provinces(Bosnia
    especially)
  • Young Turks brought revolution in Ottoman Empire
    1908
  • threatened to revive it and stop European powers
    from pouncing on its corpse

28
The Bosnian Crisis
  • 1908,
  • Austria/Russia made deal
  • Russia would support annexation of
    Bosnia/Herzogovina if Austria supported opening
    of Dardanelles to Russian warships
  • Austria annexed 1st
  • Russians were refused Dardanelle demand by
    Britain/France
  • Serbs frustrated by annexation,
  • Triple Entente strained by Britain/Frances
    refusal

29
The Second Moroccan Crisis
  • Germany sent gunboat Panther to Morocco
  • angered Britain
  • turned Entente Cordiale into a de facto alliance

30
War in the Balkans
  • Italy wanted Libya, attacked Ottoman empire,
  • forced Turkey to cede Libya/islands, encouraged
    Balkan states to attack
  • in 1912, many states attacked empire/won
    easily
  • dispute over division of territory,
  • 2nd Balkan War in 1913
  • Austria determined to suppress Slavs
  • Serbs retreat
  • Austrians got better results from brute force
    than diplomacy

31
Causes of World War One
  • Although it was the assassination of the Austrian
    archduke, Franz Ferdinand that led to the
    outbreak of world war one in August 1914, the
    actual causes of the war were more complicated
  • Complicated Alliances
  • Imperialism
  • Nationalism
  • Militarism

32
Sarajevo and Outbreak of War
  • Assassin killed Archduke Francis Ferdinand
  • (Black Hand) supported by Serbian government

33
Germanys and Austrias Response
  • Germany promised German support on attack on
    Austria
  • July 28- Austria declared war on Serbia
  • Russia ordered partial mobilization against
    Austria
  • July 30- Austria ordered mobilization against
    Russia
  • Aug 1-3 Germany invaded Luxembourg and Belgium

34
Triple Entente Response
  • Aug 4- Britain declared war and Germany invaded
    France

35
Strategies and Stalemate
  • Allied superior in numbers and financial
    resources and command of sea
  • Central powers advantages of communication and
    first attack

36
New Weapons
  • Machine Guns made cavalry redundant
  • Later on Tanks -- after 1916 -- they made Trench
    warfare impossible in later wars.
  • Chemical Weapons - Mustard Gas
  • New Diseases - Shell Shock

37
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38
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39
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40
War in the West
  • Schlieffen Plan- going around French defenses by
    going through Belgium and going south and east to
    crush against German fortresses
  • Germany defensive war in east
  • Schlieffen died and left to Moltke to execute
    plan
  • Hesitant strategy and mistakes led to failure
  • France and Britain stopped German in Battle of
    Marne
  • Each side dug in behind a wall of trenches with
    machine gun nests and artillery

41
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42
War in the East
  • Hindenburg captured/destroyed entire Russian army
    at Battle of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes

43
The Home Front
  • Popular Support  Most people in the various
    countries saw the war in nationalistic/patriotic 
    terms -- White Feathers (chicken/dove) were given
    to non-fighting men in Britain
  • Total War and Economic Mobilization Mobilizing
    for total war
  • Factories
  • Munitions
  • Pub hours in England were shortened
  • Rationing - especially harsh in Germany
  • Total control of economic and social life to
    obtain a common goal strengthened socialist
    ideals.
  • Labor shortages brought about benefits for
    organized labor.
  • Role of Women
  • Changes drastically as women entered labor force.
  • Right to vote was granted after the war to women
    in Britain and Germany and Austria.

44
Breaking the Deadlock
  • Winston Churchill proposed to attack Ottoman
    Empire
  • Falkenhayn failed at Verdun
  • Germans responded to British Blockade with
    unrestricted sub warfare
  • Americans angry after torpedoed Lusitania
  • Battle of Jutland confirmed British control of
    sea
  • Feb 1- Germany announces unrestricted sub warfare
    and U.S. breaks diplomatic relations

45
  • Germany had won against Russia, but by 1916
    morale had declined,
  • The United States entered the war.
  • The "Lusitania" 1915 1,200 die (inc. 118
    Americans)
  • Altered American public opinion.
  • The Zimmerman Telegram
  • America Enters the War 1917
  • Germany had to act quickly before the US forces
    built up.
  • Spring Offensive by Germany -- March  1918

46
Russia Revolution
  • Tsar adjourned Duma and ruled alone
  • March 1917- Petrograd worker demonstrations
  • Tsar abdicated on Mar. 15
  • Began to organize soviets, councils of workers
    and soldiers

47
Lenin and the Bolsheviks
  • Bolsheviks demanded all political power go to
    soviets
  • Coup failure and Lenin fled to Finland, and Leon
    Trotsky imprisoned
  • Trotsky organized coup on Nov.6 and Bolsheviks
    ruled Russia

48
Communist Dictatorship
  • Bolshevik gov. decrees that nationalized land
    turned over to peasant proprietors
  • Bolsheviks took Russia out of War
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- treaty with Germany that
    Russia lost vast amounts of territory and pay
    much war reparations

49
Last Push
  • Germany pushed for one last offensive and got no
    further from Marne
  • Prince Max of Baden asked for peace on 14 points

50
End of the Ottomans
  • Ottomans under the Young Turks had sided with
    Germany.
  • Russian and British forces defeated the Ottomans
  • British aided by the Arabs under the control of
    Hussein the sherif of Mecca.
  • 1920 Peace treaty dismantles the Ottomans, large
    portions of the empire fell under the control of
    England and France.
  • Turkish nationalists under Ataturk founds the
    Republic of Turkey in 1923.

51
Settlement at Paris
52
The Allies
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924)
  • The Fourteen Points Jan 8 1918
  • Self Determination - was it a good idea (think of
    problems with this in Eastern Europe)
  • Aims of Other Allies
  • Georges Clemenceau (1841-1929)David Lloyd George
    (1865-1945, PM 1916-1922)Vittoria Emanuale
    Orlando, 1860-1952
  • Britain Bowed to public opinion at home, and
    they wanted reparations.
  • France Wanted the destruction of German Threat
    and Reparations.

53
Provisions - The New Europe
  • Nine new "nation-states"  Finland, Estonia,
    Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia,
    Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary.
  • France
  • - gains Alsace-Lorraine
  • Germany
  • - loses territory
  • Alsace-Lorraine
  • Saarland
  • A lot of Prussia to Poland
  • Austria-Hungary An Empire disappears
  • Austria - a small state
  • Hungary - (problem - many Hungarians in
    Transylvania, which was given to Romania).
  • Czechoslovakia - the democratic success story
    -Czechs, Slovaks, Moravians (Problem - Germans in
    Sudetenland)

54
  • Balkans
  • Yugoslavia - Serbia grows and gains a little
    empire over Croats, Slovenes. Dalmatians,
    Macedonians, Bosnians, some Hungarians, and
    Montenegrins (Problem - Albanians.)
  • Rumania - gains territory
  • Transylvania Moldavia many Hungarians.
    Gypsies ignored.
  • Bulgaria
  • Loses land to Yugoslavia and Greece

55
  • Russia -- loses a lot of land
  • Finland
  • Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
  • Poland
  • Moldavia to Rumania
  • Colonies German colonies are divided up.
  • Britain gets African lands
  • Japan gets Asian lands.
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Britain and France divided the Middle East.
  • Britain renegades on promise made to Arabs.
  • Greece tried to conquer Western Anatolia
  • The New Turkey, under the leadership of Kemal
    Ataturk repulsed and drove out the Greeks

56
Reparations
  • Germany was to pay 5 Billion per year until 1921
  • Then a fixed sum which would be paid off over 30
    years.
  • Never paid, and could not be,
  • Infuriated the Germans.

57
League of Nations
  • A League of Nations to be established to govern
    later disputes.
  • Germany and Russia excluded.
  • USA would not join.
  • It never worked.

58
Germanys Surrender
  • The War Guilt Clause
  • "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm,
    and Germany accepts, the responsibility for
    causing all the loss and damage to which the
    Allied and Associated Governments and their
    nationals have been subjected as a consequence of
    the war imposed upon them by the aggression of
    Germany and her allies
  • Germany was not instigator of the War, it was
    regard as main defeated power.
  • Not a complete defeat.
  • Military Defeat not acknowledged by the army.
  • Military insisted that the Civil Government bears
    the blame.
  • Made things hard for the new postwar government.

59
  • Led to UK and USA really leaving France to
    enforce the Treaty, - France was  unable to this.
  • Versailles settlement managed to set the scene
    for the next war within 25 years.
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