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Before Reading_ 1.1

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Kalervo Oberg Kalervo Oberg: (1901-1973) a world-renowned anthropologist. Culture Culture Shock Born: 1901 Birthplace: British Columbia, Canada – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Before Reading_ 1.1


1
Before Reading_ 1.1
Kalervo Oberg
Kalervo Oberg (1901-1973) a world-renowned
anthropologist.
Culture
Culture Shock
  • Born 1901
  • Birthplace British Columbia, Canada
  • Died July 11, 1973, in
    Corvallis, Oregon
  • Best Known As a pioneer in economic and
    applied
  • anthropology

Group Discussion
2
Before Reading_ 1.2
Kalervo Oberg was born in 1901 in the Canadian
province of British Columbia, to Finnish parents.
He received a bachelors degree in economics from
the University of British Columbia in 1928, a
masters degree in economics from the University
of Pittsburgh, and his Ph.D from the University
of Chicago. Oberg had numerous teaching positions
in his career, but never a permanent position. He
also worked in various government postings
overseas, including the Institute of
Inter-American Affairs, forerunner of the US
Agency for International Development. After his
employment with the government, Oberg returned to
teaching at Cornell University, the University of
Southern California, and also Oregon State
University. He was an excellent teacher and was
always aware of current events around the world
and ready to discuss them. Although he did not
publish as much as many anthropologists due to
the nature of his work, his contributions were
great. He was most famous for developing the idea
of culture shock.
Kalervo Oberg
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
3
Before Reading_ 1.3
Kalervo Oberg
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
4
Before Reading_ 1.4
Kalervo Oberg
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
5
Before Reading_ 1.5
Kalervo Oberg
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
6
Before Reading_ 1.6
Kalervo Oberg
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
7
Before Reading2.1



Directions Culture is responsible for how we
live. There are different ways
to divide culture, one of which is to
think about culture in two basic
categories individualism and
collectivism. Watch the video
and try to get the differences between
individualistic cultures and
collectivistic cultures.
Kalervo Oberg
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
8
Before Reading2.2



Individualistic culture
Kalervo Oberg
People are concerned more with the needs, goals
and interests of the individual. People tend to
emphasize self-actualization and individual
initiative and achievement. People focus on an I
identity. People are supposed to look after
themselves and immediate families only. People
tend to emphasize individual rights like freedom,
independence, individuality and equality. People
tend to have a SELF-other orientation toward
relationships, meaning that the SELF is the most
important. Examples of individualistic cultures
are US and Australia.
a. b. c. d. e. f. g.
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
9
Before Reading2.3



Collectivistic culture
Kalervo Oberg
People are more concerned with the groups needs,
goals and interests than those of the
individual. People stress fitting in with or
belonging to the group. People focus on a WE
identity. People are supposed to look after
others in the group or collective in exchange for
loyalty. People tend to emphasize belonging to
groups. Family relations, loyalty and harmony are
highly valued. People tend to have a self-OTHER
orientation toward relationships meaning that the
other is more important than the self. Examples
of collectivistic cultures are China, Columbia,
Costa Rica and Indonesia.
a. b. c. d. e. f. g.
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
10
Before Reading_3



Directions The term culture shock was
introduced for the first time
in 1954 by Kalvero Oberg. Now lets learn
something in detail about it.
Kalervo Oberg
Culture
Culture Shock
1. Definition
Group Discussion
2. Six aspects of culture shock
3. A typical six-month cycle of culture shock
4. Causes of culture shock
5. Signs of culture shock
6. Dealing with intercultural stress and shock
11
Before Reading_3.1



Kalervo Oberg
Definition
Culture
Culture shock is a term used to describe the
anxiety and feelings (of surprise,
disorientation, confusion, etc.) felt when people
have to operate within an entirely different
culture or social environment, such as a
different country.
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
12
Before Reading_3.2



Kalervo Oberg
Six aspects of culture shock
Culture
Strain due to the effort required to make
necessary psychological adaptations. A sense
of loss and feelings of deprivation regarding
friends, family, status, career and
possessions. Being rejected by and/or rejecting
members of the new culture. Confusion in role,
role expectation, values, feelings and self
identity. Surprise, anxiety and even disgust and
indignation after becoming aware of cultural
differences. Feelings of impotence due to not
being able to cope with a new environment.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
13
Before Reading_3.3



Kalervo Oberg
A typical six-month cycle of culture shock
Culture
Pre-Departure
Culture Shock
First Month
Sixth Month
Group Discussion
Fourth and Fifth Months
Third Month
Second Month
14
Before Reading_3.3_1



Kalervo Oberg
Pre-Departure Defined by excitement,
anticipation and enthusiasm. Emotions are running
high and although excited, everyone is also a bit
apprehensive and concerned.
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
15
Before Reading_3.3_2



Kalervo Oberg
First Month Still filled with the excitement of
travel and newness of food, culture and
environment. Learning the language becomes a
priority.
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
16
Before Reading_3.3_3



Kalervo Oberg
Second Month Distinguished by the awareness of
differences being felt as unpleasant.
Inconveniences in accommodation, not speaking the
language well enough and the lack of familiarity
of foods, shops, friends and surroundings are
noticed.
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
17
Before Reading_3.3_4



Kalervo Oberg
Third Month Often the low point in the
adjustment period. Language skills seem to
stagnate and personal productivity drops. Nothing
about the new culture seems positive. Family and
friends are greatly missed.
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
18
Before Reading_3.3_5



Kalervo Oberg
Fourth and Fifth Months The beginning of the
return of enthusiasm and enjoyment. New foods,
new ways of doing things and the language are
tried with a positive effect. Emotions are
smoother, confidence is regained and built up,
and health is restored.
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
19
Before Reading_3.3_6



Kalervo Oberg
Sixth Month Brings normal lifestyle, with
established routines and social life in place.
The ups and downs of living abroad are accepted.
Normality, indeed, has finally smiled on you once
again.
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
20
Before Reading_3.4



Kalervo Oberg
Causes of culture shock
Culture
Culture Shock
Being cut off from cultural signals and known
patterns of communication, especially the subtle,
indirect ways of expressing feelings. Living or
working over an extended period of time in a
situation that is ambiguous. Having personal
values (which were previously considered
absolutes) brought into question. Being
continually put into positions in which you are
expected to function with maximum skill and
speed, but where the rules have not been
adequately explained.
1. 2. 3. 4.
Group Discussion
21
Before Reading_3.5



Kalervo Oberg
Signs of culture shock
Culture
homesickness, withdrawal, stereotyping of host
nationals, need for excessive amounts of sleep,
marital stress, loss of ability to work
effectively, compulsive eating or drinking,
unexplainable fits of weeping, irritability,
physical ailments, boredom, exaggerated
cleanliness, family tension and conflict
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
22
Before Reading_3.6



Kalervo Oberg
Dealing with intercultural stress and shock
Culture
Gather information. The more that is known about
a place or its people, the less foreign or
threatening they seem. Consider traveling
locally, taking a cooking class, or joining a
club. Do not criticize the host culture. Resist
the temptation of talking negatively about the
local people. Find a friend. Find someone who
can serve as a cultural informant to introduce
parts of local life and practices that are not
normally accessible to foreigners. This will help
make sense of the cultural differences one
naturally encounters. Look at the big picture.
Find patterns and interrelationships that explain
what is going on so that it no longer seems
confusing.
1. 2. 3. 4.
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
23
Before Reading_4.1



Kalervo Oberg
Language is a tool for us to communicate with
each other. Lack of efficient linguistic as well
as cultural knowledge may cause misunderstanding
between people from different cultures. Watch the
video See You Later.
1.
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
2.
Discuss with your group members. Your discussion
should include the following questions
a. Do you have the similar experiences? b. Have
you heard of some stories of the same type? c.
What can we do to avoid such an awkward situation?
24
Before Reading_4.1_1



Kalervo Oberg
Culture
Culture Shock
Group Discussion
25
Global Reading_ 1




Parts
Para(s).
Main Ideas
Part Division of the Text
We might call culture shock a disease which is
caused by the frustration and anxiety resulting
from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of
social intercourse.
1
13
Further Understanding
True or False
Questions and Answers
Culture shock is due to our own lack of
understanding of other peoples cultural
background and our lack of the means of
communication rather than the hostility of an
alien environment.
Interview
2
46
To get over culture shock, we should get to know
the people of the host country and their
language we should find out what they do, how
they do it, and what their interests are, etc.
But understanding the ways of a people does not
mean that we have to give up our own.
3
79
26
Global Reading_ 2_1_1
( )
Culture shock is just like a disease which can be
cured. Culture shock often leads to the loss
of our familiar signs and symbols of social
intercourse. Usually people resort to a
particular way for dealing with their daily life.
People who experience culture shock tend to
view the host country irrationally.
1. 2. 3. 4.
T
Part Division of the Text
Further Understanding
True or False
F
( )
Questions and Answers
Culture shock results from the loss of our
familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse.
Interview
F
( )
We orient ourselves to the situations of daily
life in countless ways.
T
( )
27
Global Reading_ 2_1_2
5. 6.
After the period of culture shock, people tend to
take a trip home. Culture shock enables
people to forget everything back home, good or
bad.
Part Division of the Text
F
( )
Further Understanding
Regression is another phase of culture shock. It
usually takes a trip home to bring one back to
reality.
True or False
Questions and Answers
F
( )
Interview
Culture shock makes people forget all the
difficulties and problems and remember only the
good thing back home.
28
Global Reading_ 2_2_1
1. What is the cultural environment made up of
according to the passage?
Part Division of the Text
Further Understanding
A cultural environment consists of man-made
physical objects, social institution, and ideas
and beliefs.
True or False
2. Is culture acquired?
Questions and Answers
Interview
Yes, it is. An individual is not born with
culture but only with the capacity to learn it
and use it.
3. What does culture enable young people to do?
Culture enables the young to learn to adapt
themselves to the physical environment and to the
people with whom they associate.
29
Global Reading_ 2_2_2
4. What is ethnocentrism?
Part Division of the Text
It is a belief people hold that not only their
culture but their race and nation form the center
of the world.
Further Understanding
True or False
5. What is the proper way for us to treat
ethnocentrism according to the author?
Questions and Answers
Interview
We should recognize that ethnocentrism is a
permanent characteristic of national groups.
6. What should people know first in order to
overcome culture shock?
People should realize that their trouble is
caused by lack of understanding of different
cultural background and the lack of means to
communicate, and that both understanding and
means can be gained by themselves.
30
Global Reading_ 2_3
Directions Work in pairs to perform an
interview. One student plays
as the writer, Kalervo Oberg, and the other, a
TV reporter. The topic you are
talking about is how we can get
over culture shock. Your conversation should
be based on part 3 and the interview
should cover the following
three aspects
Part Division of the Text
Further Understanding
True or False
Questions and Answers
learn the language get to know the value and
interest pattern be a participant observer.
1. 2. 3.
Interview
31
Global Reading_ 2_4
  • Do the students in distance learning programs use
  • textbook?

Part Division
Further Understanding
Yes, they do. But textbooks are just learning
aids and they arent the only source of knowledge.
Questions and Answers
2. Where can cyber students acquire knowledge
apart from textbooks?
Blank Filling
True or False
Questions and Answers
From the collaborative efforts of online debates,
conferences and papers.
32
Detailed Reading
Detailed Reading
People tend to experience frustration and anxiety
when they enter a new culture. This phenomenon is
often referred to as culture shock. How and why
does it happen? What is the nature of culture
shock? And how can we cope with it? Kalervo
Oberg provides us with some answers.
33
Detailed Reading_t1-2
Culture Shock Kalervo Oberg
Detailed Reading
We might almost call culture shock an
occupational disease of people who have been
suddenly transplanted abroad. Like
most ailments it has its own cause, symptoms, and
cure. Culture shock is precipitated by the
anxiety that results from losing all our familiar
signs and symbols of social intercourse. These
signs or cues include
the thousand and one ways in which we orient
ourselves to the situations of daily life
when to shake hands and what to say when we meet
people, when and how to give tips, how to give
orders to servants, how to make purchases, when
to accept and when to refuse invitations, when to
take statements seriously and when not.
These cues which may be words, gestures,
34
Detailed Reading_t2-3
facial expressions, customs, or norms
are acquired by all of us in the course of
growing up and are as much a part of our culture
as the language we speak or the beliefs we
accept. All of us depend for our peace of mind
and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues.
Detailed Reading
Now when an individual enters a strange culture,
all or most of these familiar cues are removed.
He or she is like a fish out of water. No matter
how broad-minded you may be, a series of props
have been knocked from under you, followed by a
feeling of frustration and anxiety. People react
to the frustration in much the same way. First
they reject the environment which causes the
discomfort The ways of the host country are
bad because they make us feel bad.
35
Detailed Reading_t3-4
When Americans or other foreigners in a
strange land get together to complain about the
host country and its people you can be sure
they are suffering from culture shock. Another
phase of culture shock is regression. The home
environment suddenly assumes a tremendous
importance. To an American everything
American becomes irrationally glorified. All the
difficulties and problems are forgotten and only
the good things back home are remembered. It
usually takes a trip home to bring one back to
reality.
Detailed Reading
In an effort to get over culture shock, there is
some value in knowing something about the nature
of culture and its relationship to the
individual. In addition to living in a physical
environment, an individual lives in a cultural
environment consisting of man-made physical
objects, social institutions, and ideas and
beliefs. An individual is not born with culture
but only with the capacity to learn it and use
it. There is nothing in a newborn child which
dictates that it should eventually speak
36
Detailed Reading_t4
Portuguese, English, or French nor that he
should eat with a fork in his left hand rather
than in the right or use chopsticks. All these
things the child has to learn. Nor are the
parents responsible for the culture which they
transmit to their young. The culture of any
people is the product of his try and is built up
over time largely through
Detailed Reading
processes which are beyond his awareness. It is
by means of culture that the young learn to adapt
themselves to the physical environment and to the
people with whom they associate. And as we know,
children and adolescents often experience
difficulties in this process of learning and
adjustment. But once learned, culture becomes a
way of life.
37
Detailed Reading_t5
People have a way of accepting their culture as
both the best and the only way of doing things.
This is perfectly normal and understandable. To
this attitude we give the name ethnocentrism, a
belief that not only the culture but the race and
the nation form the center of the world.
Individuals
Detailed Reading
identify themselves with their own group to the
extent that any critical comment is taken as a
remark which is rude to the individual as well as
to the group. If you criticize my country, you
are criticizing me if you criticize me, you are
criticizing my country. Along with this attitude
goes the tendency to attribute all individual
peculiarities as national characteristics. For
instance,
38
Detailed Reading_t5-6
if an American does something odd or
anti-social in a foreign country which back home
would be considered a purely individual act, this
is now considered a national trait. He acts that
way not because he is Joe Doaks but because he is
an American. Instead of being censured as an
individual, his country is censured. It is thus
best to recognize that ethnocentrism is a
permanent characteristic of national groups. Even
if a national criticizes some aspect of his own
culture, the foreigner should listen but not
enter into the criticism.
Detailed Reading
Once you realize that your trouble is due to your
own lack of understanding of other peoples
cultural background and your own lack of the
means of communication rather than the hostility
of an alien environment, you also realize that
you yourself can gain this understanding and
these means of communication. And the sooner you
do this, the sooner culture shock will disappear.
39
Detailed Reading_t7
The question now arises, what can you do to get
over culture shock as quickly as possible? The
answer is getting to know the people of the host
country. But this you cannot do with any success
without knowing the language, for language is the
principal symbol
Detailed Reading
system of communication. Now we all know that
learning a new language is difficult,
particularly to adults. This task alone is
quite enough to cause frustration and anxiety, no
matter how skillful language teachers are in
making it easy for you. But once you begin to be
able to carry on a friendly conversation with
your maid, your neighbour, or to go on shopping
trips alone, you not only gain confidence and a
feeling of power but a whole new world of
cultural meanings opens up for you.
40
Detailed Reading_t8-9
You begin to find out what people do, how they do
it, and what their interests are. People usually
express these interests by what they habitually
talk about and how they allocate their time and
money. Once you know this value or interest
pattern it will be quite easy to get people to
talk to and be interested in you.
Detailed Reading
At times it is helpful to be a participant
observer by joining the activities of the people,
to try to share in their responses, whether this
be a carnival, a religious ritual, or some
economic activity. Yet the visitor should never
forget that he or she is an outsider and will
be treated as such.
41
Detailed Reading_t9
He or she should view this participation
as a role-playing. Understanding the ways of a
people is essential but this does not mean that
you have to give up your own. What happens is
that you have developed two patterns of behavior.
Detailed Reading
42
Detailed Reading_t1-2_ Like most
Like most ailments it has its own cause,
symptoms, and cure.
Detailed Reading
1. What does it refer to in this sentence?
It refers to culture shock.
2. In the previous sentence, the author uses the
word disease, but here the word ailments
is used. What is the difference between
these two words?
Disease is a general term referring to an illness
which affects a person, animal, or plant.
Ailment refers to an illness that is not very
serious. Obviously, culture shock is not a
serious physical disease that is affecting ones
body. It is just a kind of emotional discomfort
usually found in somebody who has been suddenly
transplanted abroad.
3. Translate the sentence into Chinese.
????????,?????????????????
43
Detailed Reading_t1-2_when to shake 1
when to shake hands and what to say when we
meet people, when and how to give tips, how to
give orders to servants, how to make purchases,
when to accept and when to refuse invitations,
when to take statements seriously and when not.
Detailed Reading
1. Say something more about the usage of
when/what/how/ infinitive structure.
  • There are three points to remember when you use
    this kind
  • of structure
  • This structure is used only after such English
    verbs as
  • ask, decide, discover, find out, forget,
    know, learn,
  • remember, see (understand/perceive), and
    wonder, etc.
  • 2) Besides when/what/how, words like
    where/which/whether can also be used in this
    structure
  • 3) The structure whether infinitive is
    usually used after
  • want to know or wonder.
  • More examples
  • I found out where to buy fruit cheaply.
  • I didnt know when to switch the machine off.
  • I wondered whether to write or phone.

44
Detailed Reading_t1-2_when to shake 2
2. Paraphrase when to take statements seriously
and when not.
Detailed Reading
when we should believe that these statements are
worth our attention and when we neednt pay
attention to them
45
Detailed Reading_t1-2_ These cues
These cues which may be words, gestures, facial
expressions, customs, or norms are acquired by
all of us in the course of growing up and are as
much a part of our culture as the language we
speak or the beliefs we accept.
Detailed Reading
1. According to this statement, what makes up our
culture?
The cues we acquire in daily life, the language
we speak, and the beliefs we accept.
2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.
??????????????????????????????????????????????,???
???????????????,???????????????
46
Detailed Reading_t2-3_All of us depend
All of us depend for our peace of mind and our
efficiency on hundreds of these cues.
Detailed Reading
What is the implied meaning of this sentence?
Without these familiar cues such as words,
gestures, facial expressions, customs, or norms,
we would probably get lost and suffer from
frustration and anxiety, and wouldnt be able to
work efficiently.
47
Detailed Reading_t3-4_To an American
To an American everything American becomes
irrationally glorified.
Detailed Reading
Do the two words American in this sentence mean
the same?
No, they dont mean the same. The first
American is a noun, meaning someone from the
USA, while the second is used as an adjective,
meaning relating to the USA.
48
Detailed Reading_t4_The culture of
The culture of any people is the product of
history and is built up over time largely through
processes which are beyond his awareness.
Detailed Reading
1. What can you infer from this sentence?
Culture develops and builds up through a long but
hardly noticeable process.
2. Translate the sentence into Chinese.
????????????????,????????????????????????
49
Detailed Reading_t5_To this attitude
To this attitude we give the name ethnocentrism,
a belief that not only the culture but the race
and the nation form the center of the world.
Detailed Reading
1. To what kind of attitude do we give the name
ethnocentrism?
We give the name ethnocentrism to the attitude
that people regard their culture as both the
best and the only way of doing things.
2. How is ethnocentrism defined in this sentence?
It is a belief that not only the culture but the
race and the nation form the center of the world.
3. Analyze the structure of this sentence.
1) The first part of this sentence uses the
technique of fronting (????). The regular
sentence order would be We give the name
ethnocentrism to this attitude 2) In the
second part, there is an appositve clause used to
modify belief, telling us the specific
content of this belief.
50
Detailed Reading_t5_For instance
For instance, if an American does something odd
or anti-social in a foreign country which back
home would be considered a purely individual act,
this is now considered a national trait.
Detailed Reading
1. What can we infer from the sentence?
People tend to attribute all individual
peculiarities as national characteristics.
2. Translate this sentence into Chinese.
??,?????????????????????????,??????????????????,??
?????????????
51
Detailed Reading_t5-6_Instead of being
Instead of being censured as an individual, his
country is censured.
Detailed Reading
Paraphrase the sentence.
His country rather than the individual himself
would be officially criticized.
52
Detailed Reading_t7_This task alone
This task alone is quite enough to cause
frustration and anxiety, no matter how skillful
language teachers are in making it easy for you.
Detailed Reading
1. What does it refer to?
It refers to the act of learning a new language.
2. Translate this sentence into Chinese.
???????????????????????,????????????????????????
53
Detailed Reading_t8-9_At times it is 1
At times it is helpful to be a participant
observer by joining the activities of the people,
to try to share in their responses, whether this
be a carnival, a religious ritual, or some
economic activity.
Detailed Reading
  • Analyze the structure of the second sentence
    whether
  • this be a carnival, a religious ritual, or
    some economic
  • activity.

This sentence adopts the subjunctive mood. Here
the third person singular pronoun this is
followed by be instead of is. This is one
type of present subjective (????) which is often
used in clauses of condition or concession. The
present subjective can also be found in certain
exclamations to express a wish or hope, very
often involving supernatural powers. More
examples God bless you! Long live the queen!
54
Detailed Reading_t8-9_At times it is 2
Detailed Reading
2. Translate this sentence into Chinese.
???,???????????,??????????????????,????????,??????
???,??????
55
Detailed Reading_ transplant
transplant 1. vt. to move from one place and
settle elsewhere
Detailed Reading
We start the flowers indoors and then transplant
them to the garden.
His kidney was transplanted in his daughter.
2. n. the operation of transplanting an
organ, piece of skin etc
Kellys only hope of survival was a heart and
lung transplant.
Collocation
heart transplant surgery ?????? a bone
marrow transplant ????
56
Detailed Reading_ ailment 1
ailment n. an illness that is not very serious
Detailed Reading
It was still unclear what caused the victims
ailments.
The medicine was supposed to cure all kinds of
ailments, ranging from colds to back pains.
57
Detailed Reading_ ailment2
??????????? ????????,?????????
??????,?????????????
??????,??????,??????????
????????,??????????????
Detailed Reading
His ailment was only a slight headache.
??????,????????
Her mother was just recovering from an illness .
????????,?????
She suffers from a rare disease of the brain.
?????????
He is having treatment for a chest complaint.
?????????????
58
Detailed Reading_ cure
cure 1. n. treatment or substance that cures
remedy
Detailed Reading
There is still no cure for AIDS.
???????????????
Prevention is far better than any cure.
2. vt. to make an illness or medical condition go
away
Many types of cancer can now be cured.
Ninety percent of patients can be cured of the
disease.
Pattern
cure sb. of sth. ???????
She had some acupuncture treatment which seems to
have cured her.
??????????????
59
Detailed Reading_ precipitate1
precipitate 1. vt. to make (an unwanted event)
happen sooner
Detailed Reading
An attack on the country could precipitate a
world war.
The 1929 stock market crash precipitated the
collapse of the American banking system.
2. vi. to separate a solid substance from a
liquid by chemical action, or to be
separated in this way
This material causes most of the alumina in the
solution to precipitate quickly.
3. n. a solid substance that has been chemically
separated from a liquid
??????????????????
The teacher asked him to warm the mixture after
the precipitate dissolved.
60
Detailed Reading_ precipitate2
4. adj. happening or done too quickly, and not
thought about carefully
Detailed Reading
A precipitate decision leads to his failure.
?????????????
A cool breeze caused a precipitate drop in the
temperature.
NB
???????,????hasten??????,????hasty?
61
Detailed Reading_ orient1
orient v. to arrange or direct with a
particular purpose
Detailed Reading
She looked at the street names, trying to orient
herself.
????????????????
The climber stopped to orient himself.
The meeting decided that the magazine had to
orient to the busisness community.
62
Detailed Reading_ orient2
Collocations
orient oneself to sth. ??????? be oriented
to/towards/around sth/sb ???????, ????
Detailed Reading
It takes new students a while to orientate
themselves to college life.
??????????????????
The course is oriented towards the needs of
businessmen.
??????????????????
A lot of the training is orientated around
communications skills.
????????????????
NB
?????????,????,????the Orient????????
The traveler made a fame for himself by a book
about the Orient.
????????????????????
63
Detailed Reading_ purchase1
purchase 1. n. sth. you buy, or the act of
buying it
Detailed Reading
Other customers arrived, made their purchases and
left.
?????????
That hat was a good purchase.
64
Detailed Reading_ purchase2
Collocations
Detailed Reading
date of purchase ???? proof of
purchase ???? hire purchase
???? make purchases ??
2. vt. to buy sth.
You can purchase insurance online.
Foreign investors are not permitted to purchase
land.
65
Detailed Reading_ a fish out of water
a fish out of water sb. who is uncomfortable
sb. who is at a disadvantage
Detailed Reading
I felt like a fish out of water in my new school.
Pattern
be/feel like a fish out of water ??????
66
Detailed Reading_ tremendous 1
tremendous adj. very great in size, amount, or
degree
Detailed Reading
She was making a tremendous effort to appear calm.
?????????????
This plan could save us a tremendous amount of
money.
?????????? ,?????? ??????,????????????
??????? ???? ???,????????????????????
?????????????,?????? ???,???????????????
67
Detailed Reading_ tremendous 2
Directions Fill in the blanks with the words in
the previous page. Change the form where
necessary.
Detailed Reading
Be careful. The forest is full of
snakes and spiders. Kings new novel will
undoubtedly be a success. She praised
her husband for the support
he had given her. areas of the Amazon
rainforest have been destroyed.
1. 2. 3. 4.
giant
_____
huge
_____
tremendous
__________
Vast
____
68
Detailed Reading_glorify
glorify vt. to cause to appear more important
or better than they really are
Detailed Reading
Movies that glorify violence may be responsible
for some of the rise in crime.
The emperors achievements were glorified in
numerous poems.
69
Detailed Reading_get over
get over 1) to find a way to deal with
Detailed Reading
Once weve got over the first few months, we
should be making a reasonable profit.
?????????????????
I dont know how were going to get over this
problem.
2) to become well again after an illness or a
very upsetting experience
Its taken me ages to get over the flu.
??????????????????
She never got over the death of her son.
70
Detailed Reading_dictate1
  • dictate v.
  • to tell someone exactly what they must do or how
    they must
  • behave

Detailed Reading
Islamic custom dictates that women should be
fully covered.
The media cannot be allowed to dictate to the
government.
????????????????
She refused to be dictated to by some stupid
officials in Washington.
Can they dictate how the money will be spent?
71
Detailed Reading_dictate2
Patterns
Detailed Reading
dictate that dictate to dictate who / what / how
etc.
2) to say words for someone else to write down
Hes dictating a letter to his secretary right
now.
72
Detailed Reading_ transmit1
transmit v. to send or pass from one person,
place, or thing to another
Detailed Reading
??????????????
The meeting will be transmitted live via
satellite.
Radars that transmit at lower frequencies are
more effective than high-frequency radars in
penetrating clouds, fog, and rain.
73
Detailed Reading_transmit2
????????,??,????? ??????????????????????
???? ???????????????
???,???,?????????????,????? ????????????
??????????????????,???????, ???????????
Detailed Reading
The system transmits information over digital
phone lines.
????????????????
Cultural values are transmitted from parent to
child.
??????????????
We sent Mom flowers for Mothers Day.
???????????
The morning mail has just been delivered.
???????
74
Detailed Reading_ build up
build up 1) to increase, develop, or become
gradually larger
Detailed Reading
The firm has built up a wide reputation for fair
dealing.
Hes built up the family firm into a
multinational company.
2) to make someone well and strong again
strengthen
Taking exercise will build up your strength.
????????????????
When sick you must rest to build up your health.
75
Detailed Reading_ by means of
by means of by using a particular method or
system
Detailed Reading
I found my lost dog by means of a notice in the
paper.
NB
????means????,???????????? by all means
?????, ?? by any means ???? by no means ??
76
Detailed Reading_ associate with sb.
associate with sb. to spend time with sb.
Detailed Reading
I dont like those people youre associating with.
????????????????
John may have been associating with the criminals.
77
Detailed Reading_ identify oneself 1
identify oneself/sb. with sb./sth. to support
or feel closely connected with sb./sth.
Detailed Reading
She has always been identified with the radical
left.
I tried to identify my mind with the old
fellows, and take his view of the world.
????????,????? ??????????????????
???????????????? ?????????????????
78
Detailed Reading_ identify oneself 2
Directions Fill in the blanks with the words in
the previous page. Change the form where
necessary.
Detailed Reading
I didnt you in your
uniform. His accent him as a
Frenchman. He could just a dark
shape moving towards him. Scientists have
the gene that causes abnormal growth.
1. 2. 3. 4.
recognize
________
identified
________
make out
________
identified
________
79
Detailed Reading_ to the extent that
to the extent that so much that
Detailed Reading
Violence increased to the extent that residents
were afraid to leave their homes.
NB
?????????????????to such an extent
that,????????????????extent????? to a certain
extent ?????? to some extent ?????? to a
great/large extent ??????
80
Detailed Reading_ tendency
tendency n. a characteristic likelihood of
doing sth.
Detailed Reading
There is an increasing tendency for women to have
children later in life.
????????????
Boys have a stronger tendency to fight than girls.
Collocations
aggressive tendency
???? suicidal tendency
???? criminal tendency
???? artistic tendency
???? have a tendency to/towards
sth. ???????
81
Detailed Reading_ attribute
attribute 1. vt. to regard sth. as belonging to,
caused by or produced by sb./sth.
Detailed Reading
We attribute courage to the lion and cunning to
the fox.
?????????????????
Alices success should be attributed to her
intelligence and hard work.
2. n. a quality considered as belonging to a
person or thing characteristic.
Patience is an attribute of a good teacher.
??????????????
What attributes should a good manager possess?
82
Detailed Reading_ peculiarity1
peculiarity n. sth. that is a feature of only
one particular place, person, situation etc.
Detailed Reading
We noticed the peculiarity of his manner at once.
She was well aware of the peculiarity of her own
situation.
????????,??,?????
??????????????,???????
????????????,????????????? ???????
???????????????
83
Detailed Reading_ peculiarity2
Directions Fill in the blanks with the words in
the previous page. Change the form where
necessary.
Detailed Reading
Courage, love, patience and common sense are
desirable . One of his
is that his two eyes are not the same
color. He possesses the essential
of a journalist.
1. 2. 3.
traits
_____
peculiarities
__________
attributes
________
84
Detailed Reading_ hostility1
hostility n. unfriendliness opposition.
Detailed Reading
The guard dog showed signs of hostility toward
the newcomers.
Recently there has been hostility towards the
Prime Minister from members of his own party.
Collocations
open hostility ????? popular hostility
????? hostility to/towards sb./sth. ?????????
They eyed each other with open hostility.
??????????????
Pictures of refugees aroused popular hostility
towards the war.
?????????????????
There was fierce hostility to the new policy.
???????????
85
Detailed Reading_ open up1
open up 1) to (cause to) spread or unfold
Detailed Reading
With a microscope, a whole new world of
investigation opens up.
???????????????????
The new international agreement opens up the
possibility of much greater co-operation against
terrorism.
2) to open sth. that is closed, locked, or covered
Open up, this is the police!
3) to stop being shy and say what you really think
Last night was the first time that Ken had opened
up about his feelings.
86
Detailed Reading_ allocate1
allocate vt. to divide and give as a share
Detailed Reading
You should allocate the same amount of time to
each question.
One million dollars was allocated for disaster
relief.
????????,????? ?????????????????????????
? ?????? ??????????????????
????,???????????????,?????? ??,????????
???????????????????????
87
Detailed Reading_ allocate2
Directions Fill in the blanks with the words in
the previous page. Change the form where
necessary.
Detailed Reading
The Wall used to East and West
Berlin. The Ford Foundation
millions of dollars for cancer research. Clothes
and blankets have been among
the refugees. Ive been the task
of looking after the new students.
1. 2. 3. 4.
divide
_____
allocated
________
_________
distributed
________
assigned
88
Detailed Reading_ participant
participant 1. adj. participating sharing.
Detailed Reading
Participant reporters are welcome at the council
meeting.
2. n. someone who is taking part in an activity
or event
Last summer, childrens art program had fourteen
participants.
At the end of the conference, all the
participants were asked to fill out a
questionnaire.
89
Detailed Reading_ as such
as such properly so named in the exact meaning
of the stated thing
Detailed Reading
If Mr. Green chooses to act like a child, he may
have to be treated as such.
?????????,?????????
Birth is a natural process and should be treated
as such.
Collocations
be treated as such ????? be
recognized as such ????? be accepted
as such ?????
90
After Reading_1.1
an occupational disease
1. ???
Useful Expressions
2. ????
result from
Listening Comprehension
3. ????
social intercourse
Discussion and Writing
4. ?????(???)
orient oneself to
Optional Classroom Activities
5. ??
shake hands
Picture Talking
6. ??
make purchases
Proverbs and Quotations
7. ???
take sth. seriously
8. ????
facial expressions
in the course of
9. ????
10. ??????????
a fish out of water
11. ????
be broad-minded
a series of
12. ???
91
After Reading_1.2
react to
13. ?????
Useful Expressions
complain about
14. ??
Listening Comprehension
get over
15. ??,??
Discussion and Writing
in addition to
Optional Classroom Activities
16. ??
social institutions
17. ????
Picture Talking
build up
18. ??,??
Proverbs and Quotations
by means of
19. ?,??
adapt oneself to
20. ?????
associate with
21. ????
identify with
22. ?????,??
to the extent that
23. ?????????
for instance
24. ??
92
After Reading_1.3
an individual act
25. ????
Useful Expressions
due to
26. ??
Listening Comprehension
rather than
27. ???
Discussion and Writing
as quickly as possible
Optional Classroom Activities
28. ??
carry on a conversation
29. ????
Picture Talking
open up
30. ??,??
Proverbs and Quotations
a religious ritual
31. ????
be treated as such
32. ?????
93
After Reading_2.1
Directions Listen to the following passage and
then fill in the blanks.
Useful Expressions
Dealing with culture shock
Listening Comprehension
You have stepped off the plane into a new
(1) world. Initially you may
experience a sense of (2) and
surprise. Everything around you is (3)
a different language, different dress, or a
confusing (4) system. Slowly you
begin to adapt. You may have heard these
words culture shock, a psychological
disorientation (????) that most people
(5) when living in a culture
markedly different from ones own. Everyone
experiences culture shock in different ways,
at different (6) and to different
(7) . Usually the cultural
adjustment (8) follows a certain
pattern. At first, you will be excited about
Discussion and Writing
cultural
_______
excitement
_________
Optional Classroom Activities
____
new
_____
transit
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
experience
_________
times
_____
degrees
process
_______
_______
94
After Reading_2.3
going abroad and starting a new (9)
. When you first arrive, everything will
(10) new and exciting. However,
after some time, you may start to feel (11)
and question why the local people do
things so differently. You may even become
(12) about these differences.
However, you will eventually (??) get used to
this new way of life. And before you know it, you
will be getting excited about the (13)
home to your family and friends.
Sometimes our values and (14)
will conflict and sometimes they will converge
(??) with the cultures we visit. The better you
are able to adjust to the differences, the
greater the ability you will have in
empathizing and (15)
with those with whom you come in
contact. The result will be a better
understanding of your own values and the values
of the people you will encounter in another
culture.
adventure
________
Useful Expressions
appear
______
Listening Comprehension
homesick
________
Discussion and Writing
upset
_____
Optional Classroom Activities
Picture Talking
return
_____
Proverbs and Quotations
beliefs
______
communicating
_____________
95
After Reading_3.1
1. Discussion
Useful Expressions
Here is a story about a Canadians experience in
China. Read it and have a discussion with your
classmates. Your discussion might cover the
following aspects
Listening Comprehension
Discussion and Writing
Optional Classroom Activities
(1) The Canadians attitude towards privacy (2)
The concept of privacy in Chinese culture (3)
Your comments on this example of culture
difference
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
Culture Shock Sense of Privacy
2. Homework for Writing
For this part, you are required to write a
composition on the topic Different Concepts of
Privacy based on the story and the discussion
above. Your composition should be no less than
120 words.
96
After Reading_3.2
I dont mean to say that there was no privacy in
China. But, what I experience in a public office
made me wonder what privacy really meant to many
people there. One day, I went into the office.
Seeing people revealing their quite personal
stories in front of many others made me
uncomfortable Do as the Romans do I told
myself. So, I waited patiently and tried to avoid
the sound coming from the person in front of the
line. Then, I sensed that someone was peering
through my shoulder and stared at the paper that
I was holding. Do as the Romans do I murmured
quietly. Moments later, my brother came and we
discussed at the corner of the office with the
documents open on the desk. Almost immediately, I
saw a man was staring at the documents. His
staring lasted (about three minutes) till I
politely reminded him that it was a personal
document and My mouth dropped seeing him
shouting at me, reminding me that it was a public
place and he stared just the desk not the
document.
Useful Expressions
Listening Comprehension
Discussion and Writing
Optional Classroom Activities
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
97
After Reading_4_1.1
On some occasions we Chinese behave differently
from people in the Western countries. The most
apparent difference can be found on the way
people deal with their daily life. Besides the
cultural difference shown in the table manner, in
the way to address and greet people, in giving
and receiving gifts, can you name some other
differences in terms of the value system? You may
take America as an example of the Western
countries.
Useful Expressions
Listening Comprehension
Discussion and Writing
Optional Classroom Activities
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
Value Difference
98
After Reading_4_1.2
Useful Expressions





Aspects China United
States
Listening Comprehension
Interpersonal
Relationship comes first
Economics comes first
Discussion and Writing
On Humility (??)
Humility viewed as a virtue
Humility is a sign of weakness there is every
reason for the abled to be proud
Optional Classroom Activities
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
What Wins Respect
Respect for seniority, wisdom, ability
Respect for success, achievement, wealth
Children should learn to be independent
On Family
Children should learn to respect the elder, love
the young, and rely on the extended family
99
After Reading_4_1.3




Aspects China United
States
Useful Expressions
On the Strong and the Weak
It is not righteous to hurt others who are not as
strong as you are
It is an honour to win business is all a
competition it is only natural that the weak is
replaced by the strong
Listening Comprehension
Discussion and Writing
Optional Classroom Activities
Picture Talking
Tolerance of Diversity (???????)
Openly very receptive, but actually less so
More open
Proverbs and Quotations
On Shame or Humiliation (??)
Long memory need and urge to declare the
innocence
Tends to come after business consideration
100
After Reading_5
Useful Expressions
Listening Comprehension
Discussion and Writing
Optional Classroom Activities
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
101
After Reading_5
Useful Expressions
Listening Comprehension
Discussion and Writing
Optional Classroom Activities
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
102
After Reading_5
Useful Expressions
Listening Comprehension
Discussion and Writing
Optional Classroom Activities
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
103
After Reading_5
Useful Expressions
Listening Comprehension
Discussion and Writing
Optional Classroom Activities
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
104
After Reading_5
Useful Expressions
Listening Comprehension
Discussion and Writing
Optional Classroom Activities
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
105
After Reading_5
Useful Expressions
Listening Comprehension
Discussion and Writing
Optional Classroom Activities
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
106
After Reading_5
Useful Expressions
Listening Comprehension
Discussion and Writing
Optional Classroom Activities
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
107
After Reading_6.1
1. Every country has its customs.
Useful Expressions
?????
Listening Comprehension
2. Do as the Romans do.
Discussion and Writing
Optional Classroom Activities
?????
3. Let our object be our country, our whole
country, and nothing but our country.
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
??????????,??????,??????????????
4. Culture itself is neither education nor law
making, it is an atmosphere and a heritage.
Henry Louis Menken,
American writer and editor
?????????,?????,??????,?????
???????
???????
108
After Reading_6.2
5. Be it ever so humble, there is no place like
home. J. H.
Payne, American dramatist and act
Useful Expressions
Listening Comprehension
??,??,????????
????????J. H.??
Discussion and Writing
Optional Classroom Activities
6. Home is the place where, when you have to go
there, it has to take you in.
Robert
Frost, American poet
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
?????????????????????
???? ???????
7. Go where he will, the wise man is at home. His
hearth the earth, his hall the azure dome.
Ralf Waldo
Emerson, American thinker
??????????????,????????
????? ?????????
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