Understanding the Role of Culture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Understanding the Role of Culture PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 6a7988-YmI1O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Understanding the Role of Culture

Description:

Individualism Communitarianism Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions Neutral: culture in which emotions are held in In high neutral culture countries, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:195
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 62
Provided by: DonMo59
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Understanding the Role of Culture


1
Understanding the Role of Culture
  • Chapter 3

2
What is Culture?
  • The culture of a society comprises the shared
    values, understandings, assumptions, and goals
    that are learned from earlier generations,
    imposed by present members of a society, and
    passed on to succeeding generations.

3
DEFINITIONS OF CULTURE
  • Culture is something -
  • shared by all or almost all members of some
    social group
  • passed on to the younger members by the older
    members
  • shapes behavior, or structures ones perception
    of the world. ----- Carrol (1982)
  • The collective programming of the mind which
    distinguishes the members of one group or
    category of people from another.
  • ----- Hofstede (1980)

4
Nature of Culture
  • Learned
  • Shared
  • Transgenerational
  • Symbolic
  • Patterned
  • Adaptive

5
INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON BEHAVIOR
Values
  • Culture

Attitudes
Behaviors
Source Adler (1991)
6
Values in Culture
U.S.Values and Possible Alternatives
U.S. Cultural Values Alternative Values Examples
of Management Function Affected
Individuals can influence the future (when there
is a will there is a way).
Life follows a preordained course, and, human
action is determined by the will of God.
Planning and scheduling
Individuals should be realistic in their
aspirations.
Ideals are to be pursued regardless of what is
reasonable.
Goal setting and career development
We must work hard to accomplish our objectives
(Puritan ethic).
Hard work is not the only prerequisite for
success. Wisdom luck, and time also are required.
Motivation and reward system

7
Values in Culture
U.S.Values and Possible Alternatives
U.S. Cultural Values Alternative Values Examples
of Management Function Affected
A primary obligation of an employee is to the
organization.
Individual employees have a primary obligation to
their family and friends.
Loyalty, commitment, and motivation
Employees can be removed if they do not perform
well.
The removal of an employee from a position
involves a great loss of prestige and will rarely
be done.
Promotion
Company information should be available to anyone
who needs it within the organization.
Withholding information to gain or maintain power
is acceptable.
Organization, communication, and managerial style

8
Values in Culture
U.S.Values and Possible Alternatives
U.S. Cultural Values Alternative Values Examples
of Management Function Affected
Competition stimulates high performance.
Competition leads to unbalances and disharmony.
Career development and marketing
What works is important..
Symbols and the process are more important than
the end point.
Communication, planning, and quality control.

9
Environmental Variables Affect Management
  • National Sociolocultural

Economic Physical
Religion Legal Technological
Education Political know-how
Language Cultural Attitudes
Values Work Individualism
Norms Time Change Beliefs
Materialism Employee Job
Behavior Motivation
Commitment Productivity Ethics
10
Cultural Orientations---Individual
  • What is the basic nature of people?
  • GOOD People are generally to be
  • trusted
  • EVIL People are not to be trusted
  • without prior knowledge of them
  • CHANGEABLE/UNCHANGEABLE
  • Kluckhoha
    Strodtbeck (1961)

11
Cultural Orientations---World
  • What is our basic relationship to the environment
    around us ?
  • MASTERY To control and master nature and the
    environment around us.
  • HARMONY To be part of and to maintain the
    balance of forces in the world around us.
  • SUBJUGATION To follow our predetermined path
    and obey the natural and supernatural forces
    around us.

12
Cultural Orientations---Human Relations
  • What is the natural relationships among humans?
  • INDIVIDUAL Our main responsibility is to and
    for ourselves and immediate family.
  • COLLECTIVE Our main responsibility is to and
    for a large group of people.
  • HIERARCHY Power and responsibility are
    unequally distributed, with those having power
    over others also having responsibility for them.

13
Cultural Orientations---Activity
  • What is humans naturally preferred of activity?
  • DOING To constantly work to achieve goals.
  • BEING To be spontaneous, do things in their
    own time, and live life to its fullest.
  • THINKING To be rational, think things through
    carefully and thoroughly before acting.

14
Cultural Orientations---Time
  • What is humans orientation to time?
  • PAST The past serves as the best precedent
    for the present and future and past experience is
    the most important criterion by which to make
    decisions.
  • PRESENT Current and short-term future needs
    provide the most important criteria by which to
    make decisions.
  • FUTURE Long-term future goals are most
    important, and current needs should be sacrificed
    willingly for future gains.

15
Cultural Orientations---Space
  • What is human orientation to space?
  • PRIVATE Space and its contents belong to
    people, territories are important, and people
    cannot freely enter each others territories.
  • PUBLIC Space and its contents belong to no
    one in particular and can be used by everyone
    freely.

16
Strengths of the Model
  • In general terms, cultures can be compared along
    distinct orientations
  • Comparative models apply to cross-cultural
    management.

17
Weaknesses of the Model
  • The orientations and variations are imprecisely
    defined
  • Interpretations are bound to be subjective.
  • Not centrally concerned with management studies,
    and did not describe the implications for
    management.

18
DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE BY HOFSTEDE
  • Power Distance
  • Individualism vs. Collectivism
  • Masculinity vs. Femininity
  • Uncertainty Avoidance
  • Long-term vs. Short-term

Based on the survey of more than 116,000 managers
and employees in over 60 countries (Hofstede,
1980) and the research by the Chinese Culture
Connection team (1987).
19
POWER DISTANCE
The extent to which the members of a
society accept that power in institutions and
organizations is distributed unequally.
20
High Power Distance
  • Managers should be careful not to ask the
    opinions of subordinates too frequently,
    otherwise the manager might appear to be weak and
    incompetent
  • Higher level managers should receive more
    benefits and privileges than lower level
    managers
  • Managers should make most decisions without
    consulting subordinates.

21
POWER DISTANCE IN THE WORKPLACE
  • Small power distance
  • Hierarchy - inequality of roles
  • Decentralization
  • Subordinates expect to be consulted
  • Ideal boss is a resourceful democrat
  • Large power distance
  • Hierarchy - existential inequality
  • Centralization
  • Subordinates expect to be told what to do
  • Ideal boss is a good father

22
INDIVIDUALISM VS. COLLECTIVISM
  • Individualism relates to societies in which the
    ties between individuals are loose.
  • Collectivism pertains to societies in which
    people are integrated into strong, cohesive
    ingroups

23
Collectivism
  • It is important for a manager to encourage
    loyalty and a sense of duty in subordinates
  • Being an accepted member of the group is more
    important than having autonomy and independence
    on the job
  • Individual rewards are not as important as group
    welfare
  • Group success is more important than individual
    success.

24
INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM IN THE WORKPLACE
  • Individualist
  • Relationship is a contract based on mutual
    advantage
  • Management of individuals
  • Task more important than relationship
  • Reward linked to individuals performance
  • Collectivist
  • Relationship is perceived in moral terms
  • Management of groups
  • Relationship more important than task
  • Reward given to the group

25
Masculinity/Femininity
Masculinity is the extent to which the dominant
values in society emphasize assertiveness and the
acquisition of money and things. Femininity is
the extent to which the dominant values in
society emphasize relationships among people,
concern for others, and the overall quality of
life.
26
Masculinity
  • It is more important for men to have a
    professional career than it is for women.
  • Women do not value recognition and promotion in
    their work as much as men do.
  • It is preferable to have a man in higher level
    position rather than a woman.
  • There are some jobs in which a man can always do
    better than a woman.

27
MASCULINITY/FEMININITY IN WORKPLACE
  • Feminine
  • Work in order to live
  • Stress on equality and quality of work life
  • Managers use intuition and strive for consensus
  • Resolution of conflicts by compromise and
    negotiation
  • Masculine
  • Live in order to work
  • Stress on equity, competition, and performance
  • Managers expect to be decisive and assertive
  • Resolution of conflicts by fighting them out

28
Uncertainty Avoidance
The extent to which the people in a society feel
threatened by ambiguous situations, and have
created beliefs and institutions that try to
avoid these.
29
Strong Uncertainty Avoidance
  • It is important to have job requirements and
    instructions spelled out in details so that
    people always know what they are expected to do.
  • It is better to have a bad situation that you
    know about than to have an uncertain situation
    which might be better.
  • People should avoid making changes because things
    could get worse.

30
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE IN WORKPLACE
  • Weak UA
  • No more rules than is strictly necessary
  • Time is a framework for orientation
  • Comfortable feeling when lazy
  • Motivation by achievement and esteem
  • Strong UA
  • Emotional need for rules
  • Time is money
  • Inner urge to work hard
  • Motivation by security and esteem or belongingness

31
Long-Term vs. Short-Term Orientation
The degree of values oriented towards the future
or towards the past and present.
32
Key Differences between Long-Term and Short-Term
Orientation Societies
  • Short-Term
  • Respect for social and status obligations
    regardless of cost
  • Small savings quote
  • Concern with possessing the truth
  • Respect for traditions
  • Long-Term
  • Respect for social and status obligation within
    limits
  • Large savings quote
  • Concern with respecting the demands of Virtue
  • Adaptation of traditions to a modern context

33
Weaknesses of Hofstedes Model
  • It assumes that national territory and the limits
    of the culture correspond.
  • The respondents worked within a single industry
    and a single multinational.
  • Inappropriate assumption of bipolarity in two
    dimensions Individualism and masculinity.

34
Strengths of Hofstedes Model
  • The information populations controlled across
    countries.
  • The four dimensions tap into deep cultural values
    and make significant comparisons between national
    cultures.
  • The connotations of each dimension are highly
    relevant.
  • No other study compares so many cultures in so
    much details.

35
Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
  • Trompenaars research was conducted over a
    10-year period and published in 1994.
  • He gathered data from 15,000 managers from 28
    countries, representing 47 national cultures.

36
Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
VS.
Universalism
Particularism
  • Universalism belief that ideas and practices can
    be applied everywhere in the world without
    modification
  • In countries with high universalism, focus is
    more on formal rules, business contracts are
    adhered to closely, people believe a deal is a
    deal
  • Includes Canada, U.S., Germany, U.K.,
    Netherlands, France, Japan, Singapore, Thailand,
    and Hong Kong.

37
Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
VS.
Universalism
Particularism
  • Particularism belief that circumstances dictate
    how ideas and practices should be applied and
    something cannot be done the same everywhere
  • In countries with high particularism, legal
    contracts often modified, well-acquainted people
    often change the way in which deals are executed
  • Includes China and South Korea

38
Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
VS.
Individualism
Communitarianism
  • Individualism people regard themselves as
    individuals
  • In countries high on individualism, people stress
    personal and individual matters, and are more
    likely to make negotiated decisions on the spot
    by a representative, achieve things alone and
    assume great personal responsibility
  • Includes Canada, Thailand, U.K., and U.S.

39
Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
VS.
Individualism
Communitarianism
  • Communitarianism people regard themselves as
    part of a group
  • In countries high on communitarianism, people
    value group-related issues, refer decisions to
    committees, achieve things in groups and jointly
    assume responsibility
  • Includes Singapore, Malaysia and Korea

40
Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
VS.
Neutral
Affective
  • Neutral culture in which emotions are held in
  • In high neutral culture countries, people try not
    to show their feelings, act stoically and
    maintain their composure
  • Includes Japan and the U.K.
  • Affective culture in which emotions are
    expressed openly and naturally
  • In high emotional culture countries, people smile
    a great deal, talk loudly when excited and greet
    each other with enthusiasm
  • Includes Mexico and China

41
Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
VS.
Specific
Diffuse
  • Specific culture individuals have a large public
    space shared with others and a small private
    space they guard closely and share only with
    close friends and associates
  • In high specific cultures, people are more open
    and extroverted, and there is a strong separation
    of work and private life
  • Includes U.K., U.S. and France

42
Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
VS.
Specific
Diffuse
  • Diffuse culture public and private space are
    similar in size, individuals guard public space
    carefully because it is shared with private space
  • In high diffuse cultures, people often appear to
    be indirect and introverted, and work and private
    life often are closely linked
  • Includes China and Spain

43
Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
VS.
Achievement
Ascription
  • Achievement culture status is accorded based on
    how well people perform their functions
  • Includes U.S., Switzerland and the U.K.
  • Ascription culture status is based on who or
    what a person is
  • Includes Spain, Japan, and China

44
Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
Time
  • Sequential approach
  • People do only one activity at a time, keep
    appointments strictly, prefer to follow plans as
    laid out (United States)
  • Synchronous approach
  • People tend to multi-task, view appointments as
    approximate, schedules are seen as subordinate to
    relationships (France, and Mexico)
  • Present oriented/future oriented
  • Future is more important (U.S., Italy, and
    Germany)
  • Present is more important (Venezuela, Indonesia,
    and Spain)
  • All three time periods equally important (France
    and Belgium)

45
Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
The Environment
  • Inner-directed people believe in controlling
    outcomes
  • Includes U.S., Switzerland, Australia, Belgium,
    Indonesia, Hong Kong, Greece, Singapore, and
    Japan
  • Outer-directed people believe on letting things
    take their own course
  • Includes China and many other Asian countries

46
GLOBE Project
  • The GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational
    Behavior Effectiveness)
  • Multi-country study and evaluation of cultural
    attributes and leadership behavior
  • Dimensions are based on data gathered by 170
    researchers over seven years. The data were
    collected from 18,000 managers in sixty-two
    countries.

47
GLOBE Project
  • Based on beliefs that
  • Certain attributes that distinguish one culture
    from others can be used to predict the most
    suitable, effective and acceptable organizational
    and leader practices within that culture
  • Societal culture has direct impact on
    organizational culture
  • Leader acceptance stems from tying leader
    attributes and behaviors to subordinate norms

48
GLOBE Project Nine Dimensions
  • Assertiveness
  • Future orientation
  • Performance orientation
  • Humane orientation
  • Gender differentiation
  • Uncertainty avoidance
  • Power distance
  • Institutional collectivism vs. individualism
  • In-group collectivism

49
GLOBE Dimensions
  • Assertiveness concerns how much people are
    expected to be tough, confrontational, and
    competitive versus modest and tender. Low
    assertiveness countries have sympathy for the
    weak and emphasize loyalty and solidarity.
  • Low Sweden, New Zealand, Switzerland
  • High Greece, Austria, Germany

50
GLOBE Dimensions
  • Performance orientation concerns the importance
    of performance improvement and excellence and
    refers to whether people are encouraged to strive
    for continued improvement. Low performance
    orientation countries place priority on things
    like tradition, loyalty, family, and background.
    They associate competition with defeat.
  • Low Russia, Argentina, Greece
  • High New Zealand, Hong Kong, Singapore

51
GLOBE Dimensions
  • Future orientation Future orientation refers to
    the importance a society attaches to
    future-oriented behaviors, such as planning and
    investing in the future. High future orientation
    countries tend to save and have a longer time
    horizon for decisions. Low future orientation
    countries are the opposite.
  • Low Russia, Argentina, Poland
  • High Netherlands, Switzerland, Singapore

52
GLOBE Dimensions
  • Humane orientation concerns the extent to which
    a society encourages and rewards being fair,
    altruistic, generous, caring, and kind.
    Paternalism and patronage, tolerance, and harmony
    are values in high humane orientation cultures.
    In low humane orientation cultures people value
    power, material possessions, and
    self-enhancement.
  • Low Germany, Spain, France
  • High Malaysia, Ireland, Philippines

53
Cultural Clusters
54
How Culture Affects Managerial Approaches
Centralized Decision Making
Decentralized Decision Making
VS.
  • In some societies, top managers make all
    important organizational decisions. In others,
    these decisions are diffused throughout the
    enterprise, and middle- and lower-level managers
    actively participate in, and make, key decisions.

55
How Culture Affects Managerial Approaches
VS.
Safety
Risk
  • In some societies, organizational decision makers
    are risk averse and have great difficulty with
    conditions of uncertainty. In others, risk taking
    is encouraged, and decision making under
    uncertainty is common.

56
How Culture Affects Managerial Approaches
VS.
Individual Rewards
Group Rewards
  • In some countries, personnel who do outstanding
    work are given individual rewards in the form of
    bonuses and commissions. In others, cultural
    norms require group rewards, and individual
    rewards are frowned on.

57
How Culture Affects Managerial Approaches
Informal Procedures
Formal Procedures
VS.
  • In some societies, much is accomplished through
    informal means. In others, formal procedures are
    set forth and followed rigidly.

58
How Culture Affects Managerial Approaches
High Organizational Loyalty
Low Organizational Loyalty
VS.
  • In some societies, people identify very strongly
    with their organization or employer. In others,
    people identify with their occupational group,
    such as engineer or mechanic.

59
How Culture Affects Managerial Approaches
VS.
Cooperation
Competition
  • Some societies encourage cooperation between
    their people. Others encourage competition
    between their people.

60
How Culture Affects Managerial Approaches
Short-term Horizons
Long-term Horizons
VS.
  • Some cultures focus most heavily on short-term
    horizons, such as short-range goals of profit and
    efficiency. Others are more interested in
    long-range goals, such as market share and
    technologic development.

61
How Culture Affects Managerial Approaches
Stability
Innovation
VS.
  • The culture of some countries encourages
    stability and resistance to change. The culture
    of others puts high value on innovation and
    change.
About PowerShow.com