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The Cradle of Western Civilization

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Title: The Cradle of Western Civilization


1
Ancient Greece
  • The Cradle of Western Civilization
  • B. Burgar, 2004

2
The Ancient Greeks
  • Earliest civilization 4000 yrs. old
  • Developed democracy
  • Developed Trial by Jury
  • Gave us Tragedy and Comedy
  • Gave us Theater
  • Attempted to explain the world through the laws
    of nature
  • Gave us The Olympics

3
Greek City-State
  • Greece is a small, rocky peninsula
  • All Greeks spoke the same language
  • Greece did not have a king or queen
  • Lived in a number of city-states, which were each
    a separate political unit
  • Each city-state had its own personality-
  • life in Sparta was different than life in
    Athens

4
Sparta
  • Children taken from parents at age 7
  • Lived a harsh and brutal life in barracks
  • Beat up by older kids to toughen up
  • Whipped but not allowed to cry in pain
  • Learned to lie, cheat, steal and get away with it
  • Fierce and proud of strength

5
Athens
  • Courteous and superbly educated in the arts and
    sciences
  • Productive and capable in peace and war
  • Taught at home by mother or male slave until 6 or
    7
  • Until 14 attend neighborhood day school
  • Four years of higher school
  • Two years of military school at age 18

6
Greek Men
  • Ran the government
  • When not in fields spent great deal of time
    involved in politics
  • Sailed, hunted, worked at a trade
  • For fun drinking parties, wrestling, horseback
    riding, Olympic games
  • Parties were for men only
  • Admired heroes in mythology and desired to
    emulate them

7
Greek Women
  • Limited freedom outside the home
  • Attended weddings, funerals, some religious
    festivals
  • Women were in charge of the home and children
  • Most Greek women had slaves to do housework
  • Acted as tutors for young males
  • Were not allowed to attend Olympics because the
    men did not wear clothes

8
Greek Girls
  • Stayed home until married
  • Were allowed to attend certain festivals,
    funerals and visit neighbors for brief periods of
    time
  • Their job was to help the mother
  • Helped in fields if necessary

9
Greek Boys
  • Stayed home when young
  • Helped in fields
  • Sailed and fished
  • At age 6 or 7 they went to school

10
Slaves
  • Important to ancient Greek daily life
  • Cleaned and cooked
  • Worked in the fields, factories, mines, shops and
    on ships
  • Could not go to school, enter politics, or use
    their own name
  • Property of their owner, who named them

11
Ways People Became Slaves
  • People became slaves when captured in battle
  • Children of slaves
  • Infants abandoned by parents
  • Children sold into slavery by poor families
  • Children kidnapped into slavery
  • Historians believe there were as many slaves as
    citizens!

12
Greek Houses
  • Made up of two or three rooms
  • Built around a courtyard
  • Larger homes might include kitchen, a room for
    bathing and separate sitting rooms for men or
    women
  • Often had second story
  • Family life centered around the courtyard
  • Meals were eaten in the courtyard

13
Food
  • Soil not fertile due to rockiness
  • Greeks developed irrigation systems and crop
    rotation
  • Grew olives, grapes, and figs
  • Kept goats for milk and cheese
  • Grew wheat for bread where soil was fertile
    enough
  • Fish, seafood, wine were popular
  • In larger city-states meat could be purchased,
    but was rarely eaten. Used mostly for religious
    sacrifices

14
Clothing
  • Simple tunics (linen) and warm cloaks (wool)
  • Clothing was made by mothers, daughters, or
    female slaves
  • Bleached white, or dyed bright colors
  • Often decorated to represent their city-state
  • Only the rich could afford jewelry
  • Hats used only for traveling if at all

15
Education in Athens
  • In Athens, the purpose of education was to train
    citizens in the arts for times of peace and war
  • Many girls learned to read and write at home
  • Books were expensive and rare so subjects were
    read aloud and boys had to memorize everything
  • Used writing tablets and rulers
  • Must study the words of Homer
  • Learn to play the lyre
  • After formal schooling, attended military school

16
Education in Sparta
  • Purpose of education was to produce a
    well-drilled, well-disciplined marching army
  • Males and females required to have perfect body
  • Weak babies were left to die or made slaves
  • Students were taught to read and write, but
    brutal military training was most important
  • Students were underfed and encouraged to steal,
    but not to get caught
  • If caught, they were beaten
  • Boys forced to march without shoes
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