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Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 13: Step Through at Typical Mission (Jul 2005)

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Title: Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 13: Step Through at Typical Mission (Jul 2005)


1
Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 13 Step Through
at Typical Mission (Jul 2005)
2
Aircrew Tasks
  • O-2008 COMPLETE A MISSION SORTIE (P)
  • O-2107 PREPARE FOR A TRIP TO A REMOTE MISSION
    BASE (O, P)

3
Objectives
  • Discuss the items you should check before leaving
    on a mission P 13.1
  • Personal and aircraft items
  • CAPF 71
  • State the flight time and crew duty limitations
    (per the current CAPR 60-1)
  • State the three unique entries made by a CAP
    pilot on a FAA Flight Plan and where they go on
    the flight plan
  • IMSAFE and flight release
  • Preflight loading
  • Departure
  • Discuss the approach and your actions upon
    arrival at mission base, including the general
    briefing. P 13.2 13.4

4
Objectives
  • Discuss the six steps of ORM and the four
    principles involved. P 13.3
  • Discuss the aircrew briefing. P 13.5
  • Describe the information contained in and how to
    fill out the front of the CAPF 104. P 13.6
  • Discuss the items checked and actions taken
    before leaving on a sortie P 13.7
  • Release and preparation
  • Preflight and Departure
  • State when the sterile cockpit rules starts and
    ends
  • Discuss duties during the sortie, including P
    13.8
  • Preparations prior to entering the search area
  • Required radio reports
  • State when the sterile cockpit rules starts and
    ends

5
Objectives
  • Discuss your actions upon arrival back at mission
    base. P 13.9
  • Describe the information contained in and how to
    fill out the back of the CAPF 104. P 13.10
  • Discuss the aircrew debriefing. P 13.11
  • Discuss your actions upon arrival back home,
    including P 13.12
  • What to do with the aircraft
  • What to do if you observe signs of post-traumatic
    stress
  • When the mission is officially over for you and
    your crew

6
Whats the Rush?
  • Why do we go to so much trouble to train mission
    aircrew members and encourage members to spend
    the time it takes to stay proficient?
  • Time is such a critical factor in missing person
    or aircraft crash searches
  • Treat every minute after you been alerted as
    critical to the survival chances of the victims

7
Survival Rates
  • Of the 29 who survive a crash, 60 will be
    injured
  • 81 will die if not located within 24 hours
  • 94 will die if not located within 48 hours
  • Of those 40 uninjured in the crash
  • 50 will die if not located within 72 hours
  • Survival chances diminish rapidly after 72 hours

8
Response Times
  • Average time from the aircraft being reported
    missing to AFRCC notification
  • 15.6 hours if no flight plan was filed
  • 3.9 hours if a VFR flight plan was filed
  • 1.1 hours if an IFR flight plan was filed
  • Average time from the aircraft being reported
    missing (LKP) to CAP locating and recovering
  • 62.6 hours if no flight plan was filed
  • 18.2 hours if a VFR flight plan was filed
  • 11.5 hours if an IFR flight plan was filed

9
Whats the Rush?
  • What do these statistics tell us?
  • We must take each mission seriously!
  • Strive to do everything better, smarter and
    faster!
  • Training, practice and pre-planning help us
    accomplish these goals
  • Also tells us, as pilots, to always file a flight
    plan

10
Leaving Home Base
NOTE Mission Pilots may skip the portions
that were covered in Chapter 12, Phases of Flight
  • Proper uniforms per CAPM 39-1
  • Required credentials
  • Current charts for the entire trip (gridded, if
    you have them)
  • Personal supplies and money
  • Equipment such as cell phone and flashlights
    (including spare batteries)
  • Charts and maps

11
Leaving Home Base
  • Check the Weight and balance, CO monitor Fire
    Extinguisher status, fuel reserve and management
    plan, Discrepancy Log
  • Tie-downs, chocks, Pitot cover and engine plugs
  • Equipment such as fuel tester, survival kit,
    binoculars, sick sacks, and cleaning supplies

12
Leaving Home Base
  • Obtain briefing and file FAA Flight Plan
  • Complete Inbound 104 and get released by FRO

13
Leaving Home Base IMSAFE
  • Illness
  • Medication
  • Stress
  • Alcohol
  • Fatigue
  • Emotion

14
FRO Checklist (60-1)
15
Pre-flight begins even before you even get to the
aircraft
16
Pre-flight begins even before you even get to the
aircraft
17
Preflight
  • Check the aircraft Pre-flight (e.g., CAPF 71,
    CAP Aircraft Inspection Checklist)
  • Check the date and starting Tach Hobbs times to
    ensure you won't exceed
  • mid-cycle oil change (40-60 hours, not to exceed
    four months)
  • 100-hour/Annual
  • 24-month Transponder inspection, Pitot-Static
    system inspection, Altimeter calibration, ELT
    inspection/Battery replacement date
  • 30-day VOR check for IFR flight
  • Check the AD compliance list
  • Fill in the CAP flight log

18
Preflight
  • Check the Discrepancy Log ensure no discrepancy
    makes the aircraft unsafe for flight or reduces
    your ability to accomplish the mission
  • Verify any outstanding discrepancies during your
    aircraft preflight. If new discrepancies are
    discovered, log them and ensure the aircraft is
    still airworthy and mission ready
  • During loading, ensure that all supplies and
    equipment correspond to what you used in your
    Weight Balance
  • Windshield and windows are clean, and that the
    chocks, tie-downs, and Pitot tube covers/engine
    plugs are stowed
  • Check and test special equipment

19
Preflight
20
Preflight
21
Preflight
  • Check parking area for obstacles, arrange for
    marshaller or wing-walker
  • The mission pilot will perform the passenger
    briefing and review the emergency egress
    procedure. The pilot should also brief the crew
    on the fuel management plan and assumptions, and
    assign responsibility for inquiring about fuel
    status once an hour.
  • The pilot will review the taxi plan and taxiway
    diagram, and assign crew responsibilities for
    taxi
  • Once everyone is settled in, organize the cockpit
    and review the "Engine Fire on Start" procedure

22
Departure
  • Always use the checklists use the
    challenge/response method
  • Seat belts and shoulder harness (always lt1000
    AGL)
  • Collision avoidance! An increasing number of
    taxi mishaps are the number one trend in CAP.
    Investigations reveal that pilots are straying
    from designated taxi routes, not allowing
    adequate clearance, not considering the tail and
    wings during turns, taxiing too fast for
    conditions, taxiing with obscured visibility,
    distracted by cockpit duties, and not using other
    crewmembers to ensure clearance.

23
Departure
  • CAPR 60-1 taxi rules
  • Taxi no faster than a slow walk when within 10
    feet of obstacles
  • Maintain at least 50' behind light single-engine
    aircraft, 100' behind small multi-engine and jet
    aircraft, and 500' behind heavies and taxiing
    helicopters
  • Go over the crew assignments for takeoff and
    departure and make sure each crewmember knows in
    which direction they should be looking during
    each.
  • Remind the crew that midair collisions are most
    likely to occur in daylight VFR conditions within
    five miles of an airport at or below 3,000 AGL!
    This means that most midair collisions occur in
    or near the traffic pattern. Since the pilot has
    only one set of eyes, this (and aircraft design)
    leaves several 'blind spots' that the observer
    and scanner must cover -- particularly between
    your 4 and 8 o'clock positions.

24
Departure
  • Be sure and include the DF unit's Alarm light
    self-test in your scan during startup. The light
    should blink for several seconds if it doesn't
    your unit may be inoperative.
  • Ensure that the DF, Audio Panel and FM radio are
    set up properly. If possible, perform an FM
    radio check. Select your initial VOR radial(s)
    and GPS setting (e.g., destination or flight
    plan).
  • Obtain ATIS and Clearance (read back all
    clearances and hold-short instructions). Then
    verify the crosswind limitation. Set up the
    navigational instruments (e.g., VOR radials and
    GPS destination, entry points and waypoints)
  • Once you begin taxiing, check your brakes

25
Departure
  • Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect
  • Keep the checklist close at hand, open to
    Emergency Procedures
  • Check for landing aircraft before taking the
    active
  • At takeoff, start the Observer Log with the time
    and Hobbs for "Wheels Up
  • The FAA's "operation lights on" encourages pilots
    to keep aircraft lights on when operating within
    10 miles of an airport, or wherever flocks of
    birds may be expected
  • While departing the airport environs practice
    collision avoidance and maintain the sterile
    cockpit until well clear of traffic and
    obstacles. The pilot should use shallow S-turns
    and lift a wing before turns to check for
    traffic. The crew must keep each other appraised
    of conflicting aircraft and obstacles

26
Arrival at Mission Base
  • Obtain ATIS (or AWOS) as soon as possible. May
    be able to contact mission base on FM radio.
  • Review taxi plan/airport taxi diagram and make
    crew assignments for approach, landing and taxi
  • Make sure each crewmember knows in which
    direction they should be looking during each.
    Remind the crew that midair collisions are most
    likely to occur in daylight VFR conditions within
    five miles of an airport at or below 3,000 AGL!
    This means that most midair collisions occur in
    the traffic pattern, with over half occurring on
    final approach
  • Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect

27
Arrival at Base Basic Airport Traffic Pattern
28
Arrival at Mission Base
  • Practice collision avoidance by turning the
    aircraft exterior lights on when within 10 miles
    of the airport. The pilot should use shallow
    S-turns and lift a wing before turns to check for
    traffic. Read back all clearances and hold-short
    instructions
  • Defer after-landing checks until clear
  • Log and report "Wheels Down"
  • Watch for Marshallers and follow their
    directions, signal Ignition Switch OFF (hold keys
    out the window) so they can chock

29
Arrival at Mission Base (with style)
30
Arrival at Mission Base
  • Secure the aircraft
  • Avionics/Control lock, Master Switch OFF
  • Tie-downs, chocks, Pitot tube cover and engine
    plugs
  • Close windows, Fuel Selector Switch in 'Right' or
    'Left,' and Parking Brake OFF remove personal
    items and special equipment lock the doors and
    baggage compartment.
  • Oil fuel, clean windows and leading edges
  • Close FAA flight plan, call FRO
  • Check aircrew and aircraft into the mission
  • Complete Inbound 104
  • Get sortie assignment
  • Determine food and lodging

31
General Briefing
  • Mission objective and status
  • Safety and hazards
  • Mission base procedures
  • Weather
  • Frequencies
  • Code words

32
Operational Risk Management
  • Accomplish the mission with the least possible
    risk.
  • More than common sense, more than just a safety
    program.
  • Educated (informed) risk versus taking a gamble.
  • Part of the CAP culture.

33
ORM Six Steps
  • Identify the hazards
  • Assess the risks
  • Analyze risk control measures
  • Make control decisions
  • Implement risk controls
  • Supervise and review

34
ORM Principles
  • Accept no unnecessary risks.
  • Make risk decisions at the appropriate level.
  • Accept risk when the benefits outweigh the costs.
  • Integrate ORM into CAP practices, procedures, and
    planning at all levels.

35
ORM and the Aircrew
  • Acknowledge risks in order to deal with them.
  • Each crewmember is responsible to look for risks.
  • Dont ignore risks if you cant eliminate or
    reduce the risk, tell someone.
  • PIC has ultimate authority and responsibility to
    deal with risks during the sortie.
  • PIC has the responsibility to inform his or her
    crew of the risks involved, and to listen to and
    address their concerns.

36
Aircrew Briefing
  • Sortie Objectives
  • Weather
  • Altitudes
  • Duties

37
CAPF 104 Front - Flight Plan - Briefing form
38
  • QUESTIONS?

39
Preparing to Leave on a Sortie
  • Check in with briefing officer
  • Check in with air operations
  • Present 104 to flight line supervisor
  • Pilot pre-flights aircraft
  • Observer checks mission equipment and supplies
  • Review flight time and duty limitations
  • Final restroom visit

40
Preparing to Leave on a Sortie
  • Pilots briefing
  • Seat belts and shoulder harness, no smoking
  • Emergency egress procedure
  • Fuel management plan and assumptions
  • Taxi plan/diagram, crew assignments
  • Startup and Taxi emergency procedures
  • When sterile cockpit rules are in effect
  • When more than one flight is accomplished by the
    same crew during the day, subsequent briefings
    are not required to be so detailed but must, at a
    minimum, highlight differences and changes from
    the original briefing

41
Preparing to Leave on a Sortie
  • If this is the first sortie of the day the
    observer will perform an FM radio check with
    mission base you may also perform a DF
    functional check if this is an ELT search. Other
    special equipment should also be tested before
    the first sortie.
  • Enter sortie settings into the GPS (destination
    or flight plan, entry points and waypoints)

42
Taxi Mishaps
  • Becoming a bigger problem each year (1 trend in
    CAP)
  • Pilots are
  • straying from designated taxi routes
  • not allowing adequate clearance and not
    considering the tail and wings during turns
  • taxiing too fast for conditions and taxiing with
    obscured visibility
  • distracted by cockpit duties
  • not using other crewmembers to ensure clearance
  • Strategies
  • Thorough planning and preparation eliminates
    distractions
  • Crew assignments for taxi
  • Treat taxiing with the seriousness it deserves
  • Sterile cockpit rules

43
Taxi and Departure
  • The sterile cockpit rules begin at this time
  • Startup, taxi and departure were covered earlier
  • If there are flight line Marshallers, they will
    expect you to turn on your rotating beacon and
    signal the impending engine start before starting
    the engine. You are also expected to signal
    (e.g., turn on your pulse light or flash your
    taxi/landing light) before beginning to taxi.
  • Observer begins Observer Log with time and Hobbs,
    reports Wheels Up
  • Takeoff, climb and departure were covered earlier
  • Once clear of the airport/controlled airspace
    environs the crew settles into the transit phase

44
During the Sortie
  • Depending on circumstances (e.g., the airspace is
    still congested or multiple obstacles are
    present) the sterile cockpit rules are normally
    suspended at this time. The aircrew maintains
    situational awareness at all times during the
    flight
  • Double-check navigational settings that will be
    used in the search area, review search area
    terrain and obstacles, review methods to reduce
    crew fatigue during the search or to combat high
    altitude effects.
  • Update in-flight weather, file PIREPs,
    periodically check navigational equipment against
    each other to detect abnormalities or failures

45
During the Sortie
  • The pilot should stabilize the aircraft at the
    assigned search heading, altitude and airspeed at
    least two miles before you enter the search area,
    and turn sufficient aircraft exterior lights on
    to maximize visibility (so others can "see and
    avoid")
  • Observer logs and reports Entering the Search
    Area, primary duty is now Scanner
  • Periodic Ops Normal reports, Observer asks
    about fuel status and altimeter setting at least
    hourly
  • Scanner and observer logs, sketches

46
During the Sortie
  • During the actual search or assessment, the
    aircrew must be completely honest with each other
    concerning their own condition and other factors
    affecting search effectiveness. If you missed
    something, or think you saw something, say so.
    If you have a question, ask.
  • If target spotted notify mission base
    immediately begin recovery ASAP
  • Mission commander monitors for fatigue, ensures
    crew drinks enough fluids, schedules breaks

47
Return to Base
  • When the aircraft completes its mission and
    leaves the search area, the observer notes the
    time and the Hobbs reading and reports "Leaving
    the Search Area
  • Double-check heading and altitude with what was
    assigned for transit to the next search area or
    return to base.
  • Reorganize the cockpit in preparation for
    approach and landing.
  • Approach, landing and arrival were covered earlier

48
Return to Base
  • Check back in and take a break
  • Drawings or markings made on charts or maps
    should be transferred onto the CAPF 104 or
    attached to it
  • Make sure everything is clear and legible
  • The two most common entries overlooked when
    completing the CAP flight plan (front side of the
    CAPF 104) are "ATD" (actual time of departure)
    and "Actual LDG Time."

49
CAPF 104 Reverse
50
Debriefing
  • Note both Positive and Negative results
  • Use the reverse of CAPF 104
  • Used to determine how effective the search was
  • Weather shadows, visibility, snow cover
  • Terrain open, flat, mountainous, rough
  • Ground Cover barren, forest, scrub, sparse,
    dense
  • Other information hazards, changes from plan
  • Used to calculate the probability of detection
    that is used for subsequent search planning

51
Debriefing
  • Complete the reverse side of the CAPF 104
  • Discuss items on the 104
  • Assemble attachments
  • Report to debriefer
  • Be TOTALLY HONEST during the debriefing

52
Debriefing
  • Crew comments about effectiveness
  • Crew remarks of SAR effectiveness
  • Times (and Hobbs readings)
  • Sketches and attachments
  • Be TOTALLY HONEST during the debriefing

53
End of the Mission
  • Turn in equipment and supplies
  • Settle fuel, food and lodging bills
  • Plan the trip home
  • Fill out Outbound CAPF 104
  • Check weather and file FAA Flight Plan
  • Check out with mission staff, obtain flight
    release

54
The Trip Home
  • Maintain crew discipline and continue to use
    mission procedures and checklists
  • SAR personnel can experience post-traumatic
    stress, so look for signs (refer to CAPR 60-5)
  • Once on the ground, secure the aircraft and ready
    it for its next mission
  • Close FAA Flight Plan
  • Complete the Outbound 104
  • Ensure ability to complete CAPF 108
  • Once everyone is at home, call mission base with
    Hobbs from the Outbound 104

55
Local Drills and Exercises
  • Easy
  • Inexpensive
  • Very efficient
  • Very worthwhile
  • Fun

56
  • QUESTIONS?
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