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Literary Terms


Title: Figurative Language Notes Author: Owner Last modified by: iwwilsoj Created Date: 1/27/2008 9:19:42 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Literary Terms

Literary Terms
  • Types of Literature
  • prose
  • the ordinary form of spoken or
  • written language
  • writing that is not poetry
  • poetry rhythmic, compressed language
  • written to appeal to emotion and
  • imagination
  • drama a story written to be acted for an
  • audience

Example ?
  • plot the series of related events that
  • make up a story

plot line
  • Elements of the Plot
  • exposition the beginning of the story that tells
    who the characters are and what the conflict is
  • Continued

  • Elements of the Plot (Continued)
  • rising action the part of the story in
  • which various problems arise as the
  • characters try to resolve the conflict.
  • tension of the story builds. Our textbook
  • calls rising action complications.
  • climax the critical point in a story when
  • the outcome is decided one way or
  • another
  • Continued

Example RTT washed away by flood RTT meets Nag
and Nagaina in garden
Example RTT chases Nagaina down the hole and
kills her and crushes the egg.
  • Elements of the Plot (Continued)
  • falling action events that follow the
  • climax that contain action or dialogue
  • needed to lead to the resolution. The
  • tension decreases.
  • resolution the characters problems are
  • solved and the story ends. The conflict is
  • resolved.

Example Coppersmith bird sings to let all garden
animals know Nagaina is dead!!!!
Example Victor is going to help Teresa with
French (he gets books from library)
  • setting the time and place the events of
    a work of literature take place

  • character a person or animal who takes
  • part in the action of a story, play, or
  • other literary work

Example In Hum, Sami Salsaa, Tum Tum, Hugh
  • A couple of ways
  • to think about characters
  • protagonist the main character in a work
  • of literature. The author focuses the most
  • attention on the protagonists problems.
  • antagonist a person or thing that fights
  • against the main character the bad
  • character or force

Example 1. 7th Grade, Victor is the main
character, he has the most conflicts (crush)
Hum 2. Sami faces conflicts of friendship,
fitting in etc
Example Hum other students bully/antagonize
Sami AND the terrorist are other antagonists
  • More ways to think about characters
  • dynamic character a character who
  • changes as a result of the storys events
  • static character a character who does
  • not change much in the story

Example Hum Sami changed after 9-11 b/c
then he had to work hard to create friendships
(Dialogue Club, Hugh)
Example Hum - Hugh, Tum Tum never change
from the beginning to the end of the story
  • conflict a struggle or clash between
  • opposing characters or forces

Example 7th Grade Victor had a crush on
Teresa and she didnt know it
  • Types of Conflicts
  • external conflict a struggle with some
  • outside force

Example Hum Sami was bullied by other
Person vs. society
Person vs. person
Example Nag vs. garden animals
Example RTT vs. Nag
Person vs. nature
Person vs. the supernatural
  • Types of Conflicts
  • internal conflict a struggle within a
  • characters mind. The character has a
  • problem deciding what to do or think.

Example Hum the parents struggle after 9-11
b/c life in America is turning out to be difficult
  • theme the truth about life revealed in a
  • work of literature
  • The theme is not the same as the subject
  • of a story.
  • A theme must be written as a sentence.
  • A story can have more than one theme,
  • but one will often stand out over another.

Example Hum Friendship is born out of
symbol a person, place, thing, or event
that has its own meaning and stands for
something beyond itself
Example RTTs red eyes anger
flashback an interruption in the action of a
story to tell what happened at an earlier time
Example In RTT, we learn that he was only fed
dead snakes, never actually fought any
foreshadowing using clues to suggest events that
will happen later in the plot
Example 3SK when we learn about the 3 convicts
that previously died on the island
  • suspense the uncertainty or anxiety you
  • feel about what will happen next in a story

Narrator The person telling the story
Point of view Position from which the story is
told or vantage point
There are different types of Point of View..
First person point of view One of the characters
tells the story. The pronoun I is used. You
really get to know that one character well, but
then again you only know their side.
Example Personal Narrative and 3SK
Third person omniscient point of view The
all-knowing narrator tells the story. The
narrator is not actually in the story, but sees
it alllike a god. Third person limited point
of view Narrator focuses on the
thoughts/feelings of one character. You see the
action through the eyes/feelings of one character
in the story.
Example RTT
Example Personal Narrative, 7th Grade
Characterization The process of revealing the
character through descriptionhow they feel, act,
think, look like etc..
Indirect characterization We find out about
characters indirectly through thoughts, comments,
or actions of the characters.
Example RTT, was brave for chasing Nagiania
Direct characterization The narrator or a
character in the story tells us what we need to
know about a character.
Example Personal Narrative and Hum Hugh was
Mood Overall emotion created by the passage
(sad, scary, hopeful etc.) Ex) RTT anxiety,
anger 3SK suspenseful, creepy
Imagery Using words that appeal to the
senses Ex) 3SK wailing rats, pouring of rats
Figurative language
  • There are two basic purposes for studying
    Figurative Language
  • To help you recognize the greatness of a writers
    talent as you read
  • To teach you how to use those same skills to
    improve your writing.
  • Figurative language creates IMAGERY in your mind
    as you read!

Simile comparison in which one thing is compared
to another unlike thing by using specific words
of comparison like like, as EX) 3SK the rats
were hanging like fruit from a tree
Metaphor Comparing two unlike things. Sometimes
a metaphor is a whole poem or paragraph. EX) the
weather was a warm blanket
Personification speaking of something that is
not human as if it had human abilities and human
reactions EX) the sun was smiling
Dialect Way of speaking that is characteristic of
a particular region/group of people Ex)
southern twang
Alliteration repetition of a single letter in
the alphabet EX) The Kindness Campaign kicked off
on Monday.
Hyperbole great exaggeration used to emphasize a
point, and is used for expressive or comic
effect EX) I have told you a million times!!!
Onomatopoeia Single word that sounds like the
thing it refers to EX) The crackling crunch of
the paper. The hiss of the snake. Bang. Boom.
Idiom Groups of words whose meaning is different
from the ordinary meaning of the words. EX)
That sound drives me up a wall.
  • 6. genre a category of art with a
  • distinctive style or form

irony a contrast between expectation and
(No Transcript)
  • motivation any force that drives or
  • moves a character to behave a particular
  • way. What does the character want or
  • need?

Physical needs air, food, water, sleep,
shelter Safety needs personal safety, safety of
significant others, living in a safe
environment, ability to get need resourcescould
include employment Love/Belonging friendship,
family relationships, romantic relationship Estee
m self-respect, confidence, achievement,
recognition, respect of others, respect for
others Self-actualization creativity, pursuit
of ones potential, self-acceptance
  • Assonance- The repetition of identical or
    similar vowel sounds in neighboring words.
  • Rhyme- Correspondence of sound between words or
    the endings of words, especially when these are
    used at the ends of lines of poetry.
  • Repetition- Repeating a word, phrase, stanza, or
    effect in literature.