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Early Middle Ages, Key People, Events, Feudalism Art and Architecture of the Middle Ages /Renaissance Eastern and Western Empires

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Title: Early Middle Ages, Key People, Events, Feudalism Art and Architecture of the Middle Ages /Renaissance Eastern and Western Empires


1
Early Middle Ages, Key People, Events,
FeudalismArt and Architecture of the Middle
Ages /RenaissanceEastern and Western Empires
2
Part 1 - Early Middle Ages
3

Effects of the Fall of Romes Central Government
  • Decline of Civilization Unifying Hegemony
    (Influence of power and culture) of Rome is gone
  • People flee cities due to neglect and invasions.
    Many move to the country to seek protection
  • Roads and public works fall into disrepair and
    are not protected.
  • Trade decreases Trade routes no longer controlled
    by Rome
  • Classical learning is kept in the church.
    Language of the Church is in Latin which was not
    the language of the common person
  • Once powerful uniting central Gov. of Rome is
    replaced with feudalism

4
Middle Ages The period between ancient times
and modern times during A.D. 4761500476 AD
with the official fall of the Roman Empire marks
the start of the Middle Ages Medieval from
the Latin Mid Avum meaning Middle AgesMedieval
refers to life and culture during the Middle
Ages
5
  • Charles Martel a Frankish leader who rallied
    warriors to push Muslims out of France and
    Western Europe in the. Battle of Tours 732 AD

6
Early Middle Age Figures
After winning a battle in 496, King Clovis, First
King to convert to Christianity, established a
Christian kingdom in Western Europe. It was one
of many kingdoms that developed when Roman
authority collapsed.
  • Charlemagne 724 814 AD the grandson of
    Charles Martel briefly united Western Europe
    building an empire stretching across France and
    Germany
  • Vikings Expert sailors from Scandinavia who
    raided European river towns starting in the late
    700s

7
What replaced the Roman Empire?
When the unifying force of the Roman empire
disappeared from Western Europe, Germanic
kingdoms replaced it. Greco-Roman, Germanic, and
Christian traditions blended during the Middle
Ages.
8
Many Germanic tribes conquered parts of the Roman
empire.
  • Lots of fighting for power and land

After converting to Christianity, Clovis earned
the support of his subjects in Gaul and the pope
in Rome.
9
Charlemagne, Martels grandson, briefly united
Western Europe.
  • He fought Muslims, aided the pope Leo 3rd in
    Rome, and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor
    Christmas day 800 AD
  • Charlemagne was a skilled leader who revived
    Latin learning and brought scholars to his court.

Charlemagne Video
10
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11
Muslim armies overran Christian lands and crossed
into France. Charles Martel led Frankish warriors
in the battle of Tours to push them back.
12
After Charlemagnes death 814 his empire was
split up. His incompetent heirs faced waves of
invasions from Vikings
13

Charlemagnes empire broke apart even more when
the Vikings began attacking European coastal and
river towns.
  • These Scandinavian people were expert sailors.
  • They opened trade routes linking northern Europe
    to the Mediterranean.
  • Eventually Viking become Christians

14
Feudalism in Western Europe
15
Feudalism was a localized political system of
government based on mutual obligation. Manoralism
was the economic system Weakness of Feudalism
resulted in mixed loyalties and constant power
struggles.

16
King Gives Fief (land) to Lord. On the land for
each of the below is a Manor. The manor includes
castle, blacksmith, cloths maker, weavers,
glassmaker, stables etc. Outside are the peasants
who work the land and are tied to the
landLords In return Lords provide loyally
and military Knights (trained military) Code of
Chivalry an honor system for Knights to the
kingLords give land To vassal (Fief) given by
the Lord) they give loyalty and military aide to
lordLesser Lord (Land given by Vassals they
give Loyalty and military service to the
Lord.Peasants who live on the land belong to
the king and stay on the land. Peasants farm
the land. They get a small plot of land for their
food. Out of their food they pay 10 to the
Lord/Vassal. In return they are provided
protection
17
The ManorManoralism the economic system of
Feudalism
Franklin Gothic Book (Headings)
The manor includes castle, blacksmith, cloths
maker, weavers, glassmaker, stables etc. Outside
are the peasants who work the land and are tied
to the land
18
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19
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20
End of Part 1
21
Use of Art during the Middle Ages (Western
Europe)

Showed daily life
Religious and hieratical
Taught religious themes
22
The most important figure is placed either
farthest top or center. Proportion was not a
value in art medieval art.
Middle Age art was Hierarchal.

Notice the King Charles of France 1350s being
crowned by the Pope and Bishops.
Who is most important here?
23
Middle Age Art and lack of Proportion

Medieval art lacked proportion. Usually
represented only in two dimensional space
Renaissance art was proportional and introduced
the appearance of three dimensional space
24
Byzantine ArtEastern Christian Empire
  • Byzantine art usually featured single religious
    figures called Icons.
  • Byzantine art seems to radiate and glow!!!

25
War over the Icons
  • There was a great debate and battle over the
    religious icons the Greek Orthodox and later
    Protestants viewed Icons as idol worship.
  • Many loved the Icons because they put a face with
    the beloved saint, bible personality etc. The
    Icons won
  • Protestant churches are more modest and have
    less religious imagery than Catholic

26
Hagia Sophia - Constantinople
  • Justinians Great Byzantine Church

27
Hagia Sophia, Constantinople
  • Was turned into a Mosque when Constantinople fell
    in 1453

28
Elaborately painted arches and vaults and domes.

29
Byzantine Architecture
Rounded vaulted ceilings as opposed to arched.
30

31
Gutenberg invented the printing press in
1445. This changed the lives of people in Europe
and, eventually, all over the world. In a Time
magazine poll of 2000 the most important
invention of the last 1000 years. Was the
printing press. Previously, bookmaking entailed
copying all the words and illustrations by hand.
Often the copying had been done onto parchment,
animal skin that had been scraped until it was
clean, smooth, and thin. The labor that went into
creating them made each book very expensive.
Because Gutenberg's press could produce books
quickly and with relatively little effort,
bookmaking became much less expensive, allowing
more people to buy reading material. The Demand
for Books Grows!!!!
Gutenbergs Printing Press 1445.
32
Middle Ages vs. The Renascence

Western Europe Stiff, no proportion - frozen
Byzantium art usually featured a single figure.
Essence not realism was important
Renascence art Lots of movement. proportional,
alive elements of fun! This is Ancient Rome!!!
33
Martin Luther The Reformation 1483 - 1546
Devout German Monk Went to Rome as a Pilgrim Saw
wealth and corruption of the church Protested the
use of indulgences (Payments to erase Sin) in his
95 Theses. Used the Printing Press to spread the
word.Risked and was excommunicated from
catholic church. Translated the Bible to German
allowing all to read the word of god themselves.
New religious movement Promoted literacy
34
The Renaissance

Renaissance," French for "rebirth," perfectly
describes the intellectual and economic changes
that occurred in Europe from the fourteenth
through the sixteenth centuries. During this
era, the Renaissance was an age in which
artistic, social, scientific, and political
thought turned in new directions. (Back to the
Ancient World)
35
Learning and the Arts began to flourish during
the Renaissance. Why????
Crusaders returned to Europe with a newfound
understanding of the world and brought back books
saved by the Muslims. The invention of the
printing press encouraged literacy and helped to
spread new ideas. Wealthy families and the
church had amassed enough wealth to become
patrons. (Pay for art) The development of
financial techniques such as bookkeeping and
credit allowed merchants to prosper
36
Arab Scholars preserved the writings of the
Ancient Greeks in their libraries
Arab scholars preserved the writings of the
ancient Greeks in their libraries. When the
Italian cities traded with the Arabs, ideas were
exchanged along with goods. These ideas,
preserved from the ancient past, served as the
basis of the Renaissance. When the Byzantine
empire fell to Muslim Turks in 1453, many
Christian scholars left Greece for Italy.
37
Learning during the Renaissance.
The Renaissance was much more than simply
studying the work of ancient scholars. It
influenced painting, sculpture, architecture and
government. Paintings became more realistic and
focused less often on religious topics. Artists
advanced the Renaissance style of showing nature
and depicting the feelings of people. Printing
spread ideas to the masses.
38
Renascence Art 1420 - 1600
Adoration of the MagiWhile Mary and Jesus are
top and center, look in the forefront. They are
rich merchants. People who sponsored art were
called Patrons. Often patrons were included in
the paintings

Compared with Medieval art
  • Proportion
  • Emotion
  • Realism
  • Patrons as subjects

39
Renascence art alive with light and Emotion

TitianNotice the use of light and dark. The
background and womens emotion all add to the
impact of Mary being told she is the Mother of
God The Annunciation.
40
Michelangelo represented the High Renaissance
Period by perfecting the ideals of the Ancient
Greeks and Romans.

What period do these figures look like?
Answer Ancient Greek and Roman. Idealism and
perfection
41
Michelangelo was a master of painting a sculpture

42
Botticelli                          The Birth
of Venus

Roman pagan religion is reintroduced as fantasy.
43
Leonardo de Vinci A Renaissance Man
Artist

44
Leonardo de Vinci A Renaissance Man
Science and Anatomy

45
Leonardo de Vinci A Renaissance Man
Invention and Architect

46
Medieval Cathedrals

47
English Medieval Cathedrals

48
French Cathedrals

49
French Cathedrals

Other Worldly
50
French Cathedrals

51

Detailed Vaults
Height
52
Renaissance Architecture
St. Peters Basilica Rome
53
Renaissance ArchitectureFlorence Italy
54
Renaissance Architecture
55
Renaissance Architecture
St. Peters Basilica
56
Comparisons in Art
  • Medieval Art (Western)
  • Byzantine Art(Eastern)
  • (Renaissance Art)

57
Comparisons in Architecture
  • Medieval (Western)
  • Byzantine Art(Eastern)
  • (Renaissance Art)

58

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