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Week Nine: Inclusive Education in Elementary Schools

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Week Nine: Inclusive Education in Elementary Schools April 10, 2007 A-117: Implementing Inclusive Education Harvard Graduate School of Education Dr. Thomas Hehir – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Week Nine: Inclusive Education in Elementary Schools


1
Week Nine Inclusive Education in Elementary
Schools
  • April 10, 2007
  • A-117 Implementing Inclusive Education
  • Harvard Graduate School of Education
  • Dr. Thomas Hehir

2
A117 Hermeneutic
SCHOOL
CLASSROOM
CHILD
3
From Nolet McLauglin 1st Edition
4
  • Executive Processes
  • Regulation of thinking processes, behavior, and
    performance
  • How and when to use strategies
  • Rehearsal
  • Elaboration
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Comprehension Monitoring

Senses Attention/ Recognition
Sensory Memory Very limited capacity, Visual
.5 seconds, Auditory 3 seconds
Working Memory Temporary holdings 7 units,
10-20 seconds
Stimuli from External Environment
Long Term Memory Encoding and retrieval
Storage
Retrieval
  • Distributive Practice
  • Scaffolding
  • Multiple means of presentation
  • - Repetition
  • Sub-vocalization
  • Chunking
  • Strategies
  • Multiple means of presentations
  • Focus queues

5
Affective Network
Executive Processes
Strategic Networks
Senses
Sensory Memory
Long Term Memory
Stimuli from External Environment
Working Memory
Storage
Retrieval
Recognition Networks
6
From Nolet McLauglin 1st Edition
(Lack of fluency interferes)
7
Activity
  • Using figure 3.1 in Nolet and McLaughlin,
    consider the relevance of this model and the
    concept of access to the curriculum for the
    following children for in-class discussion
  • A third grader with significant emotional
    disturbance with grade level skills.
  • A tenth grader who is blind, a Braille reader
    with grade level skills.
  • A sixth grader with dyslexia who reads
    independently at the third grade level
  • An eleventh grade student with mild mental
    retardation and forth grade level skills
  • An eighth grader who is deaf, fluent in ASL,
    reading English with comprehension at the fourth
    grade level.

8
From Nolet McLauglin Chapter 3
  • Organize the information you want your students
    to learn before you teach it.
  • Provide direct assistance to help students
    activate prior knowledge already stored in
    long-term memory.
  • Help students make links between old and new
    information.
  • Incorporate elaboration tactics into your
    instruction.

9
From Nolet McLauglin Chapter 3
  • Classroom Strategies to Improve Transfer
  • Provide opportunities for students to practice
    skills and apply knowledge in a variety of
    contexts.
  • Systematically vary types of examples from near
    to far transfer.
  • Model strategies that show how previously learned
    information can be used in a new situation.
  • Provide cues in situations where students are
    required to transfer previously learned
    information.

10
Accommodations Modifications
  • A dyslexic needs extra time the same way
  • a diabetic needs insulin (Shaywitz 2003)
  • Accommodations
  • Alternative acquisition modes
  • Alternative response modes
  • Content enhancements
  • Modifications

11
Universal Design (Classroom Level)
  • Multiple means of representation
  • Multiple means of expression
  • Flexible means of engagement

12
The School Level
13
Towards Ending Ableism in Education The Promise
of Universal Design
  • Universal Design and reading
  • Universally designed preschool and kindergarten
    options
  • Universally designed early reading programs and
    disability identification
  • Universal Design and learning
  • Universally designed support for positive
    behavior
  • Universal Design and school organization

14
Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based
Reform
  • Start early
  • Curriculum modification should be a last resort
  • Accommodations on tests should mirror
    instructional accommodations
  • Time devoted to learning may need to be
    lengthened
  • Restructure high school options through effective
    transition planning

15
The Importance of Beliefs
  • Unconditional acceptance should be every childs
    right
  • People support one another through community
  • Participation is an essential part of acceptance
  • People should not have to pass a test or prove
    themselves in order to be included in everyday
    life
  • (Biklen, p. 118)

16
Principles of (Full) Inclusion The 100 Club
(Biklen, Jorgensen)
  • School leaders set direction and climate
  • Students attend school they would attend if not
    disabled
  • Close school/family relations
  • Natural proportions
  • Natural supports
  • Removal from regular class minimized or
    non-existent
  • Services are brought to children
  • Teachers work collaboratively or in teams
  • De-tracked, heterogeneous grouping, instructional
    organization follows mission (block scheduling)
  • Deemphasize specialization and intervention
  • Disability as diversity
  • Aligned with general education reform
  • All kids benefit
  • Inclusion as a vehicle for social change

17
River Bend School
  • Naturally occurring population
  • Balancing needs for intervention with
    accommodation
  • Addressing the harmful effects of pull-outs
  • Universal Design, de-stigmatization
  • RRT open to all who need support
  • SBT problem solving mechanism available to all
    needing support
  • Efficiency
  • Curriculum coordination
  • Increased opportunities for inclusion

18
Teacher Working Conditions
  • Contact teacher 4-5 classrooms
  • Regular teacher 1 contact
  • SBT availability
  • RRT availability for any student

19
Importance of Structural Change
  • Immersion blocks
  • SBT
  • Sped 50 instructional

20
OHearn School
  • In class support (2 teachers)
  • Non-naturally occurring population (large number
    of students with significant disabilities allows
    for greater financial support)
  • Standards oriented (U.S. context)
  • Very strong family involvement and support
    (parents as co-producers)
  • Strong emphasis on accommodations

21
Continuing Issues and Dilemmas
  • Is special ed. support deluded?
  • ELL model?
  • Teacher collaboration time?
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