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The Body

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Table of Contents The Body s Transport System A Closer Look at Blood Vessels Blood and Lymph Cardiovascular Health – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Body


1
Table of Contents
  • The Bodys Transport System
  • A Closer Look at Blood Vessels
  • Blood and Lymph
  • Cardiovascular Health

2
The Cardiovascular System
- The Bodys Transport System
  • The cardiovascular system carries needed
    substances to cells and carries waste products
    away from cells.
  • The circulatory system consists of the heart,
    blood vessels and blood
  • In addition, blood contains cells that fight
    disease.

3
The Cardiovascular System
  • Jobs of the Cardiovascular System
  • Deliver Needed Materials
  • Blood carries oxygen to all the cells in your
    body
  • Remove Waste Products
  • When cells break down glucose for energy, carbon
    dioxide is released as waste
  • Fight Disease
  • Blood transports disease-fighting cells all
    around your body

4
The Heart
- The Bodys Transport System
  • The heart is a hollow, muscular organ that pumps
    blood throughout the body.
  • The right side of the heart is completely
    separated from the left side by a wall of tissue
    called the septum.
  • Each side has an upper chamber, or atrium, and a
    lower chamber, or ventricle.

5
Heart Structure
  • The Ventricles
  • pumps blood out of the heart
  • Separated from the atria by valves
  • Valves are flaps of tissue that prevent blood
    from flowing backward
  • Valves are also present between the ventricles
    and the large blood vessels that carry blood away
    from the heart

6
The Heart
- The Bodys Transport System
  • As blood flows out of the heart and toward the
    lungs, it passes through a valve like the one
    here.

7
How the Heart Works
  • There are two main phases of action
  • Heart muscle relaxes while the heart fills with
    blood
  • Heart muscle contracts and pumps blood forward
  • The heart beat sound (lub-dup) is the sound of
    blood being pushed forward and the valves closing
    shut

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vH04d3rJCLCE
8
The Force of the Ventricles
  • The contraction of the left ventricle exerts
    more force than the contraction of the right
    ventricle
  • The right ventricle pumps blood only to the
    lungs whereas the left ventricle pumps blood
    throughout the entire body

9
Regulation of Heart Beat
  • The Pacemaker
  • A group of heart cells that send out signals
    that make the heart muscle contract, located in
    the right atrium of the heart
  • Receives signals about the bodys oxygen needs
    and adjusts the heart rate to match
  • Some people have damaged pacemakers that can
    result in slow or irregular heart beats

10
Two Loops
- The Bodys Transport System
  • Blood circulates through the body in two loops,
    with the heart at the center.
  • In the first loop, blood travels from the heart
    to the lungs and then back to the heart.
  • In the second loop, blood is pumped from the
    heart throughout the body and then returns to the
    heart.

11
Heart Activity
- The Bodys Transport System
  • Click the Active Art button to open a browser
    window and access Active Art about the heart.

12
Sequencing
- The Bodys Transport System
  • As you read, make a cycle diagram like the one
    below that shows the path that blood follows as
    it circulates throughout the body. Write each
    step of the pathway in a separate circle.

Pathway of Blood
Right side of heart
Lungs
Body
Left side of heart
13
End of Section The Bodys Transport System
14
Section 2 Learning Objectives A Closer Look at
Blood Vessels
  • Describe the structures and functions of the
    arteries
  • Describe the structures and functions of the
    capillaries
  • and veins
  • Explain what causes blood pressure

15
Blood Vessels of the Body
  • After leaving your heart, blood travels in blood
    vessels through the body. You have 3 types of
    blood vessels
  • 1. Arteries ? carry blood away from the heart
  • 2. Capillaries ? narrow vessels where substances
    can be exchanged between the blood and the body
    cells
  • 3. Veins ? carry blood back to the heart

16
Arteries
  • Purpose The left ventricle pumps blood into the
    arteries that carry blood away from the heart and
    into the body
  • Artery Structure
  • Walls are very thick and have 3 cell layers
    giving strength and flexibility
  • Innermost epithelial cells, smooth
  • Middle Muscle tissue
  • Outermost flexible connective tissue
  • Pulse
  • Caused by expansion and relaxation of artery
    wall
  • Ventricles contract pushing blood into
    circulation and causing the artery walls to
    expand

17
The Arteries Regulate Blood Flow
  • The muscle in arteries act as a control gate.
    They can adjust the amount of blood being sent to
    different organs.
  • When the muscle around the artery contracts,
    the artery becomes smaller
  • When the muscle relaxes, the artery opening
    becomes larger
  • Ex After eating meal what do you think
    happens? What about when you are running? When
    you go outside on a cold day? Where do you think
    the arteries direct blood flow to?

18
Capillaries
  • Purpose To provide a place where nutrients can
    be delivered to cells and waste can be removed
    from cells.
  • Q What types of materials need to be delivered
    to cells? Removed?
  • Diffusion Molecules move from an area of high
    concentration to an area of low concentration
    (ex blood glucose)
  • Capillary Structure
  • Walls are only one cell thick

19
Veins
  • Purpose After blood moves through the
    capillaries, it enters larger blood vessels
    called veins, which carry blood back to the
    heart.
  • Structure
  • Similar to arteries, veins have 3 layers
    contained in their walls
  • Walls of veins are much thinner than the walls
    of arteries
  • Q How does blood move through the veins?
  • 1. Contraction of skeletal muscles helps move
    blood back
  • 2. Larger veins contain valves which prevent
    backflow of blood
  • 3. Breathing movements in your chest create a
    squeezing pressure against veins and force blood
    toward the heart

20
Blood Pressure
  • Q What causes blood pressure?
  • Pressure is a force exerted over an area
  • Blood Pressure is the force with which the
    ventricles contract
  • As blood moves away from the heart, blood
    pressure decreases
  • Blood flowing near the heart exerts the highest
    pressure, while blood pressure in the arteries
    further away from the heart is much lower
  • Ex Think of a garden hose or a faucet

21
Complete the Target Reading Chart on Comparing
Blood Vessels!
22
Blood Vessels
- A Closer Look at Blood Vessels
  • The walls of arteries and veins have three
    layers. The walls of capillaries are only one
    cell thick.

23
Calculating a Rate
- A Closer Look at Blood Vessels
  • A rate is the speed at which something happens.
    When you calculate a rate, you compare the number
    of events with the time period in which they
    occur. Heres how to calculate the pulse rate of
    a person whose heart beats 142 times in two
    minutes.
  • 1. Write the comparison as a fraction
  • 2. Divide the numerator and the denominator by 2
  • The persons pulse rate is 71 heartbeats per
    minute.

24
Calculating a Rate
- A Closer Look at Blood Vessels
  • Practice Problem
  • Calculate your pulse rate if your heart beats 170
    times in 2.5 minutes.
  • 68 beats per minute

25
Artery and Vein
- A Closer Look at Blood Vessels
  • In this photo, you can compare the wall of an
    artery with the wall of a vein.

26
Comparing and Contrasting
- A Closer Look at Blood Vessels
  • As you read, compare and contrast the three kinds
    of blood vessels by completing a table like the
    one below.

Blood Vessel
Function
Structure of Wall
Thick wall consisting of three cell layers with
thick muscle in the middle layer
Carries blood away from the heart
Artery
Exchange of materials between the blood and body
cells
Thin walls consisting of one cell layer
Capillary
Thick walls consisting of three cell layers with
thin muscle in the middle layer
Carries blood back to the heart
Vein
27
End of Section A Closer Look at Blood Vessels
28
Blood
- Blood and Lymph
  • Blood consists of liquid plasma and three kinds
    of cellsred blood cells, white blood cells, and
    platelets.

29
Blood Types
- Blood and Lymph
  • The marker molecules on your red blood cells
    determine your blood type and the type of blood
    that you can safely receive in transfusions.

30
Blood Type Distribution
- Blood and Lymph
  • The circle graph shows the percentage of each
    blood type found in the U.S. population.

31
Blood Type Distribution
- Blood and Lymph
  • Reading Graphs
  • What does each edge of the graph represent?
  • The percentage of each blood type found in the
    United States population

32
Blood Type Distribution
- Blood and Lymph
  • Interpreting Data
  • Rank the four major blood typesA, B, AB, and
    Ofrom least common to most common. What is the
    percentage of each type?
  • AB (4), B (11), A (40), O (45)

33
Blood Type Distribution
- Blood and Lymph
  • Calculating
  • According to the graph, what percentage of the
    population is Rh positive? What percentage is Rh
    negative?
  • 84 16

34
Blood Type Distribution
- Blood and Lymph
  • Predicting
  • What type of blood can someone who is B negative
    (blood type B and Rh negative) receive? What
    percentage of the population does that represent?
  • O negative or B negative blood 9

35
Blood Type Distribution
- Blood and Lymph
  • Creating Data Tables
  • Use the data to make a table of the eight
    possible blood types. Include columns for the A,
    B, AB, and O blood types Rh factor (positive or
    negative) and percentage of the population.
  • The data should be arranged in three columns and
    eight rows.

36
The Lymphatic System
- Blood and Lymph
  • The lymphatic system is a network of veinlike
    vessels that returns the fluid to the bloodstream.

37
Identifying Main Ideas
- Blood and Lymph
  • As you read the section titled Blood, write the
    main idea in a graphic organizer like the one
    below. Then write four supporting details that
    give examples of the main idea.

Main Idea
Blood is made up of four components.
Detail
Detail
Detail
Detail
Plasma is the liquid part of blood.
Red blood cells take up oxygen and deliver it to
cells in the body.
White blood cells fight disease.
Platelets help form blood clots.
38
Blood
- Blood and Lymph
  • Click the Video button to watch a movie about
    blood.

39
Links on Blood
- Blood and Lymph
  • Click the SciLinks button for links on blood.

40
End of Section Blood and Lymph
41
Asking Questions
- Cardiovascular Health
  • Before you read, preview the red headings. In a
    graphic organizer like the one below, ask a what
    or how question for each heading. As you read,
    write answers to your questions.

Cardiovascular Health
Question
Answer
What are some cardiovascular diseases?
Cardiovascular diseases include atherosclerosis
and hypertension.
How can a person keep healthy?
Exercise regularly, eat a healthy diet, and avoid
smoking.
42
Links on Cardiovascular Problems
- Cardiovascular Health
  • Click the SciLinks button for links on
    cardiovascular problems.

43
End of Section Cardiovascular Health
44
Graphic Organizer
Side of Heart Where Loop Starts
Where Blood Flows to
Where Blood Returns to
Loop
Right side
Lungs
Left atrium
Loop One
Left side
Body
Right atrium
Loop Two
45
End of Section Graphic Organizer
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