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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

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Title: Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.


1
Step Up To Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Psychology, Eighth Edition
  • By David G. Myers
  • Worth Publishers
  • (2007)

2
Chapter 10 Thinking and Language
Speak up!
Think before you speak.
Solve the Problem
Talk to the Animals
Concentrate
3
Concentrate
500
400
300
200
100
4
Solve the Problem
500
400
300
200
100
5
Speak up!
500
400
300
200
100
6
Think before you speak!
500
400
300
200
100
7
Talk to the Animals
500
400
300
200
100
8
1. A mental grouping of objects or events is
called a
  • A) mental image.
  • B) concept.
  • C) abstract representation.
  • D) cognition.

9
2. When we think of a bird we are more likely
to think of a robin than a penguin because a
robin fits our
  • A) perception.
  • B) cognition.
  • C) formal concept.
  • D) prototype.

10
3. When following this procedure to solve
problems, you will always arrive at a correct
solution.
  • A) trial-and-error
  • B) heuristic
  • C) algorithm
  • D) insight

11
4. Jim misplaced his keys. He knew they were in
the house, so he first looked on the hook, then
on the dresser, then in other places he has found
them in the past. He is using the strategy of
  • A) trial-and-error.
  • B) heuristics.
  • C) algorithm.
  • D) insight.

12
A team of researchers have discovered an area of
the brain activated during sudden flashes of
insight, it was the
  • A) right temporal lobe.
  • B) left parietal lobe.
  • C) prefrontal cortex.
  • D) amygdala.

13
6. When the United States went to war with Iraq
on the false assumption it had weapons of mass
destruction, this was an example of
  • A) heuristics.
  • B) fixation.
  • C) ignorance.
  • D) confirmation bias.

14
7. Our tendency to approach a problem a certain
way, i.e., a way successful in the past, is
called
  • A) prototype.
  • B) heuristics.
  • C) mental set.
  • D) algorithm.

15
8. Mary was out of coffee filters. She did not
think of using a paper towel, so she went without
coffee. Her failure was one of
  • A) representativeness heuristic.
  • B) algorithms.
  • C) functional fixedness.
  • D) availability heuristic.

16
9. Gambling is perpetuated, in part, by the ease
we have of remembering the times we won. This is
an example of
  • A) false memory.
  • B) availability heuristic.
  • C) false prototypes.
  • D) concept misattribution.

17
10. Politicians know that labeling military
action as a pre-emptive strike gains more
support than, invasion. This is an example of
  • A) lying.
  • B) framing.
  • C) false advertising.
  • D) political psychobabble.

18
11. The rules of a language, its ___, helps
determine the meaning being communicated.
  • A) nanogram
  • B) linguistics
  • C) syntax
  • D) morpheme

19
12. The smallest unit of language that carries
meaning is called a
  • A) morpheme.
  • B) phoneme.
  • C) babble.
  • D) telegraphic speech.

20
13. By the time infants are about 10 years old,
  • A) they should be speaking full sentences.
  • B) they should be putting two words together.
  • C) their babbling is universal across all
    cultures.
  • D) their babbling has features of the
    household language.

21
14. The stage of speech in which a young child
says things like, go car, and, momma come, is
called
  • A) one-word speech.
  • B) telegraphic speech.
  • C) babbling.
  • D) morpheme speech.

22
15. Chomsky believes our capacity for language is
natural and quick due to
  • A) behavioral conditioning.
  • B) sequential developmental stages.
  • C) language being entirely inborn.
  • D) a language acquisition device.

23
16. According to Worf (1956), differences among
languages cause differences in perceptions and
thinking. This idea is called
  • A) displacement hypothesis.
  • B) linguistic determinism.
  • C) perceptual change theory.
  • D) linguist shift.

24
17. Deaf children are unable to learn a language
  • A) if their parents are hearing and dont sign.
  • B) if their parents are deaf and sign.
  • C) in some languages more than others.
  • D) regardless of what they are exposed to.

25
18. Wallace Lambert (1992) found that bilingual
education
  • A) resulted in a loss in vocabulary for the
    English speaking children.
  • B) had no benefit to Canadian students.
  • C) resulted in higher levels of English
    proficiency.
  • D) resulted in higher levels of
    self-esteem for Hispanics.

26
19. Thinking without language
  • A) is not possible.
  • B) can improve your performance on the basketball
    court.
  • C) is found only in animals.
  • D) occurs more often in cultures without language.

27
20. Students wanting to improve their test scores
should
  • A) should study every chance they get.
  • B) should spend 5 minutes every day imagining
    themselves getting an A.
  • C) should think more often.
  • D) spend 5 minutes every day imagining themselves
    studying.

28
21. Most researchers who work with Apes conclude
their mental accomplishments
  • A) are around the level of a 2-year-old human.
  • B) include self-recognition.
  • C) include empathy and reasoning.
  • D) all of the above.

29
22. Chimpanzees can use language
  • A) to meaningfully communicate with symbols.
  • B) if taught to speak at an early age.
  • C) to obey commands.
  • D) just like people.

30
23. Bees communicate
  • A) in a quick series of buzzing sounds.
  • B) with their antennae.
  • C) by a complex dance to tell where the flowers
    are.
  • D) all of the above.

31
24 Human communication differs from animal
communication in our use of
  • A) vocal sounds.
  • B) syntax.
  • C) phonemes.
  • D) morphemes.

32
25. Animal researchers have shown that
chimpanzees and apes can
  • A) communicate with one another.
  • B) show insight.
  • C) comprehend the syntax of human speech.
  • D) all of the above.

33
Congratulations!
34
Answers
Stop here, or continue as a review
35
1. A mental grouping of objects or events is
called a
  • A) mental image.
  • B) concept.
  • C) abstract representation.
  • D) cognition.

396
36
2. When we think of a bird we are more likely
to think of a robin than a penguin because a
robin fits our
  • A) perception.
  • B) cognition.
  • C) formal concept.
  • D) prototype.

396
37
3. When following this procedure to solve
problems, you will always arrive at a correct
solution.
  • A) trial-and-error
  • B) heuristic
  • C) algorithm
  • D) insight

397
38
4. Jim misplaced his keys. He knew they were in
the house, so he first looked on the hook, then
on the dresser, then in other places he has found
them in the past. He is using the strategy of
  • A) trial-and-error.
  • B) heuristics.
  • C) algorithm.
  • D) insight.

398
39
A team of researchers have discovered an area of
the brain activated during sudden flashes of
insight, it was the
  • A) right temporal lobe.
  • B) left parietal lobe.
  • C) prefrontal cortex.
  • D) amygdala.

398
40
6. When the United States went to war with Iraq
on the false assumption it had weapons of mass
destruction, this was an example of
  • A) heuristics.
  • B) fixation.
  • C) ignorance.
  • D) confirmation bias.

399
41
7. Our tendency to approach a problem a certain
way, i.e., a way successful in the past, is
called
  • A) prototype.
  • B) heuristics.
  • C) mental set.
  • D) algorithm.

400
42
8. Mary was out of coffee filters. She did not
think of using a paper towel, so she went without
coffee. Her failure was one of
  • A) representativeness heuristic.
  • B) algorithms.
  • C) functional fixedness.
  • D) availability heuristic.

400
43
9. Gambling is perpetuated, in part, by the ease
we have of remembering the times we won. This is
an example of
  • A) false memory.
  • B) availability heuristic.
  • C) false prototypes.
  • D) concept misattribution.

402
44
10. Politicians know that labeling military
action as a pre-emptive strike gains more
support than, invasion. This is an example of
  • A) lying.
  • B) framing.
  • C) false advertising.
  • D) political psychobabble.

406
45
11. The rules of a language, its ___, helps
determine the meaning being communicated.
  • A) nanogram
  • B) linguistics
  • C) syntax
  • D) morpheme

411
46
12. The smallest unit of language that carries
meaning is called a
  • A) morpheme.
  • B) phoneme.
  • C) babble.
  • D) telegraphic speech.

411
47
13. By the time infants are about 10 months old,
  • A) they should be speaking full sentences.
  • B) they should be putting two words together.
  • C) their babbling is universal across all
    cultures.
  • D) their babbling has features of the
    household language.

412
48
14. The stage of speech in which a young child
says things like, go car, and, momma come, is
called
  • A) one-word speech.
  • B) telegraphic speech.
  • C) babbling.
  • D) morpheme speech.

413
49
15. Chomsky believes our capacity for language is
natural and quick because
  • A) behavioral conditioning.
  • B) sequential developmental stages.
  • C) language being entirely inborn.
  • D) a language acquisition device.

414
50
16. According to Worf (1956), differences among
languages cause differences in perceptions and
thinking. This idea is called
  • A) displacement hypothesis.
  • B) linguistic determinism.
  • C) perceptual change theory.
  • D) linguist shift.

418
51
17. Deaf children are unable to learn a language
  • A) if their parents are hearing and dont sign.
  • B) if their parents are deaf and sign.
  • C) in some languages more than others.
  • D) regardless of what they are exposed to.

414
52
18. Wallace Lambert (1992) found that bilingual
education
  • A) resulted in a loss in vocabulary for the
    English speaking children.
  • B) had no benefit to Canadian students.
  • C) resulted in higher levels of English
    proficiency.
  • D) resulted in higher levels of
    self-esteem for Hispanics.

420
53
19. Thinking without language
  • A) is not possible.
  • B) can improve your performance on the basketball
    court.
  • C) is found only in animals.
  • D) occurs more often in cultures without language.

421
54
20. Students wanting to improve their test scores
should
  • A) should study every chance they get.
  • B) should spend 5 minutes every day imagining
    themselves getting an A.
  • C) should think more often.
  • D) spend 5 minutes every day imagining themselves
    studying.

421
55
21. Most researchers who work with Apes conclude
their mental accomplishments
  • A) are around the level of a 2-year-old human.
  • B) include self-recognition.
  • C) include empathy and reasoning.
  • D) all of the above.

426
56
22. Chimpanzees can use language
  • A) to meaningfully communicate with symbols.
  • B) if taught to speak at an early age.
  • C) to obey commands.
  • D) just like people.

427
57
23. Bees communicate
  • A) in a quick series of buzzing sounds.
  • B) with their antennae.
  • C) by a complex dance to tell where the flowers
    are.
  • D) all of the above.

428
58
24 Human communication differs from animal
communication in our use of
  • A) vocal sounds.
  • B) syntax.
  • C) phonemes.
  • D) morphemes.

4286
59
25. Animal researchers have shown that
chimpanzees and apes can
  • A) communicate with one another.
  • B) show insight.
  • C) comprehend the syntax of human speech.
  • D) all of the above.

428
60
Acknowledgements
  • Step Up Created by
  • John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Based on Psychology, Eighth Edition
  • By David G. Myers
  • Published by
  • Worth Publishers (2007)

61
Answers
1. B
2. D
3. C
4. B
5. A
6. D
7. C
8. C
9. B
10. B
11. C
12. A
13. D
14. B
15. D
16. B
17. A
18. C
19. B
20. D
21. D
22. A
23. C
24. B
25. D
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