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UNIT 13 WORLD WAR I THE WAR TO END ALL WARS What caused this war? There are four M.A.I.N. causes of World War I Militarism The belief that a nation needs a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • UNIT 13

What caused this war?
  • There are four M.A.I.N. causes of World War I
  • Militarism
  • The belief that a nation needs a large military
  • Major build up of armies and navies led to
    threats that caused tensions among neighbors
  • Alliances
  • Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman
    Empire, and Bulgaria
  • Allied Powers- Great Britain, France, Russia,
    Serbia and others
  • Imperialism
  • Competition over gaining colonies and
  • Nationalism
  • Placed countries interests above all other
  • Some ethnic groups hoped to form their own

Nationalism Continued
  • Nationalism can bring nations together but it can
    also be a major source of conflict.
  • Russia The largest Slavic country encouraged
    Pan-Slavism (tried to draw together all Slavic
  • Serbia wanted to participate in Pan-Slavism.
    (Serbia declared in 1878 and wanted to ally with
  • Austria-Hungary opposed Slavic national
  • What is going on with the city of Sarajevo?
  • Thus intense animosity between Serbia and
  • Thus setting the stage for the catalyst of World
    War I.

Austria's Archduke Franz Ferdinand, died wearing
this uniform in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914
The Spark
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinands Assassination
  • Sarajevo, (Bosnia) Austria-Hungary
  • Gavrilo Princip
  • The Black Hand
  • The Next Slide will provide details

  • It seemed like a bad idea for Austrian Archduke
    Franz Ferdinand to make a trip to Bosnian city of
  • After all, Austria had taken over Bosnia just six
    years earlier, and many Bosnians were still
    bitterly opposed to Austrian rule.
  • Bosnia happened to be home to many Serbs (from
    Serbiawhich is located just south of Austria
  • Furthermore, they chose the worst day to announce
    a visit, A Serbian festive holiday
  • Gavrilo Princip, a member of a Serbian national
    group, (The Black Hand) will get a second
    opportunity at becoming the notorious figure who
    fires the first bullet of WWI.

Artstetten Castle, just outside of Vienna
The Ottoman Empire and The Balkan Region
  • Nationalistic Feelings had caused periodic waves
    of violence against Armenians.
  • Muslim Turks distrusted the Christian Armenians
    for a couple of reasons
  • Turks believed they supported Russia against the
    Ottoman Empire
  • Many Armenians protested against oppressive
    Ottoman policies
  • The Result
  • Turks unleash a massacre on the Armenians. How
  • Over 1 million Armenians would be murdered
  • (1915-1923)
  • The Ottoman Empire was on the decline
  • Before it had a stronghold on the Balkan nations,
    but over time, control had weakened.
  • Many of the territories in the Balkans wanted to
    declare their independence.
  • Other nations wanted a piece of the crumbling
    empire like a buffet
  • The Armenian Genocide

8 Steps to WarNot to be confused with the 8 Fold
Path ?
  1. Ferdinand assassinated (This became the final
    straw between Austria-Hungary and Serbia)
  2. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
  3. Russia (Serbias Ally) mobilizes its troops for
  4. Germany (Austria-Hungarys Ally) declares war on
  5. Germany declares war on France (Russias Ally)
    and prepares to invade Belgium
  6. Britain, who pledged to protect Belgium, declares
    war against Germany
  7. Austria-Hungary declares war against Russia
  8. France and Britain declares war on Austria-Hungary

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Time to Show Off our Industrialized Stuff
  • New technologies changed warfare forever.
  • Many of the recent inventions
  • Internal combustion engine
  • Airplane
  • Communications devices
  • Automatic machine guns
  • Poison gas
  • Advancements in submarine warfare
  • The tank (though the tank appears in World War I,
    it doesnt play the significant role it will in

The Schlieffen Plan Overview In 1914, Germany believed war with Russia was extremely likely.  If war broke out, Germany assumed France would also attack as she was both an ally of Russia and keen for revenge for her defeat in the Franco-Prussian war. If this happened, Germany would face a war on two fronts.  Germany wanted to avoid this at all costs. Germany planned to defeat France rapidly and then turn to the eastern front for a major offensive on Russia.  This was the basis for the Schlieffen Plan.
  • The Germany Army Chief of Staff, Alfred von
    Schlieffen was asked to plan a way of preventing
    a war on two fronts. His initial plan was
    produced late in 1905. He believed that it was a
    priority to defeat France quickly, forcing them
    to surrender before Russia had a chance to
    mobilize her armed forces.

Trench Warfare
  • Trenches were dug where troops huddled at the
  • For more than three years, the battle lines
    almost remained unchanged
  • When soldiers did leave the trenches they were
    subjected to heavy artillery and clouds of
    poisonous gas

Key Battles on the Western Front
  • Battle of Verdun
  • The longest battle of the war
  • 10 months long!
  • Germans wanted to lead an assault on the French
    fortress of Verdun.
  • The goal was to cripple the morale of the French
    by taking the famed fortress (history dates all
    the way back Roman times)
  • Nearly 1 million casualties between them
  • However, not much was accomplished in terms of

Key Battles on the Western Front
  • Battle of the Somme
  • WWIs deadliest Battle
  • Over 1.2 million casualties
  • Despite the losses, the allies only gained
    approximately 7 miles!
  • British launch their own attack with the
    intentions of pulling the Germans from Verdun

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Knights of the Sky
  • The New Knights - The ACE
  • A flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator
    credited with shooting down five or more enemy
    aircraft, during aerial combat.
  • Oswald Boelcke
  • Over 40 kills for Germany Appeared in every
    major publication
  • Despite the success of Boelcke, his protégé was
    the one man you did NOT WANT to see in the skies
  • Manfred Von Richtoffen (The Red Baron) had over
    80 kills
  • Frances top pilot was Rene Fonck with 75
  • Eddie Rickenbacher finished with 26

Red Baron Pizza
  • In 1915, Richthofen was assigned to the flying
    service by his request. Throughout his career,
    Richthofen would often wake up minutes before he
    was to take flight too late for a pre-flight
  • Engineers eventually fastened an aluminum plate
    to the plane, just inches above the engine to
    create a cooking surface. The cooks at the
    airfield prepared pizzas and froze them for him.
    When Richthofen woke up, he would dress, grab a
    frozen pizza, and then rush out to his plane.
  • Once he was at the plane, Richthofen would place
    the frozen pizza on the aluminum plate and take
    off for his mission. Four and a half minutes
    later, Richthofen would enjoy a crisp supreme
  • Although Richthofen enjoyed the supreme pizza, it
    was Meat-Trio that was his favorite.
  • During the 1970s, the Schwan Food Company learned
    of Richthofens routine and became enamored with
    the story. They began selling pizza to schools
    under the name of Red Baron pizza.

Americas Path to War
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • He kept us out of war
  • U-boats and submarine warfare by the Germans
  • The Lusitania 1,198 people dead (128 Americans)
  • Why?
  • Final Blow
  • Zimmerman Telegram
  • Proposal to Mexico to ally with Germany
  • Incentive for Mexico?
  • To get back territory it had lost earlier to the

U.S. Entry in WWI
  • Why Neutral?
  • U.S. wasnt ready for war. Needed a draft. (The
    Selective Service Act)
  • Women served in the military for the 1st time in
    American history
  • Fate-Destiny? Russians will be bowing out of
    the war?
  • Why?
  • Revolution?
  • Had it not been for the United States, the
    outcome of the War may have been drastically

The Russian Revolution
  • Leader of Russia in 1914 is the Czar, Nicholas II
  • Russia is in economic chaos
  • Food Shortages, riots, soaring inflation added to
    the hostility
  • People were beginning to blame Nicholas II.
  • Nicholas II thought the war would rally the
    citizens behind their government
  • As Nicholas II anticipated, people did line up to
    join the military
  • However numerous problems would arise setting the
    stage for a recipe for revolution

The Recipe
  • The military was ill equipped
  • The factories could not produce the ammunition
    fast enough
  • Russian army sustaining heavy losses despite
    fighting a smaller German army
  • This led to the Czar wanting to take control of
    the military.
  • The problem is the Czar understood literally
    nothing about military matters
  • So Nicholas II set off to advise the military in
  • Problem He leaves his unpopular wife, Czarina
    Alexandra in control of the country
  • She would rely on the advice of Grigory Rasputin
    A self proclaimed holy man and healer whom the
    Russians viewed as corrupt and immoral.
  • Eventually by the end of 1916, a new regime will
    rise to take over

1916 Rasputin murdered Grigory Rasputin, a
self-fashioned Russian holy man, is murdered by
Russian nobles eager to end his sway over the
royal family. Rasputin won the favor of Czar
Nicholas II and Czarina Alexandra through his
ability to stop the bleeding of their hemophiliac
son, Alexei. Although the Siberian-born peasant
was widely criticized for his lechery and
drunkenness, he exerted a powerful influence on
the ruling family of Russia.
He particularly influenced the czarina, and when
Nicholas departed to lead Russian forces in World
War I, Rasputin effectively ruled Russia through
her. In the early hours of December 30, 1916, a
group of nobles lured Rasputin to Yusupovsky
Palace, where they attempted to poison him.
Seemingly unaffected by the large doses of poison
placed in his wine and food, he was finally shot
at close range and collapsed. A minute later he
rose, beat one of his assailants, and attempted
to escape from the palace grounds, where he was
shot again. Rasputin, still alive, was then bound
and tossed into a freezing river. A few months
later, the imperial regime was overthrown by the
Russian Revolution.
  • The Czar would be overthrown by a provisional
    government (emergency/temporary government.)
  • Then that government will be overthrown Wait a
    minute say that again?...
  • Yes. A 2nd Overthrow. This time by a group
    called the Bolsheviks.
  • The Bolshevik Revolution
  • But First The Background

Marxist SocialismThe Roots of Communism
  • 1848- Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels write The
    Communist Manifesto
  • History was a class struggle between wealthy
    capitalist and the working class (proletariat)
  • In order to make profits, the capitalist took
    advantage of the proletariat
  • The proletariat would eventually rise up and
    overthrow the capitalist system, creating their
    own society
  • The proletariat society would take control of the
    means of production and establish a classless,
    communist society, in which wealth and power
    would be equally shared
  • Thus the ideas behind The Communist Manifesto,
    would become the backbone of the Bolshevik

The Bolshevik Revolution
  • Socialism and communism are both economic systems
    (the production, distribution, and use of wealth)
    that require that goods be owned in common,
    instead of privately.
  • The difference between the two systems is in the
    fact that socialism covers a wide range of
    political systems, including communism, whereas
    communism is a strict interpretation of
  • While socialism advocates communal ownership of
    industry, it does so in two ways either in the
    form of state ownership or else in the form of
    ownership by the workers themselves.
  • Communism, on the other hand, allows for only one
    form of the communal endeavor state ownership
    through a small group of political elite.
  • Communism also goes one step further than
    socialism in that the Communist state not only
    controls the economy, but all areas of society.
    The former Soviet Union is an example of...
  • Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky will lead the
  • They both adopted Marxs thoughts but adapted
    them to fit Russia.
  • The Difference between Socialism and Communism
  • Promises Peace, Land, and Bread the end to
  • The Bolsheviks will be later called communists.
  • Communism - a political system in which the
    government owns key parts of the economy and
    there is no private property (China, Korea, Cuba,
    Laos, Vietnam)
  • Lenin withdraws Russia from the war
  • Signs the Brest-Litovsk Treaty giving a large
    amount of Western Russia to Germany
  • Lenin is able to stay in power with the
    assistance of The Cheka
  • Why would Russia being out of the war create a
    major concern for the allied powers?

Communism Socialism Capitalism
Costs of the War
  • World War I became a war of attrition, or a war
    based on wearing the other side down by constant
    attacks and heavy losses.
  • Germany is forced to sign an armistice
  • About 8.5 million soldiers died in this war
  • Nearly 21 million were wounded
  • 13 million civilians died
  • War cost nations about 332 billion dollars!

Treaty of Versailles
  • World War One ended at 11am on 11th November
  • In 1919 The Big Four met
  • David Lloyd George of England
  • Vittorio Orlando of Italy
  • George Clemenceau of France
  • Woodrow Wilson from the US
  • Met to discuss how Germany was to be made to pay
    for the damage world war one had caused.

Treaty of Versailles
  • One harsh punishment
  • Military Clauses
  • Army - was to be reduced to 100,000 men and no
    tanks were allowed
  • Navy - Germany was only allowed 6 ships and no
  • Air Force - Germany was not allowed an air force
  • Rhineland - The Rhineland area was to be kept
    free of German military personnel and weapons
  • Territorial Clauses
  • Anschluss - Germany was not allowed to unite with
  • Colonies would be controlled by the League of
  • Economic Clauses
  • Germany will be forced to make reparations, or
    payments to the nations that won the war

Wilsons 14 Points (The First Seven)
  • Open Diplomacy - There should be no secret
    treaties between powers
  • Freedom of Navigation - Seas should be free in
    both peace and war
  • Free Trade - The barriers to trade between
    countries such as custom duties should be removed
  • Multilateral Disarmament - All countries should
    reduce their armed forces to the lowest possible
  • Colonies - People in European colonies should
    have a say in their future
  • Russia - Russia should be allowed to operate
    whatever government it wanted and that government
    should be accepted, supported and welcomed.
  • Belgium - Belgium should be evacuated and
    restored to the situation before the war.

Wilsons 14 Points (The Second Seven)
  • 8. France - should have Alsace-Lorraine and any
    lands taken away during the war restored.
  • Italy - The Italian border should be readjusted
    according to nationality
  • National Self -Determination - The national
    groups in Europe should, wherever possible, be
    given their independence.
  • Romania, Montenegro and Serbia - Should be
    evacuated and Serbia should have an outlet to the
  • Turkey - The people of Turkey should have a say
    in their future
  • Poland - Poland should become an independent
    state with an outlet to the sea.
  • League of Nations - An assembly of all nations
    should be formed to protect world peace in the

Versailles Nuggets
  • Germany expected a treaty based on these fourteen
  • However, negotiations between the 'big four' did
    not go smoothly.
  • Wilson believed that his fourteen points was the
    only way to secure everlasting peace.
  • The French however, wanted the defeated nations
    to be punished severely and believed Wilson's
    plan too lenient.
  • Privately Lloyd George sided with Wilson
  • However, the British public, like Clemenceau,
    wanted Germany punished severely.
  • Lloyd George knew that if he sided with Wilson he
    would lose the next election.

The Aftermath or WWI
  • In the aftermath of World War I, the political
    order of Europe came crashing to the ground.
  • The German, Austro-Hungarian, and Russian empires
    ceased to exist, and the Ottoman Empire soon
    followed them into oblivion.
  • New nations emerged, borders were radically
    shifted, and ethnic conflicts erupted.
  • Victors and vanquished alike faced an enormous
    recovery challenge after four years of financial
    loss, economic deprivation, and material
  • Amid this chaotic situation, the leaders of the
    victorious coalition assembled in Paris to forge
    a new international system that would replace the
    old order.
  • The decisions they made would determine the
    future of Europe, and much of the rest of the
    world, for decades to come.

Modern Warfare
New Nations Emerge
After WWI
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  • When Marshal Foch of France learned of the
    Versailles Treaty's contents, he reportedly
    complained, This is not peace. It is an
    armistice for twenty years.
  • As it turned out, he was uncannily accurate in
    his prediction of when humanity would be plunged
    into a second world war.
  • World War II was a conflict that would surpass
    its predecessor in the number of deaths and
    injuries, the extent of physical destruction, and
    the geographical area affected.
  • The terrible experiences of World War II have
    tended to overshadow the memory of the war that
    broke out in the summer of 1914.
  • But World War I unquestionably represented a
    major turning point in history, and its
    consequences are still felt throughout the world.