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Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association

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Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association Adelaide, 16 April 2007 The Future Environment for Energy Business Jesse H. Ausubel – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association


1
Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration
Association Adelaide, 16 April 2007 The Future
Environment for Energy Business Jesse H.
Ausubel Program for the Human Environment The
Rockefeller University, New York
City http//phe.rockefeller.edu Acknowledgements
D. Jenkins, P. Grant, C. Marchetti, C. Starr,
N. Victor, E. Yantovski
2
A lake of liquid methane surrounded by mountains
of solid ice on Titan. Source Huygens probe, ESA.
3
(No Transcript)
4
Carbon-Hydrogen Composition of Fossil Fuels
H
Methane Gas
C
H
H
H
CH 14
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
Typical Oil
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
CH 12
H
H
C
C
H
C
C
C
H
C
C
C
Typical Coal
H
H
C
C
C
C
H
H
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
Biomass (Wood, hay) 10 Cs per H !!
H
C
C
C
H
C
C
H
H
CH 21
5
Source Ausubel, 1996, after Marchetti, 1985
6
Falling Global Carbon Intensity of Primary Energy
35
35
30
30
25
25
20
20
Kg C/GJ
15
15
10
10
5
5
0
0
1850
1870
1890
1910
1930
1950
1970
1990
2010
2030
2050
Data sources IIASA, BP (1965-2001), CDIAC
http//cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/emis/em_cont.htm
7
Hydrocarbon fuels ranked by heat value
Source N. Victor J. Ausubel, 2003
8
Luminosity 1996
Upward light flux measured at the top of the
atmosphere, low-gain version of the Defense
Meteorological Satellite Program Operational
Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) data, Elvidge et
al.,US National Geophysical Data Center. J.
Ausubel and N. Victor, 2006.
9
Luminosity if all were as luminous as Americans
J. Ausubel and N. Victor, 2006.
10
Increases in light flux if everyone outside USA
lit like USA (1996-7) Or latent electricity
demand, blue to white to red color ramp
Source Nadja Makarova Victor Jesse Ausubel,
2004
11
US Passenger Travel Per Capita Per Day (Range)
Total (average per decade)
Regression Line (2.7 per year)
Cars ( Buses Motorcycles)
Air
Walking
Miles
Trains
Horses
Year
Sources US Historical Abstracts US Statistical
Abstracts A. Gruebler 1989.
12
A spigot in the lower left might draw off the
carbon dioxide. Source Ausubel, 2004
13
Efficiency increases with higher pressure and
temperature.
Temperature, Celsius
Pressure, atmospheres Source After
Ichihara
14
Bankside Power Station, London Opened for power
generation in 1953, became Tate Gallery in 2000
100m tall
Footprint covers 3.5 hectares
Comparably powerful plant built today could fit
in 1/10th the space
15
Like computers that comprise the Internet, power
plants become more powerful AND SMALLER
J. Ausubel T. Barrett, 2004
Dell laptop, 2004
US Ballistic Research Lab computer, mid 1950s
Tennessee Valley Authority coal plant (date
unknown)
Delivery of General Electric 480 MW natural gas
turbine, 2000
16
Source Olav Bolland http//folk.ntnu.no/obolland
17
A lake of liquid methane surrounded by mountains
of solid ice on Titan. Source Huygens probe, ESA.
18
Field projects based on geography taxonomy
19
OE Expedition to the Deep Slope May 7 - June 2,
2006
First systematic exploration of hydrocarbon seep
communities deeper than 1000m in the GoM
Ian MacDonald
Bruce Strickrott
AquaPix, Bob Carney
Ian MacDonald
20
(No Transcript)
21
Collection of garbage collected in 4000m depth
in the Ierapetra Basin
22
Hidden Ocean Discoveries

23
USA Hydrogen production, 1971- 2003 semi-log
scale
Year
Source N. M. Victor and J.H. Ausubel, 2006
24
J. Ausubel and N. Victor, 2005
25
Source N. Victor J. Ausubel, 2005
26
Major fuels ranked by heat value
108
Natural uranium in FBR
Uranium enriched to 3.5 in LWR
Natural uranium in CANDU
106
Heat Value
Natural uranium in LWR
Natural uranium in LWR
with U Pu recycle
MJ/kg
104
Hydrogen
LPG
Black Coals
102
Natural Gas
Firewood
Crude Oils
Brown Coals
100
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Rank
Source N. Victor and J. Ausubel, 2003
27
Energy Production Intensities in watts per square
meter
  • Hydro
  • Hoover Dam 0.0014
  • Hydro All US dams 0.0049
  • Hydro Ontario 0.012
  • Biomass
  • ethanol from corn (net) 0.047
  • Ocean biomass 0.07 to 0.6
  • New England forest 0.12
  • Corn (whole plant) 0.75
  • Sugar cane (intensively farmed) 3.7
  • Wind 1.2
  • Solar thermal (actual) 3.2

28
Nuclear Power California Coast Power
Wind Farm Equivalent
Source P. Grant
29
2017 Australian Methane Production and
Exploration Association
Endless sea of methane photographed from Titans
surface by probe Huygens, 14 January 2005 (ESA).
See also The Lakes of Titan, 4 January 2007,
Nature magazine, Stofan et al.
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